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NEW 

RECLAMATION 






.._ 

'^L' ' ' J ' 




VOL. 22. NO. 1 




JANUARY, 1931 




LYMAN LAKE AND HANGING GLACIERS. LAKE CHELAN, WASHINGTON 



* i , .'. *.: * ' : 

i j** ..-... -: 
j j* *** 



Reclamation 

Comparative Statistics 



\$HE magnitude of the engineering work, accomplished in reclaiming 
the arid lands of the West can only be conceived when a figurative 
comparison is used. In creating its 39,970 irrigated farms, peopled with 
157,088 inhabitants, this bureau has indirectly brought about the develop- 
ment of 214 cities and towns, the population of which when added to the 
project inhabitants equals more than the entire population of the District 
of Columbia. C[ To accomplish this there has been excavation of enough 
material to have created a ditch across the continent with a 50-foot width 
and a 10-foot depth. Riprap placed by this bureau to dale would create 
a pyramid nearly equal in size to the Cheops the largest pyramid of 
Egypt. Concrete placed to date Would have paved the shortest direct route 
from New York, to Los Angeles with a 6-inch paving on a 16-foot high- 
way. Telephone and power transmission lines used by this bureau on its 
Various projects aggregate enough in distance to parallel the above phan- 
tom highway throughout its length with a mileage of telephone line 
sufficient to hate created a crossline from Chicago to New Orleans. 
C[ The Bureau of Reclamation has a remarkable backing of experience for 
tr.e building of Hooter Dam. 



Extract from Annual Report of Secretary of the Interior 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1930 






Library 
City, 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 

Issued monthly by the DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C. 

Price 75 cents a year 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR 

Secretary of the Interior 



Vol. 22, No. 1 




TJLWOOD MEAD 

Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



JANUARY, 1931 



Interesting High Lights on the Federal Reclamation Projects 



A LARGE number of inquiries are 
being received monthly concerning 
settlement opportunities on the Riverton 
project. Two applicants who had previ- 
ously visited the project took farm units 
and made the advance payment for 1931. 



THE sugar factory at Sidney, Lower 
Yellowstone project, is materially 
assisting in the relief of local unemploy- 
ment conditions, having handled a total 
of 112,000 tons of beets this season. In 
addition to the factory pay roll over 
$600,000 has been paid out for beets on 
the project and several thousand more in 
operating the dumps and similar work. 



^ I ^HE first shipment of turkeys for the 
_L season from the Minidoka project 
was made in November. At Rupert some 
5,000 birds, weighing about 60,500 pounds, 
and at Burley 500, with a total weight of 
6,500 pounds, were shipped to market. 



f I ^HE Klamath Dairymen's Associa- 
_L tion, the Langell Valley Cheese 
Factory, and the Malin Cheese Factory 
on the Klamath project were combined 
under one general management during 
the month, although each organization is 
still maintained as an individual corpora- 
tion. 



THE office of the Vale-Owyhee Gov- 
ernment Projects Land Settlement 
Association was visited during the month 
by 48 persons who were interested in Vale 
project lands, and a number of additional 
inquiries were received by mail. Pur- 
chases of 280 acres of land on the project 
were made by three prospective settlers. 



THREE of the new settlers on the 
Riverton project have made very 
creditable showings, although they started 
late in the season and had to overcome 
the handicap of preparing and working 
new ground. 

2:22131 i 



THE towns on and adjacent to the 
Belle Fourche project are cooperat- 
ing in an exposition at Rapid City, S. 
Dak., which is featuring Black Hills 
products with a view to interesting home 
people in a policy of purchasing home 
products. The display includes sugar, 
brick, mill feeds, creamery products, lum- 
ber, cement, plaster, cigars, and mining 
products. 



ACTIVE work of construction in the 
near future of the Federal building 
at Montrose, Uncompahgre project, is 
anticipated, clearing of the building site 
having been completed. 



MUCH interest has been aroused by 
the proposed opening to entry of 
30 farm units on the gravity division of 
the Minidoka project. . These tracts are 
farms whereon the previous entries and 
water rights have been canceled and which 
have been resurveyed preparatory to 
resettlement. 



IN response to a special circular mailed 
out last month about 300 inquiries 
were received concerning farming oppor- 
tunities on the Belle Fourche project. 
Several promising prospects have visited 
the project and others have requested 
further information regarding settlement 
opportunities. 



THE market for real estate on the 
Minidoka project was active during 
the past month, several sales having been 
made on the north side. A 40-acre farm 
near Rupert sold for $6,500; another farm 
of the same size near Acequia brought 
$5,000; and an 80-acre tract three miles 
north of Rupert sold for $10,000. 



THE turkey growers on the Boise pro- 
ject sold their Thanksgiving birds in 
the form of a pool and as usual obtained 
much better prices than those offered by 
dealers to individual growers. 



TT^EEDING of alfalfa began in earnest 
_F on the Belle Fourche project following 
the heavy snow of November 18, which 
covered pastures and beet tops. Lambs 
continued to make good gains and early 
shipments were going out from farms 
where feed supply was low or where lambs 
were exceptionally heavy. The sheep 
market ruled firm and was slightly higher 
than last month. 



THE sugar-beet harvest on the Lower 
Yellowstone project was completed 
early in the month and no beets were lost 
on account of cold weather. The sugar 
factory reports that an average of 12.6 tons 
per acre was obtained from the harvested 
acres on the project. This exceeds by 
over 2 tons per acre the best previous 
yield. 

THE beet harvest on the Belle Fourche 
project was completed the second 
week in November, weather conditions 
having been favorable. Reports of high 
yields continued to attract attention, 
particularly on the heavy soils around 
Newell. August Maass raised beets on an 
old feed lot that yielded 26% tons per acre, 
and many other small patches produced 
better than 20 tons. The sugar company 
estimated an average yield of 13 tons on 
the project, which supplied about 70 per 
cent of the factory's run. 



COL. Wheaton of the construction 
office, Quartermaster Corps, United 
States Air Service, and several other 
officers made a trip to Yuma on the first of 
December to inspect Fly Field, the Yuma 
Airport, preparatory to the drawing up 
of plans for an airways administration 
building at the field, $5,000 having been 
appropriated by Congress for this pur- 
pose. The building will be erected in the 
near future and will house a permanent 
staff of two to four men, including 
mechanics who will look after Army and 
Navy planes. 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



January, 1931 



Economic Results of Federal Reclamation 



THE reclamation act was passed in 
1902 and 28 years of construction 
and development work have passed into 
history, \\hat lias been the result? 
The value of crops grown in 1929 on the 
24 Federal projects and private projects 
receiving water under \\arreti Act con- 
tracts was 160,000,000, which nearly 
equals the total cost of constructing these 
projects. The income to the reclamation 
fund during the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1930, was $9,035,508, of which 
$6,013,672 came from the projects as 
construction and operation and main- 
tenance repayments, water rental charges, 
power revenues, and miscellaneous col- 
lections. The balance is made up of oil 
and mineral royalties and receipts from 
the sale of public lands. 

Irrigation is the backbone of agriculture 
in the arid and semiarid States. The 
irrigated area of the United States is 
approximately 20,000,000 acres, of which 
10 per cent is embraced in completed 
reclamation projects which, with future 
extensions contemplated for construction, 
as the need arises, will bring the total area 
up to 3,250,000 acres. 

Uncle Sam's venture in the field of 
irrigation has created 40,000 homes where 
160,000 people live. The 214 cities and 
towns created by and dependent on these 
projects have a population of 470,000. 
There are 686 schools, 713 churches, and 
130 banks with deposits of $145,000,000. 
These people are self-supporting. Just 
where they would be and what they would 
be doing were there no Government 
projects is a matter of conjecture, but we 
do know that they are not farming in the 
humid sections where the disposal of sur- 
plus agricultural products has become a 
serious problem and they have not joined 
the great army of unemployed. There 
are times when the man on the farm may 
not have much cold cash, but he's not 
dependent on charity and he always has 
something to do and plenty to eat. The 
fundamental idea of the reclamation act 
was the creation of homes and in that it 
has been preeminently successful. 

CROP VALUES 

The average value of crops produced on 
reclamation projects last year was $60 
per acre, two and one-half times the 
average value for the entire United 
States. What happened to all this 
wealth? We know that it did not remain 
very long in the hands of the man who 
grew the crops. It was passed on to local 
merchants, laborers, railroads, and finally 



By Dr. ElwooJ Mead, Commissioner of Reclamation 

reached channels that distributed it to 
every section of the country. 

Crops produced on the projects do not 
add to the agricultural surplus that has 
caused so much trouble in recent years. 
Wheat totals less than one-half of 1 per 
cent of the production of the entire coun- 
try. The average consumption of wheat 
in this country is 5 bushels per capita. 
Applying this figure to the 630,000 people 
on Federal projects and the cities and 
towns directly tributary thereto, it would 
require 3, 150,000 bushels of wheat to 
supply the needs of these people as com- 
pared to a production in 1929 of 3,910,000 
bushels. As a matter of fact, consump- 
tion per capita on the farm, on account of 
grain fed to livestock and poultry, would 
be in excess of 5 bushels, so it is safe to 
say that Federal reclamation projects 
do not raise enough wheat to supply their 
own needs. 

Cotton is the most important crop 
grown on our projects and comprised 21 
per cent of the total crop value in 1929, 
but the surplus cotton produced in this 
country is the short staple, less than 1 
inch in length, and practically all the 
cotton produced under irrigation is in 
excess of this length. The quality of the 
potatoes grown on our Western projects 
is such that they can be shipped across the 
continent and compete with the best of 
the East. Alfalfa, fruits, and sugar 
beets do not enter the competitive class, 
while vegetables that reach the early 
markets furnish a very desirable variety 
of food at a price that is within the reach 
of all. 

EXISTING PROJECTS TO BE COMPLETED 

For the next few years the major opera- 
tions will be limited to the completion of 
projects that have already been started 
and will be confined principally to pro- 
viding an adequate water supply, con- 
structing subsurface drains for the relief 
and protection of water-logged areas and 
supplying gravity water to irrigated areas 
that are now faced with excessive costs 
for pumping water for irrigation. Echo 
Dam and the Weber-Provo diversion 
canal, comprising the first unit of the Salt 
Lake Basin project, will be ready for oper- 
ation in 1931 and will furnish 74,000 
acre-feet of stored water as a supplemental 
supply for 60,000 acres of land in the lower 
Weber and Ogden Valleys. Three 
hundred thousand dollars has been ap- 
propriated for the construction of the 
Hyrum Reservoir, with a capacity of 
20,000 acre-feet, on the Little Bear 
River, near Logan, for the purpose of 



supplying water to 26,000 acres, 4,000 
acres of which are new lands and 22,000 
acres of land in need of a supplemental 
water supply in Cache Valley. 

The Deadwood Dam, which will add 
160,000 acre-feet to the storage capacity 
of the Boise project in Idaho, has just 
been completed. Water will be available 
in 1931 for a portion of the irrigable area 
of the Vale project in Oregon, while on the 
Owyhee project, in the same State, good 
progress is being made on the construc- 
tion of the Owyhee Dam which will 
raise the water level 300 feet and store 
1,100,000 acre-feet of water which will 
irrigate about 123,000 acres. About 
30,000 acres are now under cultivation 
in a number of privately operated projects 
which derive their water supply by pump- 
ing from Snake River. For the past two 
years work has been in progress on the 
construction of a subsurface drainage 
system to protect the irrigable lands on 
the Belle Fourche project in South ' 
Dakota and the Lower Yellowstone 
project in Montana. The Kittitas divi- 
sion of the Yakima project in Washington 
is nearing completion, water being avail- 
able for a portion of the irrigable area for 
the first time this past season. In central 
Wyoming works have been completed 
for the irrigation of 40,000 acres of the 
Riverton project, Wyoming, which is 
now opened to homestead entry and 
where the canal system will be extended 
to cover an ultimate area of 100,000 acres 
as the need arises. The Willwood divi- 
sion of the Shoshone project, in northern 
Wyoming, has a number of good farms 
available for homestead entry with 
additional lands to be placed on the 
market in the near future. On the Sun 
River project in Montana, Gibson Dam 
has just been completed at a cost of 
$2,381,313, which insures a full water 
supply to lands that have been de- 
pendent on a flood-water right for the past 
10 years. 

HOOVER DAM CONSTRUCTION A GIGANTIC 
TASK 

The greatest engineering job ahead of 
the Bureau of Reclamation is the con- 
struction of Hoover Dam and power 
plant and the All-American canal under 
the Boulder Canyon project. This dam, 
which will be about 727 feet above founda- 
tion rock and with the power plant will 
cost about $110,000,000, will pay for 
itself with its own falling water. The 
estimated cost of the All-American canal 
is $38,500,000. Advertisements calling for 
proposals for the construction of the dam 



January, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



have been issued. In the 28 years that the 
bureau has been carrying on construction 
work, it has placed in dams and other 
structures a total of 4,392,000 cubic yards 
of concrete. The preliminary estimate of 
quantities in Hoover Dam, power plant 
.and appurtenant works, calls for 4,500,000 
cubic yards of concrete. 

CHANGING CONDITIONS UNDER 
RECLAMATION 

Reclamation is continually confronted 
with changing conditions. The easily 
constructed projects have been built, 
those remaining are too costly and diffi- 
cult to be attractive to private capital 
With increasing costs per acre, greater 
care must be exercised in making investi- 
gations to determine the feasibility of a 
project, and particular attention must be 
given to settlement and economic devel- 
opment, for on that rests the return of the 
expenditures. The Federal Government 
should not be the sole agency for directing 
the development program. The arid 
States are vitally interested in the success 
of irrigation and should accept their full 
share of responsibility in bringing about 
rapid settlement and development, work- 
ing in cooperation with local civic organi- 
zations to accomplish the desired result. 

Viewed from whatever angle you will 
the reclamation policy of this country, 
inaugurated by President Roosevelt 28 
years ago last June, has been a wise and 
statesmanlike move. Comfortable homes 
have been established, cities and towns 
have sprung up on land that was once a 
desert. The benefits have spread to ad- 
joining territory and thence to every 
section of the country. No policy or 
expenditure of the Federal Government 
has been more beneficial or resulted in 
the creation of greater wealth, and this 
has been accomplished without burden 
to the taxpayers of the country as the 
money used for this purpose comes from 
the natural resources of the area directly 
benefited and in time is returned to the 
Treasury. 




i ii 01 y coi H n xa i lun 

under the Kittitas Canal 
Kittitas Co.,Washmgton 
L Potatoes grown by' 
W. E..Crowley 
Weight of 6-13 ibs.,11 03 
Length of longest- 13 in. 
Average lengtn-IQ/i in. 







Since water was first available in 1906, 
the cumulative value of crops grown on 
land irrigated from Government works 
amounted to $1,642,267,680. 



CROP yields in general on the River- 
ton project are improving each 
successive year, and the project now 
promises a real future to settlers. 




Harvesting potatoes on the Kittitas Division or the Yakima Project, Washington 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



January, 1931 



By P. W. DENT, Asst. Commissioner 




Award or Rejection of Bids Modification 



PARAGRAPH 16 of the standard Gov- 
ernment instructions to bidders (con- 
struction and supplies), standard form 
No. '2'2, provides in part: 

" 16. Award or rejection of bids. The 
contract will he awarded to the lowest 
responsible bidder complying with con- 
ditions of the invitation for bids, pro- 
vided his bid is reasonable and it is to 
the interest of the United States to accept 
it. * * * The United States, how- 
ever, reserves the right to reject any and 
all bids and to waive any informality in 
bids received whenever such rejection or 
waiver is in the interest of the United 
States. * * *" 

while paragraph 5 of the same form pro- 
vides: 

"5. Alternative bids. Alternative bids 
will not be considered unless called for." 

On June 4, 1929, bids were opened in 
the Denver office of the Bureau of Recla- 
mation under specifications No. 454-D 
for steel pipe for Little Valley siphons, 
Vale project, Oregon. The bid of the 
Thompson Manufacturing Co. was the 
lowest complying with the conditions of 
the invitation for bids, with a delivered 
cost of $11,607.97. The Western Pipe & 
Steel Co. submitted a bid with a lower 
delivered cost of $11,014.82, but there ap- 
peared on the bid a notation reading: 

"Steel plates will be furnished in ac- 
cordance with the United States Govern- 
ment Master Specifications No. 352 if in- 
spection is made in accordance with stand- 
ard practice, as required by A. S. T. M. 
Specifications A9-24." 

One of the conditions of the invitation 
for bids (specifications) was that the plates 
should be in accordance with Government 
Master Specifications No. 352a and with 
Government General Specifications for 
Materials No. 339. 

Comparison of the A. S. T. M. Specifi- 
cations A9-24 with Government Master 
Specifications No. 352a indicated that in 
many respects they were the same, al- 
though somewhat differently arranged, 
the main differences being: 

(a) The percentages of phosphorus and 
sulphur were different for both structural 
steel and rivet steel. 



(6) For tension and bend tests, the 
Government Master Specifications No. 
352a required two tests for each melt and, 
presumably, both tests were required to 
be satisfactory. The A. S. T. M. Speci- 
fications No. A9-24 called for one tension 
and bend test of each melt, with the 
provision that "If any test specimen 
shows defective machining or develops 
flaws, it may be discarded and another 
specimen substituted." 

As this was thought to be a probable 
difference from the specifications, within 
the meaning of paragraphs 5 and 16 of the 
standard Government instructions to 
bidders, the awarding officer inquired of 
the Western Pipe & Steel Co. whether 
it would withdraw the exception noted on 
its bid and furnish the material at the 
price bid but in accordance with the 
specifications, if it were found that the 
bid as thus amended could be considered, 
which the company consented to do; but, 
before award was made, the Thompson 
Manufacturing Co., the lowest bidder 
complying with the conditions of the invi- 
tation for bids, protested consideration 
of the bid of the Western Pipe & Steel 
Co., whereupon the Comptroller General 
was asked for an advance decision as to 
whether (a) award should be made to the 
Thompson Manufacturing Co.; (6) re- 
advertisement was necessary under the 
facts stated and the Comptroller General's 
decision dated February 9, 1927 
(A-17146), shown at 6 Comp. Gen. 514; 
or (c) award should be made to the West- 
tern Pipe & Steel Co. under its amended 
bid, to which the Comptroller General, 
in his decision dated July 24, 1929 (A- 
27950), shown at 9 Comp. Gen. 24, replied: 

"A bidder who has submitted an alter- 
native proposal when none has been re- 
quested, or has submitted a proposal not 
in accordance with the specifications of the 
advertisement, may not be permitted 
after the bids are opened to, in effect, 
withdraw its proposal and submit one in 
accordance with the specifications or agree 
to such modifications of its proposal as 
will make it responsive without variation 
from the specifications. Therefore, the 
proposal of the Western Pipe & Steel Co. 



may not be accepted on the basis of the 
modifications subsequently proposed. 

"The only serious question in the case 
is whether all of the proposals should be 
rejected and readvertisement had for the 
material, it having come to the informa- 
tion of the Government that it is possible 
to secure the steel for the sum of $593.15 
less than that of the low proposal meeting 
the specifications. See 6 Comp. Gen. 514, 
referred to in the submission. Unques- 
tionably, the proposal of the Thompson 
Manufacturing Co. was, at the time of 
the opening of the bids, the lowest one 
meeting the specifications and the fact 
that the Government has subsequently 
obtained information that the steel could 
be purchased for $593.15 less than this 
low bid on a quantity of steel in excess of 
$11,000, is not sufficient to justify rejec- 
tion of all bids and readvertisement. If 
the difference were greater, the public 
interest might require the procedure 
stated in 6 Comp. Gen. 514 to be followed, 
but the 'oss to the Government through 
readvertising and considering the bids in 
the instant matter, as well as the post- 
ponement of the availability of the steel 
for use would doubtless be in excess of the 
difference of $593.15. 

"Answering your question specifica'ly, 
you are advised that on the basis of the 
facts submitted, the proposal of the 
Western Pipe & Steel Co. may properly 
be disregarded in making the award." 

As a part of this general subject there 
may properly be considered the question 
whether the contracting officer may, after 
the opening of bids, enter into negotiations 
with the lowest bidder complying with 
the conditions of the invitation for bids, 
looking to the submission' by such bidder 
of a price for material or supplies to be 
furnished or work to be performed under 
conditions differing from those contem- 
plated by the invitation for bids, and, if 
so, whether all bidders submitting bids 
under the invitation for bids must be 
given an equal opportunity to modify 
their bids. 

The Comptroller General, in his deci- 
sion dated January 11, 1926 (A-12608), 
shown at 5 Comp. Gen. 470, stated that 



January, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



'"transactions with bidders after proposal 
which may affect conditions must be 
carefully guarded so as not to involve any 
question with other bidders." 

In decision dated August 9, 1926 
(A-15241), not published, the Comptroller 
General said: 

"The apparent probability that the low 
bidder on the work originally contem- 
plated will be the low bidder under the 
changed conditions and that it has sub- 
mitted bids therefor is not controlling of 
the matter as to whether the provision of 
section 3709, Revised Statutes, are for 
application. Whether the low bidder on 
the original project can do the work at 
less expense to the Government under the 
changed conditions than can any of the 
other bidders is possible of definite deter- 
mination only by soliciting competitive 
bids as contemplated under said section. 
"Obviously the acceptance of alternate 
proposals with the elimination of items 
or the changing thereof or substitution of 
items named in the specifications and 
negotiating the price therefor with one 
bidder is neither proper from the stand- 
point of the United States nor of other 
bidders and amounts to nothing more or 
less than a complete disregard of the pur- 
poses to be gained by the requirement for 
advertising and the awarding of the con- 
tract to the lowest responsible bidder 
that is, in the most advantageous interests 
of the Government." 

Again, in decision dated June 20, 1928 
(A-23336), not published, the Comptroller 
General ruled that "a bidder may not 
qualify his proposal after same has been 
submitted and without opportunity being 
given to all other bidders to submit 
qualifications." 

The Comptroller General, in his decision 
dated July 12, 1928 (A-23150), not pub- 
lished, said: "As has been held by this 
office repeatedly if, after bids are re- 
quested, it develops that the specifications 
or delivery points should be changed 
in the interests of the Government, 
there should be readvertising, so that all 
bidders will have an equal opportunity 
to furnish the materials or supplies 
required, * * *." Armand Offutt, 
District Counsel. 



Recently Enacted Legislation 



DISPOSAL OF VACANT PUBLIC LAND 



THREE farms on the Milk River 
project were disposed of during the 
month to farmers from adjacent dry lands. 
All of the farms have either been entirely 
uncultivated or only partially tilled in 
past years and the purchasers expect to 
develop the places as rapidly as possible. 
Twelve project farms have been trans- 
ferred to new settlers within three months, 
and these settlers will start the immediate 
improvement of their farms. 



"Be it enacted by the Senate and House 
of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That the 
Secretary of the Interior, hereinafter styled 
the Secretary, is authorized in connection 
with Federal irrigation projects to dispose 
of vacant public lands designated under 
the act of May 25, 1926, as temporarily 
unproductive or permanently unproduc- 
tive to resident farm owners and resident 
entrymen on Federal irrigation projects, in 
accordance with the provisions of this act. 
"SEC. 2. That the Secretary is author- 
ized to sell such lands to resident farm 
owners or resident entrymen, on the proj- 
ect upon which such land is located, at 
prices not less than that fixed by inde- 
pendent appraisal approved by the Secre- 
tary, and upon such terms and at private 
sale or at public auction as he may pre- 
scribe: Provided, That no such resident 
farm owner or resident entryman shall be 
permitted to purchase under this act more 
than one hundred and sixty acres of such 
land, or an area which, together with land 
already owned on such Federal irrigation 
project, shall exceed three hundred and 
twenty acres: And provided further, That 
the authority given hereunder shall apply 
not only to tracts wholly classified as 
temporarily or permanently unproductive, 
but also to all tracts of public lands within 
Federal irrigation projects which by reason 
of the inclusion of lands classified as tem- 
porarily or permanently unproductive are 
found by the Secretary to be insufficient to 
support a family and to pay water charges. 
"SEC. 3. All "permanently unproduc- 
tive" and "temporarily unproductive" 
land now or hereafter designated under the 
act of May 25, 1926, shall, when sold, 
remain subject to sections 41 and 43 of the 
said act. The exchange provisions of sec- 
tion 44 of said act of May 25, 1926, shall 
not be applicable to the land purchased 
under this act. 

"SEC. 4. After the purchaser has paid 
to the United States all amounts due on 
the purchase price of said land, a patent 
shall issue which shall recite that the lands 
so patented have been classified in whole 
or in part as temporarily or permanently 
unproductive, as the case may be, under 
the adjustment act of May 25, 1926. Such 
patents shall also contain a reservation of 
a lien for water charges when deemed 
appropriate by the Secretary and reserva- 
tions of coal or other mineral rights to the 
same extent as patents issued under the 
homestead laws. 

"SEC. 5. In the absence of a contrary 
requirement in the contracts between the 
United States and the water users organi- 



zation or district assuming liability for 
the payment of project construction 
charges, all sums collected hereunder from 
the sale of lands, from the payment of 
project construction charges on 'tem- 
porarily unproductive' or 'permanently 
unproductive' lands so sold, and (except 
as stated in this section) from water 
rentals, shall inure to the reclamation 
fund as a credit to the construction charge 
now payable by the water users under 
their present contracts, to the extent of 
the additional expense, if any, incurred 
by such water users in furnishing water 
to the unproductive area, while still in 
that status, as approved by the Commis- 
sioner of Reclamation and the balance as 
a credit to the sums heretofore written off 
in accordance with said act of May 25, 
1926. Where water rental collections 
hereunder are in excess of the current 
operation and maintenance charges, the 
excess as determined by the Secretary, 
shall, in the absence of such contrary 
contract provision, inure to the reclama- 
tion fund as above provided, but in all 
other cases the water rentals collected 
under this act shall be turned over to or 
retained by the operating district or 
association, where the project or part of 
the project from which the water rentals 
were collected is being operated and main- 
tained by an irrigation district or water 
users association under contract with the 
United States. 

"SEC. 6. The Secretary of the Interior 
is authorized to perform any and all acts 
and to make all rules and regulations 
necessary and proper for carrying out the 
purposes of this act." 

Approved, May 16, 1930. 
Regulations are being drafted to put 
the law into effect. 



/COMPLETE returns from the 1930 
\^J beet crop on the Milk River project 
show that from 3,219 acres harvested 
39,584 tons were produced, or an average 
of 12.29 tons per acre. Although the 
acreage harvested was 877 acres less than 
that of 1929, approximately 4,000 tons 
more were produced. This results from 
the elimination of poor areas and better 
preparation, tillage, and irrigation of the 
remaining acreage. A total of 42,850 tons 
were sliced by the factory this season 
which exceeds the tonnage of any past 
season. The average sugar content was 
16.46 per cent, which is slightly above the 
average for all Utah-Idaho sugar factories. 



A the close of November the per- 
centage of completion at Echo dam, 
Salt Lake Basin project, was 92.2. 



G 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



January, 193i 



By C. A. BISSELL.Chief.Engineenng Division 




Drilling and Blasting Operations, Milner-Gooding Canal, Idaho 



By E. B. Darlington. Superintendent. Minidoka Project, Idaho 



THE use of explosives in large quan- 
tities is not umisunl in construction 
work, but blasting on the Milner-Gooding 
main canal, Gooding division, Minidoka 
project, is of interest because of the large 
number of charges fired simultaneously 
and the methods used in detonating the 
blast. In general, the rock cuts on canal 
work are not of great depth and satisfac- 
tory breakage must be obtained by close 
spacing of drill holes and correct loading 
practices. 

On the Milner-Gooding Canal, the rock 
is all basaltic lava. Most of it has the 
typical columnar structure of the more 
recent lava flows and it normally breaks 
to natural fracture planes. As excava- 
tion is handled largely by power shovels 
or drag lines, it is often found that a finer 
breakage is desirable than that which 
results from loosening of the blocks nat- 
urally formed by shrinkage or otherwise. 
The blasted material must be of such tex- 
ture that it can be loaded efficiently into 
the excavator buckets. Large fragments 
can be swung out by means of a "choker," 
attached to the drag-line boom, but this 
usually causes delay in the excavating 
operations. 

BLASTING BY WHOLESALE 

Experimentation by the contractors on 
the Gooding Canal has demonstrated that 
on shallow work drill holes spaced 4 feet 
on centers and shot without chambering, 
result generally in a satisfactory breakage, 
especially if a large number of charges 
are exploded simultaneously. On the 
work included in the contracts of Mittry 
Bros. Construction Co. of Los Angeles, 
involving nearly 27 miles of the main 
canal, as many as 3,140 loaded holes have 
been fired in one blast. The illustration 
(fig. 1) shows 1,600 charges being exploded 
at the same time. Detonation is accom- 
plished electrically, through connection 
with a power line used to transmit current 
to a large drag line and stationary com- 
pressor plant. Wiring was done on the 
graded series system, the number of holes 
per series varying from 10 to 50. This 
plan distributes the resistance so that the 
charges on a short series are detonated 



slightly in advance of those on the longer 
scries. 

An unusually large blast in a deep rock 
cut was recently made on the Mittry 
work. Methods different from those 
used for the shallower cuts were adopted 
in this case. The contractor decided 
to attempt breaking the rock all in one 
lift. The maximum cut in a reach of 
five stations was 37 feet, and the minimum 
24 feet. The canal prism, as designed, 
has a base width of 26 feet, with side 
slopes of one-fourth to 1 foot. The 
volume of rock requiring excavation was 
approximately 23,000 cubic yards. The 
number of holes drilled for this shot was 
175 and they were spaced on 12-foot 
centers. These holes were chambered 
by springing two to three times and 
loaded with a total of 57,000 pounds of 
40 per cent blasting gelatin, or almost 
two carloads in the 500-foot reach of 
canal. 

Wiring connections were of the series 
in parallel type, with 30 holes in each 
series. No. 6 electric blasting caps were 
used in firing the charges. Electric 
current from a transmission line was ap- 
plied through a special transformer regu- 
lated to supply about 1.5 amperes per 
series. 

The blast just after explosion is shown 
in Figure 2. The material was in general 
reduced to a size which could be easily 
excavated by the contractor's 175-B 
Bucyrus drag line, which has a 125-foot 
boom and is equipped with a 6-yard 
bucket. There was considerable over- 
breakage of the slopes, but the canal 
section below the water line appears to be 
in fairly sound rock. 

DRILLING EQUIPMENT USED 

On the Mittry Bros, contracts some 
unusual types of drilling equipment 
are being used, especially in connection 
with rock drilling. This company en- 
tered into two contracts, covering about 
27 miles of the canal. The terrain 
through which the canal runs is rough and- 
broken and was formed by lava flows, 
and large quantities of rock are encoun- 
tered. 



Confronted by the necessity of exca- 
vating long reaches in the volcanic for- 
mation, ways and means were sought by 
the contractors to expedite drilling, pre- 
paratory to blasting. One of the de- 
vices worked out by Mittry Bros consists 
of a fabricated steel truss spanning the- 
canal and carrying three air drills. This 
drilling bridge is 82 feet long and 6 feet in 
width. It is carried on standard car 
trucks running on 24-inch gage industrial 
track. The bridge is moved along the- 
canal by means of a hand windlass at 
each end, temporary anchors for th& 
draw cables being made by driving bars 
into the ground. The truss carries three 
drilling machines mounted in leads hung, 
from a carriage, so that the drills can be 
moved by hand and holes drilled across 
the canal on any spacing desired. The 
drilling machines are handled in the 
leads by Little Tugger air hoists. The 
bridge also carries a Kohler lighting- 
plant and three air receivers. Drifter 
drills of l/ inch diameter steel, shanked 
with bits for starting 3J4 inch holes, are 
used with this outfit. They are operated 
at about 80 pounds air pressure. 

The contractor was well pleased with 
the performance of the steel drilling bridge, 
and a second truss was built of scrap- 
lumber. In this bridge, tension on the 
lower chord is partially taken by steel- 
cables. The traveling and drilling equip- 
ment are the same as for the steel truss, 
except that special quarry drills are used 
instead of drifters. The two bridges are 
illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. 

Air for operating each of these drilling 
rigs is supplied by three 310-cubic-foot 
capacity portable compressors hooked 
together. Three- inch iron pipe is used 
for the air lines. A run of about 600 feet 
is welded together at the joints and moved 
by means of a caterpillar tractor. It has 
been found cheaper and more effective 
from the standpoint of air tightness to- 
weld the joints rather than to connect 
them with threaded couplings. 

USE OF CATERPILLAR TRACTOR 

Another item of drilling equipment in 
use by the same contractor consists of a. 



January, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



SIGN 

N PROJECT 



GOODING DIVI 
MINIDOKA IRRIGATION 
IDAHO 







MILNER-GOODING CANAL 

i. 

OLE BLAST ON MILNER-GOODING CANAL 

2. 
ARLOADS OF DYNAMITE IN THIS SHOT 

3. 
STEEL TRUSS DRILLING BRIDGE SPANNING CANAL 

4. 
WOODEN TRUSS DRILLING BRIDGE, MADE BY CONTRACTOR 

5. 
DRILLING UNIT MOUNTED ON CATERPILLAR TRACTOR 




s 



NEW HECLAMATION ERA 



Jnnuary, K31 



frame :uul throe loads mounted on si 30- 
Best catei -pillar tractor. (See tin. 5.) 
l.c\i:cr typo drills are operated in Un- 
loads, which art- spared -I foot on center*. 
The drills are raised and lowered l>y means 
of Little Tugger hoists. Air is supplied 
l>\ it 750-cubic-foot eapi'.oity _'-st:ige 
eleetrienlly driven stationary compressor, 
through :> ;>-inch air line about 0,000 
feet long. 

This makes a mobile drilling unit, which 
can lie utili/ed under practically any 
contlitioti of rock topography and width 
of canal section. On sloping ground the 
tractor is jacked up into an approxi- 
mately level position and blocked there. 
It is moved very quickly on its own power. 
As in the case of the equipment carried 
on the trusses, an operator is required for 
each of (lie three drills. 



for Contractors 



lintildcr Canyon project. Bids for con- 
struction of the Hoover Dam, power 
plant, and appurtenant works will be 
opened at the office of the Bureau of 
Reclamation, Wilda Building, 1441 Wel- 
ton Street, Denver, Colo., at 10 o'clock 
a. m., March 4, 1931. The work includes 
the 730-foot dam, the four 50-foot diam- 
eter diversion tunnels, coffer dams, power 
plant (except installation of machinery), 
spillways, outlet works, highway, in- 
clined freight elevator, and spur track. 
The principal items of work and the es- 
timated quantities involved are as fol- 
lows: 1,800,000 cubic yards of all classes 
of open cut excavation; 1,900,000 cubic 
yards of tunnel and shaft excavation; 
1,200,000 cubic yards of earth and rock 
fill in coffer dams and river channel 
protection; 4,400,000 cubic yards of con- 
crete; 228,000 cubic feet of grout; drilling 
190,000 linear feet of grout and drainage 
holes; placing 5,500,000 pounds of re- 
inforcement bars; installing 1,900,000 
pounds of small metal pipe and fittings; 
installing 32,500,000 pounds of large 
metal conduits; installing 10,600,000 
pounds of structural steel; installing 
20,000,000 pounds of gates, hoists and 
other metal work. Copies of specifica- 
tions and plans will be available for dis- 
tribution about January 10, and a charge 
of $5 will be made. 

Plans and specifications are being 
prepared and will soon be issued covering 
the construction of the waterworks and 
sewerage systems for the Government 
town of Boulder City near the Hoover 
Dam. Plans for streets and the sidewalk 
system are also being prepared. The 
plans and specifications for the first group 
of cottages for Government employees 
are also being prepared and will be issued 
as soon as possible. These will be followed 



Cle Elum Dam Approved for Construction 



On December 11, 1930, Secretary Wil- 
Imr sent the following communication to 
President Hoover: 

"The acts of Congress of March 7, 

1928 (45 Stat. 200, 228), and March 4, 

1929 (45 Stat. 1562, 1592), make appro- 
priations of $500,000 and $1,000,000, 
respectively, for the construction of Cle 
Elum Dam, Yakima project. By the 
act of May 14, 1930 (46 Stat. 279, 308), 
the unexpended balances of these appro- 
priations were made available during the 
fiscal year 1931. 

"Section 4 of the act of June 25, 1910, 
provides in effect that after the date of 
that act no irrigation project to be con- 
structed under the act of June 17, 1902 
(32 Stat. 388), and amendatory acts 
shall be undertaken until the project 
shall have been recommended by the 
Secretary of the Interior and approved 
by the direct order of the President. 

"Subsection B, section 4, of the act of 
December 5, 1924 (43 Stat. 702), provides 
as follows: 

" 'That no new project or new division 
of a project shall be approved for con- 
struction or estimates submitted therefor 
by the Secretary until information in 
detail shall be secured by him concerning 
the water supply, the engineering features, 
the cost of construction, land prices, and 
the probable cost of development, and he 
shall have made a finding in writing that 
it is feasible, that it is adaptable for actual 
settlement and farm homes, and that it 
will probably return the cost thereof to 
the United States.' 

"As the sixth and last of a series of 
dams for regulating and storing the 
waters of the Yakima River and tributa- 
ries, it is proposed to construct an earth 



and gravel fill storage dam located on 
the Cle Elum River, a tributary of the 
Yakima River. This dam is to have a 
maximum height of about 125 feet, a crest 
length of 700 feet, and a volume of about 
450,000 cubic yards of material, forming 
a reservoir with an area of 4,680 acres 
for storage of 435,000 acre-feet of water 
for the irrigation of lands under the Yaki- 
ma project. The cost of the storage dam 
is estimated at $2,800,000, of the reser- 
voir right of way $300,000, and of flowage 
rights and contingencies, $400,000, mak- 
ing the total estimated cost $3,500,000. 
This constitutes a part of the storage 
system of the project, the total actual 
and estimated cost of which is $11,558,000. 
Of this amount the return of $6,996,000 
is guaranteed under existing contracts, 
leaving a balance of $4,562,000, the re- 
payment of which will be provided for as 
follows: Five hundred and eighty thou- 
sand dollars is to be repaid by the Wapato 
Indian Reservation, $1,000,000 by rentals 
from the Sunnyside division of the Yaki- 
ma project, and the remainder by the 
Roza and Kennewick divisions of the 
project. 

"The development is believed to be 
feasible, the project is adaptable for 
actual settlement and farm homes, and 
the cost of construction of the dam will 
in all probability be returned to the United 
States. 

"It is recommended that this work be 
approved, and that the necessary author- 
ity be issued to this department to make 
contracts for the construction of the dam 
and to proceed with the work." 

President Hoover gave his approval on 
December 11. 



by other groups, including the adminis- 
tration and buildings of a public nature. 

Minidoka project. Under specifications 
No. 494-D for furnishing two %-yard 
drag-line excavators, the Osgood Co., 
of Marion, Ohio, has been awarded the 
contract, with a net price of $17,289 and 
a delivered cost of $19,111.39. There 
were 10 companies submitting bids. 

Owyhee project. Plans and specifica- 
tions are being prepared for the purchase 
of the ring gates for the Owyhee Dam. 

Yakima project. Plans and specifica- 
tions have been prepared covering the 
furnishing and installation of two pen- 
stocks for the Kennewick Highlands 
pumping plant. The total length of 
34-inch diameter continuous wood-stave 
pipe which will be required is approxi- 
mately 6,700 feet. 



THE Mini-Cassia Dairy Herd Im- 
provement Association on the Mini- 
doka project reported 37 cows with a yield 
of 40 pounds or more of butterfat each. 
High cow, owned by Haven Leigh, had a 
record of 82.6 pounds of butterfat and 
2,430 pounds of milk. Mr. Leigh was also 
the owner of the high herd of 10 to 20 
cows, the average yield being 35.6 pounds 
of butterfat and 1,071 pounds of milk. 



ON the Tule Lake division of the Kla- 
math project 24 public land farm 
units were recently opened to entry, as a 
result of which 162 applications were re- 
ceived from qualified applicants. Ques- 
tionnaires were sent to all references, 121 
of whom appeared before the local exam- 
ing board. 



January, 1031 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



9 



Lloyd Irrigation Project Ready in 1932 



THE Lloyd barrage and canals proj- 
ect In the Province of Sind, Bombay 
Presidency, India, now under construc- 
tion, will irrigate over twice as much land 
as the combined area of all the Federal 
irrigation projects. An interesting re- 
port on this project by Sir M. Visves- 
varaya, K. C, I, E., M. I. C. E., and 
Nawab All Nawaz Jung Bahadur, F. C. H., 
was recently received at the Washington 
office. There being some misgivings in 
the public mind as to the soundness of the 
Undertaking, the Government of Bombay 
authorized an investigation and report by 
the two engineers named. Sir M. Vis- 
vesvaraya was a visitor in Washington 
lh February, 1927. 

LARGEST IRRIGATION PROJECT 

The Lloyd project is not only the larg- 
est single irrigation scheme undertaken 
in any part of India, but also the largest 
in the world, exceeding in size both the 
Assuan project in Egypt and the pro- 
posed Boulder Canyon project on the 
Colorado River. It will assure an ample 
supply of water to 1,800,000 acres in the 
province now receiving an inadequate 
supply from inundation canals, and ulti- 
mately increase the irrigated area in the 
barrage zone to 5,200,000 acres. Work 
on the barrage across the Indus River at 
Sukkur was commenced in July, 1923. 

The Province of Sind has a cultivable 
area of 13,750,000 acres. The population 
is about 33,000,000, of which 5,000,000 is 
urban. In the greater part of the Prov- 
ince the rainfall is negligible, the average 
being 5.9 inches, and in the barrage zone 
5.5 inches. Only 10 per cent of the culti- 
vated area is dependent on the rainfall. 
On the remainder of the lands there can 
be no crops grown without an irrigation j 
supply obtained from the river. 

The discharge of the Indus River rarely 
falls below 22,000 cubic feet per second, 
while the average is about 110,000. The 
maximum flow of record was 959,000 
cubic feet per second in 1914. The bar- 
rage is designed for a maximum discharge 
of 1,500,000 cubic feet per second. As a 
general rule the river is in deltaic forma- 
tion, flowing along an elevated ridge of 
soil alluvially formed by its own deposits. 
The Indian system of irrigation by inun- 
dation canals, which has been in use since 
the British occupation of Sind in 1843, 
takes advantage of this physical peculi- 
arity of the river. The device is primi- 
tive, a cut being made at right angles to 
the river, and, after a short distance, the 
canal takes a course parallel to the river 

2922131 2 



serving low-lying lands away from the 
marginal ridge: 

DESCRIPTION OF BARRAGE 

The Lloyd Barrage, or Sukkur Barrage 
as it is often called to distinguish if from 
the Lloyd Dam at Bhatgar, rests on a 
wide masonry floor founded on the sand of 
the river bed, protected by aprons of 
concrete blocks and rock paving and by 
steel sheet piling cut-offs. Resting on 
this floor are piers of stone masonry 60 
feet apart, with 66 gate openings, of which 
7 toward the left bank and 5 toward the 
right bank will serve as scouring sluices. 
The piers carry two separate arches of 
reinforced concrete. Two bridges at 
different levels cross the structure, one 
currying the machinery for operating the 
gates and the other roadway and foot- 
paths. The over-all length of the barrage 
between abutments will be 4,725 feet, and 
<he total width of waterway provided will 
be 3,960 feet. Joined to it on either bank 
a masonry river wall will be taken up- 
stream, in which are to be placed the head 
regulators of the various canals. The 
barrage foundations were not works that 
could be completed in a single season, and 
the construction of substantial cofferdams 
each season, dismantling same and recov- 
ering piles before the close of each season 
presented exceptional difficulties. The 
floor is constructed in the dry within large 
cofferdams formed by interlocking sheet 
piling 40 to 50 feet long, inclosing a 
section of the river bed and supported on 
the inside by sand banks. The barrage 
is over half finished, and it is expected 
that it will be completed by June, 1932. 

CANAL SYSTEM 

Excluding feeders or sublaterals, the 
canal system as now planned will comprise 
650 miles of main canals, 990 miles of 
branch canals, and 4,260 miles of laterals. 
These main canals are veritable small 
rivers, the Rohri Canal having a bottom 
width of 250 feet and a depth of 12 feet, 
the Rice western being 243 feet wide on the 
bottom and 11% feet deep, and the 
eastern Nara Canal will have a .bottom 
width of 380 feet and a depth of UK feet. 
In length these canals are 209, 82, and 
531 miles, respectively. The designed 
discharge of these three canals is 13,389, 
10,215, and 10,191 cubic feet per second, 
respectively. For a comparison as to size 
the All-American Canal on the Boulder 
Canyon project will be 75 miles long with 
a bottom width of 134 feet and depth 



of 20 feet, and a designed initial capacity 
of 15,000 cubic feet per second. The 
quantity .of earth to be excavated in 
building the Lloyd project canal system 
amounts to the vast total of 209,000,000 
cubic yards. In comparison to this 
figure, the Bureau of Reclamation has 
excavated about 280,000,000 cubic yards 
to date, and on July 1, 1914, when the 
Panama Canal was opened, the total 
canal excavation was 160,000,000 cubic 
yards. 

In the design of the canal system, the 
duties adopted at diversion are 43% acres 
per second-foot for rice, 87 acres for in- 
undation crops, and 174 acres for winter 
crops. Allowance for percolation and 
evaporation is made at 8 second-feet per 
million square feet of wetted perimeter. 
Nonsilting channel -sections are provided 
wherever possible. The limit for dis- 
tributary slopes is 1 in 10,000. 

The volume of earthwork involved in 
canal construction is so large that it 
would have meant an immense organ- 
ization to do the work by manual labor. 
The regular working season is only four 
months, and is liable to be interrupted 
at any time by epidemics. It was con- 
sidered inadvisable to rely solely upon 
hand labor, and so it was decided to also 
use drag lines, of which 46 of various 
makes have been purchased. The largest 
amount of excavation accomplished in 
any one month has been 5,800,000 cubic 
yards. Excavation is about evenly di- 
vided between machines and manual 
labor, and to date is approximately 60 per 
cent completed. Machines have moved an 
average of 1,850,000 cubic yards a month, 
while 1,100,000 cubic yards is the average 
for hand labor. 

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 

At the barrage it is necessary to make 
a liberal use of machines and mechanical 
power. Electric power generated in a 
central station of 3,071 horsepower capac- 
ity by Diesel engines is principally used. 
The stone crushers are driven by oil 
engines, and steam is used for transport, 
dredging, and pile driving. In the float- 
ing plant equipment are two 20-inch 
suction dredges, steam tugs, cranes, 
barges, motor launches, and numerous 
other water craft. There are in use on 
the works 42 miles of standard gage 
railway and the rolling stock consists of 
10 locomotives and 570 cars. There is 
also a narrow-gage railway 17 miles in 
length, with rolling stock comprising 8 



10 



NEW RECLAMATION EHA 



January, I'.ni 



locomotives tuiil Of>0 cars. The rate of 
haulage is from 8 to 12 cents per ton-mile. 
Of the 46 drag-line excavators, the 
larger machines are 6 English (300 
Uustonl ami :> American (300 Bucyrus). 
The medium and small si/ed machines 
arc 5 English and 32 American, with 
bucket capacities varying from 4 yards 
to three-fourths yard. All are oil Diesel 
engine driven, with the exception of two 
Diesel electric excavators. The excava- 
tors are all full-circle, single-bucket type, 
which could be readily converted into 
shovels, but owing to the large radius of 
working and depth of cut, shovel types 
would not have been suitable. The 
total weight of the machines is over 300 
tons, and is said to be the largest fleet 
ever employed on any one construction 
job. For a large machine the maximum 
monthly output has been 120,000 cubic 
yards. At the start of the work Ameri- 
can engineers were used to operate the 
excavator and instruct Indian operators. 

DISPOSITION OF LANDS 

It is understood that a start will be 
made to use the barrage from the begin- 
ning of the "inundation" season in 1932. 
In the barrage zone there is an area of 
about 1,700,000 acres of uncultivated irri- 
gable land belonging to the Government. 
Of this area it is proposed to set apart 
50,000 acres toward peasant grants, and 
about 350,000 acres toward grants at 
concession rates to Zamindars, who are 
now the principal irrigators. The balance 
of 1,300,000 acres will probably be sold 
at public auction. Payments for land 
will be spread over 20 years. 

The principal crop in Sind is rice, which 
is grown on 25 per cent of the total cropped 
area. In the case of salt land, they have 
to grow rice or nothing else. In what is 
known as the Central Rice Canal tract 
the same land has been growing rice for 
from 30 to 40 years, and it has undergone 
no noticeable deterioration. Cotton and 
wheat should be the principal crops in 
future development. 

ENGINEER'S REPORT FAVORABLE 

In their report Sir M. Visvesvaraya 
and his associate found that the site for 
the barrage is a favorable one, and that 
the engineering designs, with a few minor 
exceptions, are suitable and satisfactory. 
Judging from the difficult work already 
accomplished in the river bed, they are of 
the opinion that construction work is pro- 
ceeding satisfactorily, and the successful 
completion of the barrage is assured. It 
is estimated that the agricultural produc- 
tion in the ultimate stage of the project 
may amount to $125,000,000 annually, as 
against $29,000,000 obtained at present 
from irrigation works of all classes in 
(Continued on page 11) 



Activities at Hoover Dam 



Construction work at the dam site will 
soon be under way, as the construction 
of the dam, diversion tunnels, outlet 
works, and power plant (but not including 
installation of machinery) has been ad- 
vertised arid bids will be opened at the 
Chief Engineer's office in Denver, Colo., 
at 10 a. m., on March 4, 1931. The 



Hoover Dam 

The present dam which will rise up 
through the lava walls of Black Canyon 
near here is but one in a series of 
such structures scattered throughout 
the United States. Each has been an 
achievement of man, a company or a 
community; each is outstanding in its 
influence on its neighborhood. Each 
seems to have reality, even personality, 
to those who see it. The placid waters 
above the turbulent falls below appeal 
to nearly all of us and tug at some 
deep but common emotion. Each is 
entitled to some recognition. We have 
fastened to some of them the names of 
the great of our Nation. We have the 
Roosevelt Dam, the Wilson Dam, the 
Coolidge Dam, and to-day as Secre- 
tary of the Interior and acting in ac- 
cordance with many requests I have, 
the honor and privilege of giving a 
name to this new structure. I choose 
that of the great engineer whose vision 
and persistence, first as chairman of 
the Colorado River Commission in 
1922, and on many occasions since, 
has done much to make it possible 
and declare that the dam to be built by 
the Reclamation Service of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior in Black Canyon 
under the Boulder Canyon project act 
shall be catted the "Hoover Dam." 

President Hoover is but one in a 
galaxy of public servants and private 
individuals who has struggled to bring 
together the forces in our country to 
make this project a success. Senator 
Hiram Johnson, Congressman Swing, 
Senators Pittman and Oddie rendered 
never-failing and vigilant service. 
Their names and those of others too 
numerous to mention will ever be asso- 
ciated with the work we begin here 
to-day. We believe that for each of 
those who have struggled and worked 
for the Hoover Dam it will be said: 
"He builded better than he knew." 

Excerpt from Secretary Ray Lymnn Wilbur's 
speech naming Hoover Dam at the spikf -driving 
ceremony at Las Vegas, Nev., in connection with 
commencement of construction of Boulder Can- 
yon project, September 17, 1930. 



printed specifications and plans will be 
available for distribution about January 
10, and will contain about 80 pages of text 
and 76 drawings. A price of $5 per copy 
will be charged for the plans and specifi- 
cations. The bid bond will be $2,000,- 
000 and the performance bond $5,000,- 
000. The period for completion of the 
whole contract is 2,565 days, making the 
date of completion about May 1, 1937. 



An appropriation of approximately $109,- 
000,000 is authorized for this feature of 
Boulder Canyon project. This amount 
includes material and labor furnished by 
the contractor, material furnished by the 
Government, and overhead, but not 
interest during construction. 



Bids for construction of the Boulder 
City-Hoover Dam highway, 7 miles in 
length from the town site to the dam site 
will be opened at Las Vegas, Nev., on 
January 7, 1931. The highway will be 
gravel surfaced and oil treated and alter- 
nate bids are being asked on 22 and 30 
foot widths. About 260,000 cubic yards 
of rock excavation would be required in 
building the 30-foot highway. The time 
allowed for completion of the contract is 
140 days. 



On January 12, 1931, bids will be opened 
at Las Vegas, Nev., for constructing the 
United States section of the branch 
railroad from Bracken Junction to the 
dam site. This section is about 10% 
miles in length, and will extend from the 
end of the Los Angeles & Salt Lake 
Railroad Co. section near the summit to 
the dam site. It is planned to have this 
railroad completed in 200 days. Pro- 
vision is made for the construction of 
the main-line track only, and the con- 
tractor for the dam will be required to 
build necessary spur and side tracks. 

The Los Angeles & Salt Lake (Union 
Pacific) section of the construction rail- 
road is scheduled for completion by 
January 15, 1931. This portion of the 
construction railroad will be operated 
and maintained by the railroad company 
as a branch of its main line. The 
Southern Sierras Power Co., of Riverside, 
Calif., is rushing work on the 132,000- 
volt single-circuit transmission line to 
bring in power for construction purposes 
and the 235-mile from San Bernardino, 
Calif., should be completed and power 
made available by June 1, 1931. 



Mr. S. R. DeBoer, city planner and 
landscape architect, has submitted a plan 
for the new town of Boulder City. The 
location is at the upper end of Hemen- 
way Wash about 6 miles southwest of 
the dam site. The elevation of the town 
site is 2,500, and it is situated on a divide 
with a view to the north overlooking the 
reservoir behind the Hoover Dam. The 
site is 4 miles from the reservoir shore line 
and 26 miles from Las Vegas. It will be a 
model town in every respect, with living 
conditions for Government employees 



January, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



11 



made as near ideal as is possible. Bids 
will soon be asked for the erection of 
about 12 of the 3 and 4 room cottages. 
Plans are being prepared for the adminis- 
tration and other buildings for the use of 
the Government forces. Certain blocks 
will be set aside for the use of the con- 
tractor as sites for the erection of office 
and headquarters buildings, warehouses, 
mercantile stores, hospital, boarding and 
lodging houses, and homes for the con- 
tractor's employees. Water supply for 
Boulder City will be obtained by pump- 
ing from the Colorado River, with an in- 
take on the Nevada side about 3,500 feet 
downstream from the dam site. The 
bureau has purchased a 2,000, 000-gallon 
storage tank to be installed at Boulder 
City, and plans are being drawn for filter 
plant and chemical treating plant, to be 
built at the town, and the pumping plant 
and desilting tank at the intake. 



Township surveys in the vicinity of 
Black Canyon recently completed by the 
General Land Office, locate the dam site 
in sec. 29, T. 22 S., R. 65 E., M. D. M., 
Nevada, and sec. 3, T. 30 N., R. 23 W., 
G. and S. R. M., Arizona. Boulder City 
will occupy the SW. % of sec. 4, T. 23 S., 
R. 64 E., Nevada. Bracken Junction, 
where the Hoover Dam branch leaves the 
main line, is 7 miles below Las Vegas, 327 
miles from Los Angeles and 457 miles 
from Salt Lake City. 



The Colorado River Board of consulting 
engineers and geologists, of which Maj. 
Gen. William L. Sibert is chairman, con- 
vened at the Denver office on December 1 
for a final review of the plans and speci- 
fications. The board gave its approval 
to the plans and specifications for the 
diversion works and other features which 
must be completed during the early stages 
of construction. 



A representative of the United States 
Bureau of Public Roads, after making an 
inspection of the highway situation, has 
announced that the Nevada State high- 
way department would immediately award 
a contract for the first 10 miles of high- 
way from Las Vegas to Boulder City. 



The United States employment service 
of the Department of Labor has estab- 
lished a public employment service on the 
Boulder Canyon project, with an office 
at Las Vegas, Nev. Mr. Leonard L. 
Blood is superintendent in charge. This 
office will not only direct men to employ- 
ment, but will supply the country with 
information concerning progress of work 
on the project and the demand for 
workmen. 



There will be a combined meeting of the 
Hoover Dam consulting board and the 
concrete research board at Las Vegas, 
Nev., on January 12 to consider concrete 
problems in connection with construction 
of the dam and appurtenant works. 
After the Las Vegas meeting the two 
boards will convene in Denver for further 
deliberations. The consulting engineers 
are Andrew J. Wiley, Louis C. Hill, and 
David C. Henny. On the board of con- 
crete specialists are P. H. Bates, United 
States Bureau of Standards; Prof. Ray- 
mond E. Davis, University of California; 
Prof. Herbert J. Gilkey, University of 
Colorado; Franklin R. McMillan, Port- 
land Cement Association, Chicago, 111.; 
and Prof. William K. Hatt, Purdue Uni- 
versity. 



Mr. Burton Lowther has presented his 
report covering a sewerage system for 
Boulder City and plans and specifications 
are being worked up in the Denver office. 



The Southern Sierras Power Co. of 
Riverside, California, now building the 
235-mile transmission line from San 
Bernardino, Calif., to the site of Hoover 
Dam, has ordered 5,000,000 pounds of 
fabricated steel pole line structures for 
the work. This material is to be delivered 
at Torrance, Calif., between December 15 
and March 15. An order was also placed 
for 45,000 suspension type insulator 
units. The power will be delivered at 
2,300 volts, 3-phase, 60 cycles, at a sub- 
station near the dam site. 



Lloyd Irrigation Project 

(Continued from p. 10) 

Sind. The engineers call attention to the 
difficulties that may arise from shoaling 
in the river bed, silting of canals and water- 
logging over large tracts of the irrigated 
area, and say that these problems should 
be kept under scientific observation and 
timely remedies applied. 

The soil of Sind drains with difficulty 
and facilities for drainage are poor or non- 
existent. Within the area affected by the 
barrage scheme the river continues its 
course in a single channel, and there are 
no branches to act as separate outfalls. 
Evaporation is excessive and water as it 
evaporates leaves behind injurious salts 
on the surface. Water logging of the irri- 
gated lands is threatened. In the Punjab 
it has already become a very serious prob- 
lem, owing to the intensity of cultivation. 

Work in progress during the 1930 work- 
ing season included the completion of 27 
of the 39 spans of the barrage, and for this 



purpose a huge cofferdam covering 
acres, the largest ever constructed in India, 
was completed. About 1,900 miles of 
canals out of a total length of 5,900 miles 
had been finished on January 1, 1930. It 
is now estimated that the cost of the entire 
project will be about $90,000,000, includ- 
ing interest. 



Hoover Dam Contract 
Interests Contractors 

Among the many firms of general con- 
tractors who are looking into the "big 
job" at Black Canyon are the following: 
Winston Bros., Minneapolis, Minn.; At- 
kinson-Spicer Co., Los Angeles, Calif.: 
Utah Construction Co., Ogden, Utah; 
The Arundel Corporation, Baltimore, 
Md.; General Construction Co., Seattle, 
Wash.; Merritt, Chapman & Scott, New 
York City; The Foundation Co., New 
York City; Bates & Rogers Construction 
Co., Chicago, 111.; Rosoff Subway Con- 
struction Co., New York City; McDonald 
& Kahn (Inc.), Los Angeles, Calif.; 
The Carleton Co. (Inc.), New York 
City; A. Guthrie & Co., Portland, Oreg.; 
T. E. Connolly, San Francisco, Calif.; 
J. F. Shea Co., Portland, Oreg.; Mittry 
Bros. Construction Co., Los Angeles, 
Calif.; Bent Bros., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Secondary Projects 

The All-American Canal report by H. J. 
Gault is scheduled for completion early 
in January. The report on the Upper 
Gila River investigations, Arizona-New 
Mexico, by O. C. Smith, was received in 
the Washington office on November 18. 
On the Salt Lake Basin project, Utah, 
investigations are being made in the Ogden 
River and Provo River divisions. A 
land classification and economic report 
of the Moon Lake area will probably be 
completed early in January. Field work 
has been terminated on the central Cali- 
fornia water resources investigations and 
the report is being prepared in the 
Washington office by C. A. Bissell. Some 
work is being done in the Denver office on 
the determination of effect on water 
supply for the Rio Grande project through 
the operations of the Middle Rio Grande 
conservancy district. Under a copoera- 
tive agreement with the State of Wyoming 
a land classification and economic report 
of the Greybull district has been made 
by W. W. Johnston, and an engineering 
investigation of water supply and geolog- 
ical examination of the Greybull River 
reservoir site have also been made. Field 
work on the Saratoga project, Wyoming, 
is finished and preparation of the report 
in the Denver office is nearing completion. 



12 



NEW RECLAMATION KK\ 



Jiimmry. [!i:)1 



Articles on Irrigation and Related Subjects 



Wilbur, Ka> L\ man ^tatem. 

Kurds l.i In- ask, d for Moulder (.Hoover) 
Dj'in of COIIKI-CSS. I'. S. Dail\, NOV. 

1 i, u>:;o, \..i. 5, p. _' ip 2818] 

Mead. I'M \\ood: 

Hoover Dam. The Boulder Canvnti 
project; it colossal enterprise, illus. 
({.print from Civil Knuineerinn fto 

October, 1930, 8pp. 

No ,-ar will ever park at the curb in 
this town iBonlder Cit> ), American 
City, December, 1930, vol. i:i, p. S9. 
lloiix rr l>:iln : 

From "Boulder" to "Hoover" Dam. 
Western Construction News, N<>\ . 
10, 1930, vol. 5, p. 550. 

Financial plan for Hoover Dam now 
completed. U. S. Daily, Nov. 17, 
1930, vol. 5, p. 8 (p. 2848). 

Hoover Dam project to be built under 
a Mii.nle contract. Southwest Builder 
and Contractor, Nov. 14, 1930, vol. 
76, p. 40. 

Specilieations covering construction of 
Hoover Dam will be ready soon, 
r. S. Daily, Nov. 18, vol. 5, p. 13 
(p. 2865). 

Public employment service for Boulder 
(Hoover) Dam. Eng. News-Record, 
Dec. 4, 1930, vol. 105, p. 898. 

Comptroller General warns against re- 
strictive clauses. Eng. News-Record, 
Dec. 4, 1930, vol. 105, p. 901. 

Railroad pushing work on branch line 
to base of Boulder (Hoover) Dam 
operations, illus. U. S. Daily, Nov. 
21, 1930, vol. 5, p. 8 (p. 2900). 

Hoover Dam bids will be open March 
1st, illus. Western Highways, Nov. 
1930, vol. 12, p. 32. 

Surplus of labor at Hoover Dam. U. S. 
Daily, Dec. 5, 1930, vol. 5, pp. 1 and 

2 (p. 3035-3036). 

Branch railroad to Boulder Canyon 
project, Nevada, illus. Western 
Construction News, Nov. 25, 1930, 
vol. 5, pp. 47-48. 

Bids for Boulder (Hoover) Dam ex- 
pected to be called for by December 
1. Eng. News-Record, Nov. 13, 
1930, vol. 105, p. 785. 
Davis, A. P.: 

Flood Control and the River Po, Italy, 
discussion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, 
vol. 94, pp. 208-212. 
Field, John E.: 

Evaluation of water rights, with dis- 
cussion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930. 
vol. 94, pp. 247-294. 
Baldwin, G. Clyde.: 

Transmission and delivery of reservoir 
water. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, 
vol. 94, pp. 296-300. 



Ihall, Kdward: 

Administration of stream (low. Trims. 
A S. C. M., 1930. vol. 94, pp. 301- 
308. 
Bacon, ( leo. M.: 

Present tendencies in water adminis- 
Iralion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, 
vol. 94, pp. 309-312. 
Hinderlider, M. C,: 

Administrative water problems, dis- 
cussion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930. 
vol. 04, pp. 313-316. 
Meeker, R. I.: 

Administrative water problems, dis- 
cussion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, 
vol. 94, pp. 316-318. 
Cnmdall, Lynn: 

Administrative water problems dis- 
cussion. Trans. A. 8. C. E., 1930. 
vol. 94, pp. 318-321. 
Follansbee, Robert: 

Transmountain diversions in Colorado. 
Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94, 
pp. 359-367. 
Fellows, A. Lincoln: 

Transmountain water diversions 
from Colorado map. Discussion. 
Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930 vol. 94, 
pp. 368-370. 
Jakobsen, B. F.: 

Transmountain water diversions from 
Colorado River. Discussion. Trans. 
A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94. pp. 370-372. 
Entenman, Paul M.: 

Transmountain water diversions from 
Colorado River. Trans. A. S. C. E., 
1930, vol. 94, pp. 372-374. 
Newell, Thos. R.: 

Administrative water problems, discus- 
sion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 
94, pp. 321-324. 
Debler, E. B.: 

Administrative water problems, discus- 
sion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 
94, p. 324. 
Baldwin, G. Clyde: 

Administrative water problems, discus- 
sion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 
94, pp. 324-325. 
Willis, R. H.: 

Return water, North Platte River, 
Nebr. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 
94, pp. 328-332. 
Murphy, D. W.: 

Drainage recovery from irrigation. 
Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94, pp. 
333-337. 
Meeker, R. I.: 

Return water from irrigation, discus- 
sion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 
94, pp. 338-341. 
Tibbetts, Fred H.: 

Return water from irrigation. Trans. 
A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94, pp. 341-344. 



Associated General Contractors: 

Special contracts on Hoover Dam work 
are asked by A. G. C. The Con- 
structor, Nov., 1930, vol. 12, p. 52. 
Whitsett, W. P.: 

The metropolitan water district of 
Southern California. Western City, 
Nov., 1930, vol. 6, pp. 21-23. 
Honk, Ivan E.: 

Evaporation from soils, discussion. 
Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94, 
pp. 982-995. 

Silt transportation, Colorado River and 
Sacramento) and Fort Laramic Canal, 
illus., -discussion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 
1930, vol. 94, pp. 1144-1150. 
Use of water on Federal irrigation 
projects, discussion. Trans. A. S. 
C. E., 1930, vol. 94, pp. 1229-1234. 
Water supply from rainfall, discussion. 
Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94, 
pp. 1285 1290. 
Westergaard, H. M.: 

Elastic stability in structures, discus- 
sion. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 
94, pp. 1021-1025. 
Grunsky, C. E.: 

Silt transportation by Sacramento and 
Colorado Rivers, illus. Trans. A. S. 
C. E., 1930, vol. 94, pp. 1104-1161. 
Debler, E. B.: 

Use of water on Federal irrigation proj- 
ects. Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 
94, pp. 1195-1241. 
DeBoer, S. R.: 

Planning of capital cities, Denver, Colo. 
Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94, pp. 

1312-1332. 
Campbell, Thos. E.: 

Government described as largest em- 
ployer of engineers in world. Im- 
portance of Hoover Dam. 3,500 
engineers in Federal service. U. S. 
Daily, Nov. 20, 1930, vol. 5, p. 3 
(p. 2881). 
Harding, S. T., chairman: 

Consumptive use of water in irrigation. 
Trans. A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94, pp. 
1349-1399. 
Hinderlider, M. C., chairman: 

Interstate water matters, Colorado, Rio 
Grande, and other rivers. Trans. 
A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94, pp. 1400- 
1424. 
Means, Thos. H., chairman: 

Drainage of irrigated lands. Trans. 
A. S. C. E., 1930, vol. 94, pp. 1425- 
1449. 
Bacon, George M. (statement) : 

Control of nonnavigable streams to be 
considered by State engineers. U. S. 
Daily, Nov. 14, 1930, vol. 5, p. 9 
(p. 2824). 



January, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



13 



Hyatt, Edward, president: 

National policy viewed as need in flood 
control. Asso. of Western State En- 
gineers seeks earlier publication of 
Geological Survey data. U. S. Daily, 
Nov. 21, 1930, vol. 5, p. 2 (p. 2894). 
Weymouth, F. E.: 

Engineer favors Parker route for Colo- 
rado River Aqueduct, with table of 
comparative data. Southwest Build- 
er and Contractor, Nov. 21, 1930, 
vol. 76, pp. 43-44-46. 

Parker route recommended for the 
Colorado River Aqueduct, map. 
Eng. News-Record, Nov. 27, 1930, 
vol. 105, pp. 854-856. 
Knapp, Geo. S., chairman: 

Engineers urge Government aid in flood 



control. Denver conference, Asso- 
ciation of Western State Engineers. 
U. S. Daily, Nov. 25, 1930, vol. 5, p. 
11 (p. 2939). 

Sutherland, R. A.: 

Some aspects of water conservation, 
illus., Proc. A. S. C. E., Sept., 1930, 
vol. 56, pp. 1505-1545. 

Holmes, J. D.: 

Middle Rio Grande conservancy dis- 
trict, New Mexico, illus. Western 
Construction News, Nov. 25, 1930, 
vol. 5, pp. 566-568. 

Taylor, P. I.: 

Many former Reclamation Service 
engineers in California. Southwest 
Builder and Contractor, Nov. 28, 
1930, vol. 76, pp. 47-48. 



Wegmann, M.: 

Increasing foundation pressures (Hoover 
Dam), letter. Civil Engineering, 
Dec., 1930, vol. 1, pp. 205-206. 

Weiss, Andrew: 

Don Martin project, Mexico outline, 
Civil Engineering, Dec., 1930, vol. 
1, p. 217. 

Mclntire, M. M.: 

A gas-electric ditch cleaner (Imperial 
Valley), illus. Engineering and Con- 
tractor, Oct., 1930, vol. 69, pp. 
381-382. 

Wiley, A. J.: 

The cofferdam in Boulder Canyon (let- 
ter). Civil Engineering, Dec., 1930, 
vol. 1, p. 204. 




14 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



January, 1031 



I By H. A BROWN. Director of Reclamation Economics 




Settlement Results and Recommendations for Future, Lower Yellowstone 

Project, Montana-North Dakota 



PRELIMINARY WORK 

ONE of the provisions in the irriga- 
tion district contracts of 1926 was 
that at least 8,000 acres be placed under 
option of sale by the Government, upon 
terms and at prices satisfactory to the 
Secretary. Options were obtained in 1926 
on 77 farms. Material had been prepared 
for a booklet describing the opportunities 
for farm ownership on the project and 
listing the farms under option, giving a 
brief description of the improvements and 
the purchase price of each. This booklet 
was issued early in 1927. 

In order to enlist the support of the 
various interested agencies and to coordi- 
nate the efforts of each, an organization 
known as the Lower Yellowstone Devel- 
opment Association was formed for the 
purpose of promoting settlement. F. L. 
Cooper, colonization field man, who was 
engaged to canvass the irrigated sections 
of Northern Colorado, spent several 
mouths on this work. Following are 
some extracts from his report: 

"After a trip to the Lower Yellowstone 
Valley in February, 1927, I was employed 
to do the field work for the Lower Yellow- 
stone Development Association. The 
work was to be carried on under the 
direction of H. E. Meisenbach, of Sidney, 
Mont., the secretary of the association. 

"The initial work was to be follow-up 
work by farm visits to prospects that had 
answered advertisements being carried 
in several farm papers throughout the 
country. These advertisements were be- 
ing carried by both the Northern Pacific 
and Great Northern railroads. The in- 
formation concerning the prospects was 
furnished by the railroads through the 
secretary of the association. A trip was 
made to nearly all of these prospects who 
were located in Colorado. Only a few 
prospects were uncovered in this work. 

"In April I was called to Montana to 
attend a joint meeting of representatives 
of the United States Reclamation Service 
and the Lower Yellowstone Development 
Association. At this meeting it was de- 



cided to carry all advertisements in farm 
papers that had a wide circulation in the 
irrigated districts of Colorado only. The 
papers selected were the Great Divide and 
the Western Farm Life. The field work 
was to consist of farm visits in the irrigated 
districts of Colorado. Work in other 
States was not to be attempted. Govern- 
ment bulletins on the valley were to be 
distributed along with those of the rail- 
roads that gave information relative to 
the project. Reports were to be sent in 
on all prospects interviewed. Reduced 
rates were to be obtained by the railroads 
if possible, so as to encourage the visiting 
of the project by prospects. It was also 
recommended that articles be written for 
the Western Farm Life that could be run 
as news items on the settlement plan of 
the Government. 

"The initial work was necessarily of a 
missionary nature. This was due to the 
fact that no one there had heard of the 
Lower Yellowstone Valley. As it was 
far distant and north they were hard to 
interest. This was particularly true as I 
was trying to interest the best type of 
men; those with some money and who' 
had made good in farming. The fact 
that those with funds were hard to find 
and harder to interest slowed up progress. 
Those without capital were easy to interest 
but not to be considered prospects. Loss 
in past feeding operations and a general 
financial depression in farming circles made 
it difficult to interest those most desired. 
Practically no land had changed hands 
here for some time. The great distance 
from here, the cost of transportation and 
time required for the trip were the biggest 
handicaps. No reduced rates were ob- 
tainable except from Billings to Sidney 
and return. Due to pressure of farm 
work here and the variance in early crop 
progress, it was not considered practical to 
send men up before June 15 to July 15. : 

"There is a large supply of experienced 
farmers here who practice the same sys- 
tem of farming as is recommended for the 
Lower Yellowstone Valley. No great 



exodus can be expected from here at any 
one time, but with one year more of work 
one should have a considerable number of 
farmers going up to the valley each year, 
which will produce a desirable farm popu- 
lation and influence the farm practices of 
the whole territory. This depends upon 
the success of the men who settle there 
first. Their reports and successes will 
influence others whom they know here 
and others to whom we will refer them. 

"I highly recommend that some means 
be found to place buildings on some good 
farms. Some finance scheme which would 
let buildings be put up and be a lien on the 
land to be paid on the same terms as the 
land would be under the Government 
option contract. 

"No one seems to be interested in land 
without buildings. For this reason, I 
recommend that something be done to 
get option on land for rent. Also that a 
building program of some kind be con- 
sidered, if possible. I know of nothing 
better that could be done to assist the work 
of building up the farm population and 
increasing the prosperity of the valley." 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS SEASON OF 1927 

Total of farm visits 1, 240 

Total of prospects turned in 137 

Farmers who were induced to 

visit the valley 10 

Farmers who bought land 3 

Acres purchased 354 

Value of listings in Government 

bulletin $23,400 

Farmers who say they will go 

next year 27 

Possible additional men who 

may go 20 

As a continuation of the work started 
by Mr. Cooper in Colorado, the bureau 
employed a man for about two and one- 
half months in 1928. He made some 
excellent contacts, but succeeded only in 
actually closing with two farmers. 

One of the most encouraging points 
brought out in all of this effort is that 
there are hundreds of first-class farmers 



January, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



15 



who are intensely interest in the Lower 
Yellowstone project, and by constant 
hammering some of them are going to be 
moved sooner or later. 

The following is quoted from an official 
of one of the agencies participating in this 
work : 

"We are all of us, however, convinced 
that is takes some time to incubate in any 
one territory a movement of settlers in 
any considerable proporations to some dis- 
tant agricultural region. At best, people 
move slowly, and, when it comes to mov- 
ing them north, against the current as 
it were, it is still more difficult. The 
work so far has no doubt lodged in the 
minds of many people a desire ultimately 
to come and look over Lower Yellowstone 
and its opportunities. It would seem as 
though we should be on the point of 
crystallizing much of this sentiment into 
action." 

OPERATIONS IN 1929 AND 1930 

The lower Yellowstone Development 
Association had such faith in the prob- 
ability of securing additional settlers that 
arrangements were made to finance a 
representative during parts of 1929 and 
1930. It was during these two years that 
real results were first obtained. By the 
early part of 1930 sixteen Colorado fam- 
ilies had been moved to the project and 
were operating the farms of their choice. 
Eleven families, comprising 55 people, 
came in one caravan, their household 
goods, farm machinery, and livestock 
being shipped by train. These people are 
proving to be excellent farmers and es- 
teemed citizens. A picture on page 100 
of the May, 1930, ERA shows this group 
about to leave Colorado. The accom- 
panying picture shows a settler arriving 
on the project with his household goods 
via truck. His livestock and machinery 
were shipped by rail. 

Several good families were obtained 
from Wyoming and a few from the Middle 
West. Some have not purchased land 
yet, preferring to rent for a year or two 
in order to be certain they are satisfied 
with local conditions, or to improve their 
finances. A few farms were sold to local 
people who had been renting or who re- 
sided on the dry-farmed area adjoining 
the project. 

RESULTS TO DATE 

Of the 79 farms held under option, 27 
have been sold. The original options have 
expired but 17 of the owners of unsold 
farms have renewed. These sales do not 
represent the total results on the project 
as at least 20 farms have been sold which 
were not listed with the Government, and 
the activity put fourth by the bureau and 
the Lower Yellowstone Development As- 
sociation has doubtless been responsible 
for the sale of many of these additional 




Arrival of new settler from Colorado on Lower Yellowstone Project 



farms. It is reasonably certain that 15 or 
20 Colorado families who have inspected 
the land this year will move here before 
the beginning of another crop year. 

DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED 

One of the most insurmountable diffi- 
culties encountered is to induce a settler 
to purchase a farm that is without ade- 
quate buildings and presents a run-down 
and dilapidated appearance. These are 
farms that ought to be sold first, and 
therein lies the failure of all our settle- 
ment work to produce the results most 
needed to put the project on a sound 
basis. 

Then, too, the personal side enters in as 
is illustrated by the following incident 
which happened recently: 

A substantial farmer from the defunct 
Williston project became interested in 
our lands. He was very careful, and the 
superintendent spent two days with him 
looking over available opportunities. 
Finally he decided on a farm that suited 
him and was very enthusiastic about it. 
He returned home with the intention of 
returning a few days later with his wife. 
Instead of a settler, we received a letter 
saying that as he and his wife were about 
to get into the car to come back, the lady 
broke into tears and felt so badly about 
leaving her old home and associations 
that he finally decided to throw up the 
deal. 

This is the same situation we find in 
Colorado. The man can be moved, but 
in many cases the family can not. 

COSTS INCURRED 

The irrigation district contracts au- 
thorize an expenditure of $50,000 for 



economic investigations, colonization, and 
development of lands. To date there has 
been expended about $6,739, which in- 
cludes the cost of preparing and printing 
the booklet. The expense incurred by 
the Development Association is in addi- 
tion to this. 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FUTURE 

The prosperity of the project and its 
ability to meet future repayments de- 
pends on getting all tillable land in a 
state of maximum production. There is 
room for 100 more families and to get 
these will require continued work by 
everyone. This can only be accomplished 
by personal interviews. So far as known, 
not a single settler has been induced to 
locate on the project during the last three 
years by correspondence alone. Num- 
erous inquiries are received through the 
mails, but if it were not a matter of 
courtesy to answer them, they might as 
well be thrown in the waste basket unless 
followed up by something more than 
correspondence. 

Such an excellent foundation has been 
laid in Colorado that it would not be 
good business to let these people forget 
about the Lower Yellowstone. Satisfied 
settlers are the best possible advertise- 
ment, and it is believed that settlers are 
satisfied here. Many calls are received 
from the new settlers for literature to 
send to their friends, which indicates 
that the settlement movement is gaining 
help from within. 

Finding farms with suitable buildings 
or with any buildings at all, is becoming 
increasingly difficult. Congressional ac- 
tion should be taken that would furnish 
(Continued on p. 17) 



16 



M:\\ RECLAMATION EHA 



January, 1931 



Agricultural Credit In France 



\Hiicultural credit in France i-- based 
essentially on three classes of organiza- 
tions: Local hanks, regional hanks, and 
the .National Hank of Agricultural Credit, 
according to mi article in n recent issue of 
the International Review of Agriculture, 
issued by the International Institute of 
Viniculture. Such credit is throughout 
regulated by the principle of the distribu- 
tion of credit by means of agricultural as- 
sociations and eooperatixe societies, which 
are regarded as the bodies most suitable 
for guaranteeing the proper utilization of 
the loans. 

The sole object of the local hanks is to 
fncilitate and guarantee operations relat- 
ing to agricultural production effected by 
members, whether individuals or associa- 
tions. The bank capital is formed by con- 
tributions paid by such individuals or as- 
sociations or debentures assigned by name 
and not transferable except by grant with 
the approval of the hank. Banks can not 



be constituted until one-fourth of the 
owned capital has been paid up; their 
area of operations is limited, including one 
or more communes. These hanks are 
made responsible by law for examining 
the loan applications made by the fanner ; 
with full power of acceptance or refusal, 
and arc- empowered to make loans either 
on short or long terms or of medium 
duration. 

Three types of loans are contemplated 
by the French legislation on the subject: 
Short, medium, and long term. The 
borrowers may he individuals or asso- 
ciations. 

Short-term loans provide the farm with 
working capital for the purchase of seed, 
fertili/er.s, fungicides, etc. The amount 
of these loans is left to the judgment of 
the different local banks. The duration 
varies in general from nine months to one 
year. The rate of interest may also vary 
according to the banks, under a limitation 



which fixes a minimum for this rate 
namely, the rate of interest paid on the 
bank debentures and a maximum, which 
must not exceed by more than 1 per cent 
the rate of the advances made on securi- 
ties by the Hank of France. The guaran- 
tee is constituted by bills, warrants, 
deposit of securities, etc. 

Loans for a medium period are more 
especially intended to render possible for 
agriculturists the operations which, from 
their nature or extent, require a certain 
time of amortization of capital invested. 
Under this heading are included minor 
farm improvements, enlargement or re- 
pair of farm buildings, land improvements, 
purchases of stock or machines, etc. 
Loans under this heading are of consider- 
able social interest, since in this way 
farm workers can obtain the necessary 
capital to farm themselves and to culti- 
vate a small holding. Such loans are 
made for a period of not more than 10 
years. The rate of interest is regulated in 
the same way as that for short-term loans. 




ECHO DAM, SALT LAKE BASIN PROJECT, UTAH 



1. Upstream face of dam; 2. Downstream side of radial gates; 3. Intake to spillway; 4. Outlet basin and spillway channel. 



January, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



17 



Long-term loans to individuals are 
intended to facilitate the purchase, im- 
provement, transformation, or recon- 
stitution of small holdings which the 
borrowers must undertake to cultivate 
themselves or with the help of their 
family. The opportunity is thus afforded 
to the farm worker of becoming owner of a 
small farm large enough to insure him a 
livelihood, and to the cultivator who 
already owns a piece of land to enlarge 
his holding, or to construct on it the neces- 
sary buildings. These loans are also 
used to facilitate the purchase and con- 
struction of houses for farm workers 
with a view to checking the rural exodus 
and relieving the housing situation in the 
rural centers. These loans can not be 
made for a period longer than 25 years, 
their maximum amount is 60,000 francs 
(about $2,400), and the interest is at 
present fixed at 3 per cent for ordinary 
borrowers and at 1 per cent for persons 
in receipt of war pensions. 

Opportunities on Lower 

Yellowstone Project 

(Continued from p. 15) 

aid for the development of the project 
lands by placing buildings and other 
improvements thereon and, if possible, 
authorize loans to worthy settlers to 
handle the situation that ought to be 
taken care of by the Federal Land Banks, 
but which for some reason the banks do 
not fulfill. 

Local effort should not be diminished, 
and the bureau should continue to co- 
operate to the fullest extent with the 
development association. 



THE November livestock feeding on 
the Milk River project, especially 
upon beet tops, was being conducted upon 
a large scale and the stock thus fed was in 
excellent condition and gaining rapidly. 
Sufficient feed on the project to abun- 
dantly supply the stock demand of the 
community was anticipated. 




BUILDERS OF HOOVER DAM 

Left to right: Elwood Mead, Commissioner of Reclamation; R. F. Walter, Chief Engineer, Bureau of Recla- 
mation; Walker R. Young, Construction Engineer, Boulder Canyon Project: John C. Page, Office Engineer, 
Boulder Canyon Project; Ralph Lowry, Principal Assistant to Construction Engineer, Boulder Canyon 
Project. 

Washington Office Christmas Fund Society 



The Reclamation Christmas Fund So- 
ciety was organized about 14 years ago by 
employees of the Washington office of the 
Bureau of Reclamation for the purpose of 
establishing a convenient form of saving 
of a fund with which to make Christmas 
purchases. The fiscal year of the society 
runs from December 1 to November 30. 
Shares are subscribed at the beginning of 
the fiscal year, each share representing an 
amount of $1 per month to be paid into 
the fund. Payments are made semi- 
monthly on each pay day, and the entire 
fund with earnings matures on November 
30 of each year. In addition to the sav- 
ings feature of the society it has another 
important advantage in loaning money to 
its members during the year. Members 
are permitted to borrow approximately 
one and one-half times the amount they 
will pay in during the year, each loan 
being secured by the indorsement of two 
members of the society. Delinquencies 
in payments on shares are penalized 1 cent 
per share per day of delinquency after 
three days of grace. 



Rearrangement of 

Airplane Legends 

On page 231 of the December issue of 
the NEW RECLAMATION ERA the legends 
under the group of airplane and related 
views were incorrectly numbered. It is 
suggested that the following correct list 
be clipped and pasted over the old list in 
personal and reference copies of the ERA: 

1. Hangar at Municipal Airport, El Paso, Rio Grande project. New Mexico-Texas. 2. Yuma's modern airport, Yuma project, Arizona-California. 3. McAllister- 
Flying Service, Yakima, Yakima project, Washington. 4. Swan Island Airport, Portland, Oreg. 5. Denver Municipal Airport, with 7 passenger all-metal " Flamingo" 
plane. 6. Carlsbad Travelair passenger plane, Carlsbad project. New Mexico. 7. Grand Junction Municipal Airport, Grand Valley project, Colorado. 8. Mid-Continent 
Air Express plane operating out of Denver. 



During the year ending November 30, 
1930, the 28 members paid in a total of 
$3,422 in shares. The earnings during 
the year amounted to $93.52, made up of 
interest at 6 per cent on loans to members, 
interest from the bank at 5 per cent on 
savings certificates and at 4 per cent on 
savings balance, and penalties on delin- 
quencies. Earnings amounted to nearly 
6 per cent on payments made to the 
society. The average interest on Christ- 
mas savings accounts in Washington, 
D. C., is approximately 3 per cent. At 
the close of the year $600 was outstanding 
in loans which was wiped out by amounts 
due the borrowers. 

For the fiscal year 1931 the society has 
a substantial increase in membership and 
also a large increase in the number of 
shares subscribed. 

The affairs of the society are adminis- 
tered by a treasurer, which position 
changes hands every few years in order 
to distribute the work. In recognition of 
the work the treasurer is required to per- 
form, a deduction is made of 25 per cent 
from the gross earnings as salary. 
Mrs. Margaret G. Young, Treasurer. 



IS 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



January, 1931 



By Miss MAE A. SCHNURR, Assistant to the Commissioner 




Miss Mac A. Schnurr, assistant to the commissioner, is now in the West in attendance upon the annual meetings of the Washing- 
ton Irrigation Institute at Ellensburg, Wash., December 19-20, 1930, and the Land Reclamation Division, American Society of 
Agricultural Engineers, at San Francisco, Calif., January 6-7, 1931. In Ellensburg Miss Schnurr addressed the meeting on the 
subject West versus East on Federal Reclamation Policy, as given on this page. At the San Francisco meeting Miss Schnurr will 
give an address on the Boulder Canyon Project and its Effect on Future Development, the text of which will be printed in the 
February issue of the ERA. During the course of her trip Miss Schnurr will visit a number of the projects, including Yakima, 
Yiinia, Rio Grande, and Boulder Canyon. 

West Versus East on Federal Reclamation Policy 



RECLAMATION by irrigation has been 
a Federal policy for nearly 29 years. 

The United States Government encour- 
aged and made possible the peopling of 
this wonderful western country of ours by 
giving free land to the hardy pioneers who 
were willing to endure the hardships 
necessary in the early days to wrest a 
living from the land and develop our 
latent agricultural wealth. Of a total of 
1,441,436,000 acres of public land we have 
178,979,000 acres remaining. Of this 
balance, 920,584 acres are in this State. 

Out of the realization that crops could 
not be grown without the artificial applica- 
tion of water, and irrigation works could 
not be financed by individuals or even 
groups of them, was born the idea of 
having the Nation sponsor this colossal 
enterprise of reclamation by irrigation. 

On June 17, 1902, President Roosevelt 
signed the bill that made possible this 
venture by the United States Govern- 
ment. It had the effect of wiping out the 
arid frontier. Development was pro- 
gressively successful and moved over the 
Continental Divide and didn't stop until 
it reached the Pacific Ocean. 

By the building of irrigation works 
1,922,330 acres have been made susceptible 
of irrigation, and when projects under 
construction have been completed that 
acreage will be increased to more than 
3,000,000. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF RECLAMA TION FUND 

The organic act prescribed the setting 
up of a fund the income to which would 
be derived from the sale of public lands; 
later there were added proceeds from 
mineral and oil leases and taxes for power. 
This is a revolving fund. The cost of 
irrigation works is repaid by the water 
users directly benefited, in annual install- 



ments over a period of years. These 
payments are added to the fund and 
are thus spent over and over again for 
irrigation works. 

ACHIEVEMENTS 

Agricultural development brought with 
it transportation facilities until now we 
have a network of railroads all over the 
country making every portion of it readily 
accessible. 

Towns sprang up wherever reclamation 
projects were established and now we have 
214 towns mainly dependent for existence 
on Federal reclamation projects. Wash- 
ington State has 26 towns in this class, 
with a population of 49,000. The City 
of Yakima is the center of 105,000 people 
supported by irrigation. 

To June 30, 1930, the Federal Govern- 
ment spent $196,000,000 for irrigation 
works in the United States. Of this 
$27,435,167.43 was spent in the State of 
Washington. It has two Federal proj- 
ects Okanogan and Yakima. Washing- 
ton's total contribution to the reclamation 
fund to June 30, 1930, from sources set up 
in the reclamation act was $7,416,855.95, 
or about one-fourth the amount spent on 
irrigation works. 

BENEFITS TO THE EAST 

The type of crops grown under irriga- 
tion in many instances can not be grown 
successfully outside of irrigated territory 
in the United States, such as sugar beets 
and long staple cotton. As compared to 
the value of crops grown in the United 
States as a whole, Federal reclamation's 
contribution is only 1.7 per cent of the 
total. 

The taxable property set up by this 
development is approximately $1,000,000,- 
000. Direct return in taxes is made to 



the States and to the National Govern- 
ment as a result of the creation of taxable 
values by Federal reclamation. A pur- 
chasing power is developed that vitally 
affects the East. The factories of the 
East work directly or indirectly for the 
farmers of the West. Mail-order houses 
could not exist without the business that 
comes to them from the rural communi- 
ties and of this business a large share is 
contributed by the Federal reclamation 
projects. 

In spite of this dependency of one on 
the other, the West and the East hold 
diametrically opposed ideas as to the 
value of our Federal reclamation policy 
and any future program as to the undevel- 
oped agricultural resources of the West. 
Those of you who have heard debates of 
the Senate and House of Representatives 
at Washington know that these ideas are 
voiced every time the subject of Federal 
reclamation is presented, particularly 
when it involves the authorization of the 
expenditure of funds. 

In answer to the question whether recla- 
mation should be continued, the Secre- 
tary of the Interior in his last annual 
report emphatically replies "Yes, as long 
as development is carried along sound 
economic lines." This is precisely the 
view of Commissioner Mead, and is the 
yardstick by which the feasibility of any 
proposed project is now measured. 

On the other hand the Secretary of 
Agriculture, a western man with a typi- 
cally eastern view, proclaims there is a 
nation-wide surplus which is being added 
to by the further development of Federal 
reclamation which should therefore be 
curtailed or entirely abandoned as a Fed- 
eral policy. 

It is the eastern view that the western 
resources are national assets and are de- 



January, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



19 



veloped at the expense of the National 
Government. This view is based on no 
foundation of fact. While it is true that 
Federal reclamation projects benefit main- 
ly the States in which they are located, it 
must be remembered that this develop- 
ment is not carried on at the expense of 
the Government or the taxpayers of the 
country. Government projects are only 
aided through not requiring the repay- 
ment of interest on the cost of construction 
works. 

The Bureau of Reclamation is contin- 
ually striving to conceive and adopt poli- 
cies that mean the upbuilding of the 
structure of Federal reclamation, not for 
to-day alone but for posterity. It is only 
by the adoption of far-seeing policies that 
Federal projects can be made assets to any 
community. It is reflected in the condi- 
tion of the banks, business houses, char- 
acter of homes, schools, churches, clubs 
and all cultural development. 

Washington stands first among the 
States in potential water power and is fol- 
lowed by California, Oregon, and New 
York. 

Your water resources are being devel- 
oped in an orderly manner. The waters 
of the Yakima River have made possible 
a wonderful reclamation project, and we 
can justly be proud of it and the new divi- 
sion Kittitas. The people in and around 
Ellensburg can now see. the fruits of their 
labors with the delivery of water for the 
first time last spring to 13,000 acres from 
the new canals. 

We are earnestly endeavoring to get at 
the facts that will show where a start 
might be made that will not only lay the 
foundation for another reclamation pro- 
ject, but one that from present indications 
should be outstandingly successful. 

The experience of the past year has 
shown more than ever the worth of Fed- 
eral reclamation projects. During the 
period of drought these projects stood out 
like oases in the desert. Lands lying out 
of reach of the water supply were parched 
and in vivid contrast to the farms being 
watered by artificial methods. 

The Washington Irrigation Institute 
has a rather enviable record of achieve- 
ment. The well-being of the irrigation 
development in this State reflects some of 
its work of which you can justly be proud. 
The Secretary of the Interior and the 
Commissioner of Reclamation find its 
officials always willing to cooperate in any 
forward movement affecting reclamation 
as a whole or this State in particular. A 
profound sense of appreciation is felt by 
all officials of the Government who con- 
tact your representatives for the spirit of 
cooperation and helpfulness always in 
evidence. 



Those of you who have visited Washing- 
ton have found the open-door policy 
throughout our department. No one is 
inaccessible, from the Secretary of the 
Interior down. This policy, started in the 
administration of Secretary Work, has 
been continued because of its friendliness 
and opportunity for further service. 



PROGRAM OF WASHINGTON IRRIGA- 
TION INSTITUTE 

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1930 
MORNING 

9.30 Registration. 

10.00 Call to order. 

10.05 Address of welcome, Mayor Charles 
Anderson, Ellensburg. 

10.15 Response, Senator W. L. Dimmick, 
Yakima. 

10.25 Annual address, President A. L. B. 
Davias, Ellensburg. 

10.45 Report of treasurer, Guy Finlcy, Yakima. 

10.55 Appointment of resolutions committee. 
Election oT nominations committee. 

11.00 Report of committee on cooperation with 
irrigation experiment station, F. A. 
Norton, chairman, Grandview. 

11.20 DevelopmcLts in Experimental Work at 
Irrigation Experiment Station, Super- 
intendent H. P. Singleton, Prosser. 

11.40 General discussion. 

12.00 Luncheon. 

AFTERNOON 

1.30 Report of committee on reorganization 
and rehabilitation of certain irrigation 
districts, E. F. Benson, thairmar, 
Seattle. 

2.00 General discussion. 

2.30 Why the Sunnyside Project is Asked to 
Purchase More Storage Water, B. E. 
Stoutemyer, district counsel, Bureau 
of Reclamation, Portland. 

3.00 Opening discussion, R. B. Williamson, 
counsel for Sunnyside irrigation dis- 
trict, Yakima. 

6.30 Banquet. Elks Temple. 

What the Rock Island Dam Means in 
Irrigation and Power Davelopment, 
Leslie R. Coffin, manager, Puget Sound 
Power & Light Co., Seattle. 
West versus East on Federal Reclama- 
tion Policy, Miss M. A. Schnurr, as- 
sistant to Commissioner of Reclama- 
tion, Washington, D. C. 
High Lights on the Kittitas Project, F. 
A. Kern, secretary, Kittitas reclama- 
tion district, Ellensburg. 

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1930 
MORNING 

9.30 History and Presei t Status of Columbia 
Basin Project, J. A. Swahvell, president, 
Columbia Basin Irrigation League, 
Seattle. 

9.55 Columbia Basin, II. W. Bashore, engi- 
neer, United States Bureau of Reclama- 
tion, Spokane. 

10.00 The Adjudication and Distribution of 
Water, Charles J. Bartholet, supervisor 
of hydrrulics, Olympia. 

10.30 Additional Water for the Kennewick 
Project, M. M. Moulton, Kenn?wick 

10.40 Status of the Roza Project, H. Lloyd 
Miller, Sunnyside. 

10.50 Irrigation in Western Washington, J. C. 
Scott, Puget Sjund Power & Light 
Co., Seattle. 

11.00 Report of resolutions committee. 
Election of officers. 

12.00 Luncheon. 

AFTERNOON 

1.30 Trip of inspection of irrigation tunnel 

under Yakima River. 
Adjournment. 



A RADIO broadcasting station has 
been installed in Grand Junction, on 
the Grand Valley project, Colorado. This 
station was formerly located in Edgewater, 
Colo. 



Settlement Opportunities on 
Shoshone Project 

On the Willwood division of the Sho- 
shone Federal irrigation project, Wyo- 
ming, only 13 desirable units remain unen- 
tered. Inquiries concerning the settle- 
ment opportunities afforded on this proj- 
ect should be addressed to the Com- 
missioner, Bureau of Reclamation, Wash- 
ington, D. C., or to the Superintendent, 
Shoshone Project, Powell, Wyo. De- 
scriptive literature is available in both 
offices. 



Modern Quarantine Station 
Erected on Yuma Project 

Work was completed the latter part of 
November on the new quarantine inspec- 
tion station and California Highway As- 
sociation guest house immediately across 
the river from the city of Yuma. This is 
a very modern station of Spanish style 
architecture and is to be used as a model 
for other permanent quarantine stations 
to be erected by the California State 
Quarantine Service and State Highway 
Association at various points along the 
eastern boundary of the State. This 
building, which will house State quaran- 
tine and highway officers, has facilities for 
the inspection of 24 cars at a time. This 
inspection service, inaugurated several 
years ago, is for the protection of the 
California agriculturists against the bring- 
ing into that State of pests of all kinds 
such as boll weevil, fruit flies, and different 
diseased fruit of various types. 



THE Montana State Seed Show was 
held at Great Falls November 14-17. 
A booth, fixed up to represent the Sun 
River project, attracted much favorable 
comment. The project received first 
place in rosin rye, first and third in Trebi 
barley, and first in northern beans. The 
project also made a commendable showing 
in alfalfa seed, sweet clover seed, red clover 
seed, seed peas, tame mustard, and pota- 
toes. 



BEET farmers on the North Platte 
project have made a good profit 
this year and are improving their farm 
buildings and equipment. 



DEPRESSED crop prices and a rather 
short water supply on the Boise 
project have not noticeably affected the 
morale of the settlers, as there is contin- 
ued interest in farms to sell and rent. 



20 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



January 1931, 



Reclamation Organization Activities and Project Visitors 



R. F. Walter, chief engineer of the 
Bureau of Reclamation, ami Walker R. 

Young, construction engineer of the 
Boulder Canyon project, were in the 
Washington ollice during the month in 
connect ion with Boulder Canyon project 
matters. 

R. F. Walter, chief engineer, J. L. 
Savage, chief designing engineer, and A. 
J. Wiley and F. L. Ransome, consulting 
engineers, spent part of the month of De- 
cember in the Canal Zone, Panama, on 
consulting work for the Panama Canal in 
connection with construction of the pro- 
posed Madden Dam. 



B. P. Fleming, manager, and L. G. 
Mayfield, president, of the Elephant Butte 
Irrigation District, and Roland Harwell, 
manager, and R. F. Burges, attorney, of 
the El Paso County Water Irrigation Dis- 
trict No. 1, Rio Grande project, were in 
the Washington office during the month 
on project matters. 



W. D. Buchholz, secretary of the Belle 
Fourche Irrigation District, and F. C. 
Youngblutt, project superintendent, were 
in the Washington office during the week 
beginning December 8 in conference with 
officials in regard to the project construc- 
tion repayment rates. Under the existing 
contract the heavy soils and undeveloped 
farms carry burdensome charges and on 
the better farms the rates are compara- 
tively low. More equitable adjustment 
of repayment terms is under consideration. 



W. J. Burke, district counsel, was on 
the Riverton project on November 7 and 
25 and on the Belle Fourche project on 
November 29 and 30 in connection with 
legal matters. 



F. F. Smith, construction engineer on 
the Salt Lake Basin project, was on No- 
vember 22 granted leave without pay for 
a period of three months to accept a 
temporary assignment as consultant for 
the J. G. White Engineering Corporation 
in Mexico. During his absence T. R. 
Smith has been designated acting con- 
struction engineer of the Salt Lake Basin 
project. 



L. M. Lawson, American commissioner, 
and other members of the International 
Water Commission visited the Yuma 
project during the month. 



J. R. Alexander, district counsel at 
Las Vegas, Nrv., visited the Grand 
Valley project on November 25 on matters 
relating to the proposed Orchard Mesa 
repa\ ment contract. 



Charles A. DeKay, engineering drafts- 
man on the Belle Fourche project, was 
transferred on November 5 to the Rio 
(I runcle project. 



At the International Stock Exposition 
at Chicago, November 28 -December 5, 
Keith Jones, a Yakinia project boy, won 
honors as junior champion husbandman 
of the United States, in competition 
against champions from 32 States. Keith 
was qualified for entry in this contest as 
section champion of the Western States, 
when he secured the award of a prize trip 
to the National 4-H club Congress and 
the International Livestock Exposition. 



B. E. Stoutemyer, district counsel, 
visited the Vale project office early in 
November. 



I. E. Houk, engineer in the Denver 
office, attended a meeting in San Francisco 
on November 13 of the committee on mass 
concrete of the American Concrete In- 
stitute. Mr. Houk also attended a 
meeting of the special committee on 
irrigation hydraulics of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, returning to 
Denver on the 18th. 



Porter J. Preston, superintendent of 
the Yakima project, spent a portion of 
the month in an investigation of water 
supply conditions on the Deschutes 
River near Bend, Oregon. 



A. G. Cooke, hydraulic engineer in the 
public works department of the Federated 
Malay States, stationed at Negri Sem- 
bilan, visited the Yakima project the lat- 
ter part of the month in the interest of 
drainage problems and lateral construc- 
tion. 



THREE farms on the Lower Yellow- 
stone project were sold during the 
month by the colonization agent of the 
Lower Yellowstone Development Associa- 
tion. The purchasers were from Colorado. 



H. A. Parker, superintendent of the 
Lower Yellowstone project, and Mrs. 
Parker and son spent the Christmas 
holidays in Maine. En route theystopped 
in Washington and paid a brief call on 
their friends at Reclamation head- 
quarters. 

Fred Foster, representative of the Bu- 
reau of Fisheries of Salt Lake City, 
visited the Carlsbad project the latter 
part of the month for the purpose of 
examining possible hatchery sites. 



G. F. Loughlin, assistant chief geologist 
of the Geological Survey, was in Denver 
on November 10 arranging for a geological 
examination of the Sunshine reservoir in 
Wyoming. 

At the request of the State of California 
J. L. Savage, chief designing engineer of 
the Denver office, was at Los Angeles on 
the Pine Canyon Dam consulting board 
until November 10, when he returned to 
his post of duty. 



Bernard D. Glaha, senior engineering 
draftsman on the Riverton project, and 
Walter A. Sanford, chief of field party at 
Deadwood Dam, were transferred to the 
Owyhee Dam in November. 



W. F. Kemp, engineer on the Riverton 
project, was transferred to the Denver 
office effective November 11. 



H. C. Stetson, engineer in the Denver 
office, was in Cheyenne, Wyo., on Novem- 
ber 10, where he appeared as a witness for 
the Federal grand jury in connection with 
interference on transmission lines on the 
North Platte project. 



L. A. Hauser, C. P. Mahoney, Ed. F. 
Williams, and George W. Scott, a com- 
mittee representing the Palo Verde Irri- 
gation District of California, were in 
Washington during the month for the 
purpose of obtaining from the Govern- 
ment assistance in the matter of flood 
protection for about 80,000 acres of irri- 
gable lands located on the west side of 
the Colorado River. 



J. R. lakisch, engineer, and W. W. 
Johnston, economist, were on the Sho- 
shone project from November 1 to 19, in- 
clusive, conducting investigations of the 
proposed Sunshine reservoir site. 



o 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION FOR THE BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 

RAY LYMAN WILBUR. SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Jos. M. Dixon, First Assistant Secretary; John Edwards, Assistant Secretary; E. C. Flnney, Solicitor of the Interior Department; 
E. K. Burlew, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary and Budget Officer; Northcutt Ely, Executive Assistant 

Washington. D. C. 
El wood Mead, Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



Miss M. A. Schnurr, Assistant to the Commissioner 
W. F. Kuback, Chief Accountant 



P. W. Dent, Assistant Commissioner 

C. A. Bissell, Chief of Engineering Division 

C. N. McCulloch. Chief Clerk 

Denver. Colo., Wilda Building 



Hugh A. Brown, Director of Reclamation Economics 
George 0. Sanford, Assistant Director of Reclamation 
Economics 



R. F. Walter, Chief Eng.; S. O. Harper, Gen. Supt. of Construction; J. L. Savage, Chief Designing Eng.: E. B. Debler, Ilydrographic Eng.; L. N. McClellan, Electrical 
Eng.; C. M. Day, Mechanical Eng.; Armand Offutt, District Counsel; L. R. Smith, Chief Clerk; Harry Caden, Fiscal Agent; C. A. Lyman, Field Representative. 

Projects under construction or operated in whole or -part by the Bureau of Reclamation 



Project 


Office 


Official in charge 


Chief clerk 


Fiscal agent 


District counsel 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 




Yuma, Ariz 


R. M. Priest-. . 


Superintendent . 


J. C. Thrailkill... 


E. M. Philebaum. 
Charles F. Wein- 
kauf. 
C. H. Lillingston. 
E. A. Peek 
F. D. Helm 
Denver office 


R. J. Coffey... 


Berkeley, Calif. 
Do. 

Do. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
E. Paso, Tex. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont.. 
Las Vegas, Nev 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 






Walker R. Young. 

R. C. E. Weber... 
W. J. Chiesman... 
L. J. Foster 
R. J. Newell 
do 


E. R. Mills 


do. .- . 




Orland Calif 




C. H. Lillingston... 
E. A. Peek 


... do. 






-. do. . 


J. R. Alexander. -. 
do 
B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 






.-.do... 


G. H. Bolt... 
W. L. Vernon 


Boise ! 




.. do... 


Boise, Deadwood Dam_. 
Minidoka 2 




-. do... 


C. B. Funk do. _ 




E B Darlington 


do 


G. C. Patterson 


Miss A. J. Larson. 
E. E. Chabot.. 


do. 


Milk River 3 




H. H. Johnson 


. do. 


E. E. Chabot 


Wm. J. Burke 
do 


Sun River, Greenfields. _ 
Lower Yellowstone 
North Platte * 




A W Walker 


do 


H. W. Johnson H W. .Tnhnsnn 


Savage, Mont 
Guernsey, Wyo. 


H. A. Parker 
C. F. Glcason 
L. E. Foster 


do.__ _ 
Supt. of power.. 
Superintendent . 
do 

Reserv. supt 


N. O. Anderson 
A. T. Stimpfig ... 
W. C. Berger 


Denver office 
A. T. Stimpfig 
W. C. Berger 


do... 
do.. 
H. J. S. Devries... 
do 


Carlsbad 


Carlsbad, N. Mex 
El Paso, Tex 




L. R. Fiock 
C L. Tice 


H. H. Berry hill 


H. H. Berryhill... 






Denver office 


B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 
do 

do 


Vale 

Klamath 6 


Vale, Oreg 

Klamath Falls, Oreg.. 
Owvhee, Oreg 
Newell, S. Dak__ 
Coalville Utah 


Chas.C.Ketchum. 
B. E. Hayden 


Superintendent - 
do 


C. M. Voyen... 
N. G. Wheeler.... 
H. N. Bickel 
J. P. Siebeneicher... 
C. F. Williams.. . 


C. M. Voyen 
J. C. Avery 

F P Greene 




F A Banks 


Constr. engr 
Superintendent - 


Belle Fourche __ 


F. C. Youngblutt. 
F. F. Smith 
John S. Moore 
R. B. Williams.... 
H. D. Comstoek.- 
I, H Mitchell 


J. P. Siebeneicher. 
Denver office .. .. 


Wm. J. Burke 
J. R. Alexander... 
B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 




Yakima 8 


Yakima, Wash 


Acting supt 


R. K. Cunningham. 
Ronald E. Rudolphs. 
R. B. Smith 


C. J. Ralston. ... 








do 






Superintendent . 
do 


Denver office 
do 


Wm. J. Burke 
do 






W. F. Sha 

















1 Arrowrock Reservoir, Boise diversion dam, and Black Canyon power plant. 

' Jackson Lake and American Falls Reservoirs, power system and Gooding division. 

3 Malta, Glasgow, and Storage divisions. 

4 Pathfinder and Guernsey Reservoirs, and powers system. 

5 Acting. 

Completed projects or divisions constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation and operated by water-users' organizations 



8 Storage, main, and Tule Lake divisions. 

7 Echo Reservoir. 

' Storage, Tieton, and Sunnyside divisions. 

Reservoir, power plant and Willwood division. 



Project 


Organization 


Office 


Operating official 


Secretary 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 


Salt River 


Salt River Valley, W. U. A 

Orchard Mesa irrig. district... 


Phoenix, Ariz... 
Grand Junction. 
Boise, Idaho 
King Hill, Idaho. 


C. C. Cragin 


Gen. supt. and chief engr. 
Superintendent 


F. C. Henshaw 


Phoenix, Ariz. 
Grand Junction. 
Boise, Idaho. 
Glenns Ferry. 
Rupert, Idaho. 
Burley, Idaho. 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
Do. 
Harlem, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont. 
Do. 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr. 

Gering, Nebr. 
Torrington, 
Wyo. 
Bridgeport, 
Nebr. 
Fallon, Nev. 

Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg. 
Bonanza, Oreg. 
Do. 
Payson, Utah. 
Okanogan,Wash. 

Powell, Wyo. 
Deaver, Wyo. 


Grand Valley, Orchard Mesa__ 


C. W. Tharpe 
Wm. C. Tuller.... 
F L Kinkade 


H. O. Lambeth.. .. 


Project manager 


F. J. Hanagan.. ... 


King Hill 




Manager 


Chas. Stout 






R L Willis 


do 


W. C. Trathen... 










do 


Geo. W. Lyle. 








E E Lewis 


Superintendent 


H. S. Elliott 


Milk River, Chinook division- 
Do 


Alfalfa Valley irrig. district 


Chinook, Mont- 
do 






R. H. Clarkson .. 


H. B. Bonebright. 
Thos. M. Everett. 
R. E. Musgrove 


do 


L. V. Bogy 
Geo. H. Tout 


Do 


Harlem irrigation district 
Paradise Valley irrig. district.. 




do 


Do 




...do.... 


J. F. Sharpless 
II. M. Montgomery. 
H. W. Genger 


Do 




John W. Archer 


do 


Sun River, Fort Shaw division- 
North Platte: 


Fort Shaw irrigation district -. 

Pathfinder irrigation district,, 

Gering-Fort Laramie irrig. dist. 
Goshen irrigation district 

Northport irrigation district... 
Truckee-Carson irrig. district- 


Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr.. 

Goring, Nebr 
Torrington, Wis. 

Northport, Nebr 
Fallon, Nev 


H. W. Genger 
T. W. Parry 




Manager 


Mary McKay Kin- 
ney. 
C. G. Klingman 
Mrs. Nelle Armi- 
tage. 
Mrs. M. J. Thomp- 
son. 
L. V. Finger 

W. J. Warner 




W. O. Fleenor... 
A. B. Reeves 


do.. 
do 


Do 




D R Dean 


do. .. 




D. S. Stuver 


Project manager 
do 


Umatilla: 


Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg 
Bonanza, Oreg-. 
do 


E D Martin 




West Extension irrig. district.. 


A. C. Houghton. . 


Secretary and manager.. 
Manager 


A. C. Houghton 
R. S. Hopkins 




R. S.Hopkins... 


Do 






Wm. F. B. Chase... 


Strawberry Valley _ . 


Strawberry W. U. A 


Provo, Utah 
Okanogan,Wask_ 

Powell, Wyo 
Deaver, Wyo. . . 


Lee R. Taylor 
J. C. Iddings 

Frank Roach 
Sydney I. Hooker- 


President and manager.. 
Superintendent 


E. G. Breeze 
Nelson D. Thorp... 

Geo. W. Atkins... 
Edw. T. Hill 






S nosh one: 
Garland division 


Shoshone irrigation district 
Deaver irrigation district 


Irrigation superintendent 
... do 









1 Boise, Kuna, Nampa Meridian, Wilder, New York, Big Bend, and Black Canyon irrigation districts. 

Important investigations in progress 



Project 


Office 


In charge of 


Cooperative agency 




Denver, Colo 


H. J. Gault... 


Imperial and Coachella districts. 






W. R. Young and C. A. Bissell 


State of California. 




Salt Lake City Utah 


E.O.Larson.. 


State of Utah. 






H. W. Bashore -- - 
















4 




rvo . 



Decs. 

rf. 



Public Library 
Kansas City, 




RECLAMATION ERA 



VOL. 22. NO. 2 




FEBRUARY, 1931 




#' * 

&> 



Brock and Weymouth 

AIR VIEW OF HOOVER DAM AND RELATED WORKS AS THEY WILL APPEAR WHEN COMPLETED 



Secretary Wilbur says . 



GREATEST ENGINEERING JOB 
ahead of this department is the construction of Hoover Dam in the Colorado 
River. This structure will raise the water level 582 feet, generate 
1 ,200,000 horsepower of electricity, cost, with its power plant, over 
$100,000,000, and will pay for itself by its own falling Water. The 
result will be flood protection to Arizona and California lands, reclama- 
tion of deserts, improvement of navigation, and the bringing of needed 
Water for domestic supply to the coastal plain of Southern California. 
Power sale contracts were successfully negotiated which will reimburse 
the United States for the cost of the dam and power plant if the rates set 
in these contracts continue to be maintained when the readjustment 
periods prescribed by the law are reached. 

Next to the control of the Mississippi, this is the greatest attempt at 
solution of a whole region s water problem that the country has before 
it. The necessity for flood control and the thirst for water have made it 
necessary and possible to erect this structure in the middle of a desert, 
transport its power 250 miles, and sell it over an oil and gas field in order 
that the falling waters of the Colorado may earn the cost of their own 
capture. The engineering is in the hands of an organization which has 
built over 100 of the world's great dams without a failure. They will 
successfully divert the river through four great tunnels, each 50 feet in 
diameter, together capable of carrying the Mississippi's flow at St. 
Louis; will build this dam, and will go on to other big jobs for this Nation, 
all in their stride. It will be a monument to the engineering genius of 
many men, headed by Dr. Elwood Mead, Raymond F. Walter, John L. 
Savage, Walter R. Young, and their predecessors, Arthur P. Davis 
and Frank E. Weymouth. 

Extract from the Annual Report 

of the Secretary of the Interior 

for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1930. 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 

Issued monthly by the DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C. 

Price 75 cents a year 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR 
Secretary of the Interior 



Vol. 22, No. 2 




ELWOOD MEAD 
Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



FEBRUARY, 1931 



Interesting High Lights on the Federal Reclamation Projects 



/^COLONIZATION work on the Lower 
y i Yellowstone project is being con- 
tinued by the Lower Yellowstone Devel- 
opment Association, several prospective 
settlers having been shown over the project 
during the month. 



OHIPMENTS of dressed turkeys from 
kj the Orland project for the Christmas 
trade were active during the holidays. 
Nine cars were shipped by rail and one 
produce house forwarded 63,000 pounds 
bv truck. 



EARLY in the month a general meeting 
of water users on the Sun River proj- 
ect was held in Fairfield for the purpose of 
informing the settlers of work accomplished 
during the year, financial condition of the 
irrigation district, and plans for the coming 
year. The meeting was well attended and 
much constructive interest was shown in 
all matters pertaining to the welfare of the 
project. 



^ I A HE new radio broadcasting station 
X on the Grand Valley project started 
operating the latter part of the month. 



MORE extensive feeding to livestock 
of beet pulp on the Belle Fourche 
project is very noticeable, and dairymen 
generally are coming to realize the value 
of this pulp in rations that include hay, 
molasses, and grain. 



THE sugar beet campaigns have been 
completed on the North Platte proj- 
ect with the exception of the factories at 
Torrington, Wyo., and Gering, Nebr. 
Final figures for the project place the 
average yield at 14.5 tons, and the total 
payments for beets at"$4,024,000. 

THE Great Western Sugar Co.'s fac- 
tory at Lovell, Shoshone project, 
closed a very successful campaign on 
December 31. 

3364631 1 



THE Minidoka project reports the sale 
of rural property during the month as 
follows: One 40-acre farm 2 miles south- 
east of Rupert at $4,000; one 80-acre farm 
near Uie Paul sugar factory at $10,000; 
one 10-acre farm 1% miles south of Burley 
at $6,000; one 40-acre farm 4 miles south 
of Rupert at $4,200; a highly improved 
farm of 50 acres \% miles northwest of 
Rupert at $10,000. 



This Era Features 
Boulder Canyon Project 

It seems especially appropriate 
that, following the calling for bids for 
the construction of Hoover Dam and 
appurtenant works on the Boulder 
Canyon project, more space should be 
given in this issue of the New Reclama- 
tion Era to this great work which will 
have such an important bearing on the 
economic and industrial development 
of the Southwest. Our readers will 
accordingly find this issue of the Era 
devoted largely to the Boulder Canyon 
project, bringing up to date various 
aspects of the work from the legal, 
engineering, economic, and accounting 
viewpoints, with a resume of the whole 
in Doctor Mead's address before the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Each subsequent issue of the Era 
will carry current information of 
general interest concerning the progress 
of construction on the project works. 



DURING November the Mini-Cassia 
Dairymen's Association on the Min- 
idoka project purchased 40,461 pounds of 
milk butterfat at 39 cents a pound, and 
17,588 pounds of cream butterfat at 32 
cents, a total of $21,408. About 64 per 
cent of the butterfat was marketed at 
Burley and the remainder at Rupert. 



A LARGE number of inquiries con- 
cerning settlement opportunities on 
the Riverton project were received at the 
project office during the month 



ON the Lower Yellowstone project 
the completion of the advance crop 
report showed an excellent condition. 
About 28,681 acres were irrigated, pro- 
ducing crops valued at $957,756, or 
$33.39 per acre. An additional 6,268 
acres were dry-farmed, producing crops 
valued at $28,106, or $4.48 per acre. 
The total crop value was $958,862. This 
is the largest gross value ever produced 
on the project. The outstanding crops 
were: Sugar beets, $86.92 per acre; 
beans, $24.58 per acre; and alfalfa, 
$17.04 per acre. 

THE efforts of the Malta agencies to 
secure settlement of the Milk River 
project continued. Three additional 2- 
year options were obtained to farms em- 
bodying fair prices and very reasonable 
terms of payment. A number of applica- 
tions from dry farmers for project farms 
have been received and it is expected that 
several more will be located before spring. 



THE erection of a new school building 
on the Shoshone project is anticipated, 
the building to comprise a gymnasium, 
junior high school, and agricultural and 
farm shop at a total approximate cost of 
$70,000. 

THE annual meeting of the Phillips 
County Farm Bureau on the Milk 
River project was held and officers for 
1931 elected. This organization indorsed 
the plan of the Malta Irrigation District 
and Commercial Club in attempting to 
settle the project with good bench-land 
farmers who had contemplated leaving 
the country. 



MEETINGS of stockmen on the Sun 
River project were held at which it 
was proposed to form organizations of 
water users to lease all available pasture 
lands from the United States and admin- 
ister them for the benefit of the local water 
users. 

21 



22 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February. 1931 



Hoover Dam, the World's Largest Irrigation Structure 

Address by Dr. Eltcood Mead. Commissioner. Bureau of Reclamation, before the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge. Mass , January 9, 1931 



' I ^HE first impression of the Boulder 
J. Canyon project is size. About every 
dimension is a superlative. The dam 
will be 730 feet high, nearly twice the 
height of any dam yet built. It will be 
650 feet thick at the base. The All 
American Canal, which will carry the 
stored water to irrigators in Imperial 
Valley will be 200 feet wide, 22 feet deep, 
and carry 15,000 cubic feet of water per 
second. This canal has to pass through 
a windswept ridge of shifting sand where 
the excavation will be more than 200 feet 
deep. The aqueduct that is to carry 
water to Los Angeles and surrounding 
cities will be over 200 miles long, and will 
carry 1,500 cubic feet of water per second, 
which will have to be lifted 1,200 feet 
in order to cross the Sierra Divide. It 
will cost over $200,000,000. 

GREATEST ARTIFICIAL RESERVOIR 

The lake above the dam will be 115 
miles long, 582 feet deep, and will hold 
30,500,000 acre-feet of water, enough to 
cover the State of New York to the depth 
of one foot. It will be the largest arti- 
ficial reservoir in the world, more than 1 1 
times the capacity of the Elephant Butte 
Reservoir in New Mexico, and 12 times 
that of Assuan in Egypt. 

These structures are given heroic pro- 
portions because a turbulent river has to 
be controlled and because the water needs 
of the Southwest are great and urgent. 
The reservoir must be large enough to 
hold the greatest flood. The flow below 
the dam must be regulated. No floods 
to break the levees and menace the homes, 
but always water enough to irrigate 
2,000,000 acres of land and meet the re- 
quirements of many millions in cities. 
This dam is the basis of a civilization 
under which unnumbered generations will 
live. With it there is no known limit to 
growth and wealth, without it people 
must be notified to go elsewhere; the 
latter to Los Angeles is unthinkable. 

Into this reservoir there will be dropped 
each year 100,000 acre-feet of mud. It 
has been made large enough to hold this 
deposit for two centuries without inter- 
ference with its capacity as a regulator. 

It is an enterprise which carries a chal- 
lenge to the engineer, no matter where he 
lives. The specifications just issued have 
therefore been awaited with intense in- 
terest by both the profession and by con- 
tractors. The manner in which they 
deal with the obstacles of climate, of 
location, of size and stresses, were an acid 
test of the ability of the Reclamation 
Bureau to carry out monumental under- 
takings in its field. One verdict has been 



rendered. It is a statement in the Engi- 
neering News-Record of December 25, 
which says: "It is the most advanced, 
the boldest and most thoroughly studied 
hydraulic enterprise in engineering his- 
tory." Let me quote further from the 
News editorial: "With 5,000,000 cubic 
yards of concrete, 30,000 tons of structural 
steel, and over 70 miles of grouting holes, 
with rock tunnels ranging from 50 to 70 
feet in diameter, and 2,000 tons of needle 
valves, the structure that is to be set in 
the path of the turbulent Colorado in a 
sheer walled narrow gorge at the bottom 
of an inaccessible desert canyon in the 
remotest region of the United States con- 
stitutes a work ranking with the greatest 
ever attempted by human hands." The 
designing engineer is known to his asso- 
ciates as Jack Savage. He has in suc- 
cession designed the four highest dams in 
the world; Hoover Dam is simply another 
step in his progress. 

The canyon walls at the water level of 
the river are only 300 feet apart. The 
velocity of the river's flow through this 
bottleneck is about 20 feet a second. The 
upper cofferdam which turns the river 
into the tunnels will be 80 feet high, and 
when the river is diverted 7,000,000 
cubic yards of mud and gravel will have 
to be taken out of the space between the 
two coffers to uncover the rock on which 
the dam will rest. 

INTENSE HEAT TO BE OVERCOME 

This project, like Panama, has a climate. 
The summer wind which sweeps over the 
gorge from the desert feels like a blast 
from a furnace. How to overcome this 
and provide for the health of workers has 
had much attention. At the rim of the 
gorge, where much of the work must be 
done, there is neither soil, grass, nor trees. 
The sun beats down on a broken surface 
of lava rocks. At midday they can not 
be touched with the naked hand. It is 
bad enough as a place for men at work. 
It is no place for a boarding house or a 
sleeping porch. Comfortable living condi- 
tions had to be found elsewhere, and these 
are found on the summit of the Divide, 
5 miles from the dam. Here there is 
fertile soil; here winds have an unimpeded 
sweep from every direction; here there 
is also an inspiring view of deserts and 
lonely gorges and lofty mountain peaks. 
When the dam is completed and a mar- 
velous lake fills the foreground, the view 
from Boulder City will be so inspiring 
and wonderful as to be worth traveling 
around the world to see. The water 
supply for the city has to be brought 
from the river by a vertical pumping lift 



of 2,000 feet. The 10-mile railroad from 
the city to the dam is a marvel of skillful 
location, as is the paved highway which 
connects Boulder City and the dam. It is 
expected that another highway will soon 
be built on the east side of the river to 
connect the dam with Kingman, Ariz. 

POWER TO BE CARRIED 225 MILES 

Power for construction is to be furnished 
by the Southern Sierras Power Co., which 
will carry it 225 miles. This power equip- 
ment will be built for permanent service. 
When the power wheels have been in- 
stalled at the dam, current from them at 
a much higher voltage will be carried on 
this line in the opposite direction. 

WORKERS TO BE HOUSED IN MODEL TOWN 

The town planner of Boulder City is 
S. R. De Boer, who has a high reputation 
as a city planner in the mid- west. The 
houses and offices of the bureau staff have 
been designed by a southern California 
architect and will follow the general lines 
of those in the Panama Canal Zone. Gen- 
erous provision has been made for lawns 
and trees for shade and windbreaks, but 
planting of these will have to wait for the 
spring of 1932. Water for irrigation can 
not be provided early enough in 1931. In 
all, the bureau will spend $2,000,000 
creating comfortable living conditions for 
workers. None of the money will be 
wasted. It means health and vigor of 
workers. The specifications require con- 
tractors to house 80 per cent of their 
workers in the town. It will be adminis- 
tered much like the national parks; it 
will be entirely a Federal city with three 
commissioners, one of whom will be a 
representative of the contractor of the dam. 
Lots for residences and business purposes 
will be leased with rigid restrictions as to 
use. It will be a temperance town. The 
number of stores, shops, and moving-pic- 
ture theaters will be restricted; otherwise 
every business would be overdone. The 
money received from leases will help pay 
operating expenses. 

The heat under which concrete will be 
mixed and put in place, added to its chem- 
ical heat in setting, has led to provisions 
for inserting small pipes in the concrete as 
it is placed which will be filled with a 
freezing mixture. Later on these pipes 
will be filled with concrete. 

CONSTRUCTION COSTS TO BE REPAID 

Let us now consider how the money that 
is to go into this enterprise is to be repaid. 
This had careful attention from Congress. 
The law requires the Secretary of the Inte- 



February, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



23 



rior to enter into contracts which in the 
Secretary's opinion will return all the 
money spent on the dam with 4 per cent 
interest within 50 years, and all the money 
spent on the Ail-American Canal in 40 
years without interest. Contracts ap- 
proved by the Attorney General have been 
made for repayment of the money spent 
on the dam. It will come from the water 
supplied cities and towns, and from power 
already contracted. 

The power plant will generate 660,000 
firm horsepower with an uncertain but 
large amount of seasonal power to be sold 
during the period of high water in the 
river. The price of firm power is 1.63 
mills a kilowatt-hour, and 0.05 of a mill 
for each kilowatt-hour of seasonal power. 
The power and water income from the 
contracts already signed will in 40 years 
bring an income of $373,500,000. Of this, 
the United States will receive $228,260,000 
to repay money advanced, with interest. 
Arizona and Nevada will each receive 
$31,235,000. Operation and maintenance 
will absorb $16,120,000, and there will be 
a surplus of $66,650,000 which will be the 
net profit of the Government for going 
into this enterprise, to be disposed of as 
Congress may hereafter direct. 

OPERATION OF COLORADO RIVER 
COMPACT 

In the Southwest water is gold. These 
great sums of money have caused the 
arid States to recognize the value of 
flowing water. It is giving rise to a 
political and economic struggle over its 
control. States, communities, and in- 
dividuals have a changing conception of 
the nature of property rights in water. 
The first reaction of the upper States to 
this enterprise was to oppose it. They 
said that the Government dam and reser- 
voir would create vested rights that would 
enable users of this water to interfere 
with later development of irrigation on 
the upper part of the river. To overcome 
that objection representatives of each of 
the seven States and of the United States 
met and under the guidance of President 
Hoover, then Secretary of Commerce, 
formed a compact which created a new 
water law for the arid region. The 
compact divides the stream into two 
sections, and allots 7,500,000 acre-feet a 
year to each section; 1,000,000 acre-feet is 
left for subsequent distribution. That 
deals with 16,000,000 acre-feet, which is 
the average annual flow of the river. 
Later on the 7,500,000 acre-feet allocated 
to the lower section was divided between 
Nevada, California, and Arizona, and 
representatives of the four upper States 
are working on a division of their 7,500,000 
acre-feet share. These rights so allocated 
are perpetual. They set aside the doc- 
trine of riparian rights and the doctrine 



of prior appropriation which had hitherto 
governed the division and use of streams. 
Six of the seven States and the United 
States ratified the compact. Arizona has 
not done so, but has brought suit in the 
United States Supreme Court, claiming 
an ownership in the river which if recog- 
nized would make it a dictator over all 
future development. It is not believed 
that this claim will be recognized. 

DAM TO BE COMPLETED IN SIX AND 
ONE-HALF YEARS 

Notwithstanding the suit in the United 
States Supreme Court, work is going 
steadily forward. Congress in 1930 ap- 
propriated $10,660,000 and the present 
appropriation bill carries an additional 
$15,000,000. The contract for the dam 
and tunnels will involve close to $50,000,- 
000 and will be one of the largest ever let 
in this country. The tunnels are to be 
finished in two years, the dam in six and 
one-half years. Considering its magnitude 
it has very few elements of uncertainty for 
the contractor. The Government is to 
buy and furnish cement and structural 
steel; the contractor therefore assumes no 
risk from fluctuations of prices. The four 
tunnels which will carry the river past 
the dam during its construction have 
been so thoroughly prospected by means 
of diamond drill cores that contractors 
know the kind of material to be removed. 
The cofferdam is the one hazardous 
feature of the project. It is to be built 
according to plans provided by the 
Reclamation Bureau, and when so built 
all subsequent hazards of its failure or 
being overtopped by floods are assumed 
by the Government. The power ma- 
chinery is to be provided by the contrac- 
tors for power. Owing to its size it will 
be something of a problem to install it, 
but some of the contractors have for a 
year been studying the situation and 
have already designed their equipment. 
It will have the highest towers of any 
work ever undertaken and the overhead 
cables will lift 30 to 40 tons. 



BUILDING progress in the city of 
Yakima, Yakima project, has been on 
a steady increase for several years, and 
permits issued during 1930 amounted to 
$1,651,215. This figure is $407,670 above 
that for 1929. 

ON the Vale project 127 inquiries 
relative to project lands were re- 
ceived during the month by the represen- 
tative of the Vale-Owyhee Government 
Projects Land Settlement Association. 
Twenty-one interested persons called at 
the representative's office during the 
month, 200 acres were sold, and 2 new 
settlers arrived on the project to establish 
homes. 



Reclamation 

The following statement was approved 
by the land reclamation division of the 
American Society of Agricultural Engi- 
neers at its meeting in San Francisco, 
Calif., January 7, 1931: 

The reclamation of lands for agri- 
cultural production has been and will 
continue to be a vital factor contributing 
to national wealth and stability. The 
urge for such development is chiefly 
economic, thus receiving greatest public 
support during periods of greatest na- 
tional prosperity. This public tendency 
contributed in the past to urgent and 
often hasty preliminary studies of tenta- 
tive projects which later led to unwise 
development, resulting in subsequent 
embarrassment to the projects in meeting 
their financial obligations. 

The land reclamation division of the 
American Society of Agricultural Engi- 
neers believes in the soundness of Federal 
support and supervisory development of 
agricultural areas by reclamation where 
these are economically feasible. We 
desire to direct attention to the necessary 
lapse of time which occurs between the 
inception of a project and the time it 
comes into maximum fruition. This 
period may be as long as 25 years. 

Accordingly we urge that the Federal 
Government maintain and adequately 
support the proper agencies to make and 
develop long-time engineering and eco- 
nomic studies of probable reclamation 
projects in order that such projects as 
may be approved will be undertaken 
at times when their period of development 
may fit into national economic progress. 

The land reclamation division wishes to 
commend the Federal and State Govern- 
ments for their splendid services to 
reclamation development and we pledge 
our support to these agencies in carrying 
out the responsibilities outlined in this 
statement. 



Public Land Opening 

Vale Project, Oregon 

The Secretary of the Interior has 
announced the opening to entry on 
February 9, 1931 of a small tract of 
public land comprising 5 farm units on 
the Bully Creek West Bench Division of 
the Vale Federal irrigation project, 
Oregon. The farm units have an irri- 
gable area ranging from 44 to 72 acres. 

At this opening ex-service men who 
have served in the United States Army or 
Navy in any war will be granted a pref- 
erence right of entry of 90 days. 



24 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February, 1931 



By P. W. DENT, Asst. Commissioner 




Federal Condemnation of State Property 



IN State of Missouri v. Union Electric 
Light A Power Co., 42 Fed. (2d) 692, 
decided July 18, 1930, the Federal District 
Court of Missouri had before it a situation 
which is of interest to the Bureau of Rec- 
lamation, particularly as concerns the 
Federal power to acquire by purchase or 
condemnation property held by one of the 
States and devoted to a public use. In 
many respects, as will be seen, the facts 
are similar to those connected with the 
Boulder Canyon project development. 

The following is taken from the opinion 
of the court dismissing the complainant's 
bill, which was brought by the State of 
Missouri seeking to enjoin the construc- 
tion of a project under the Federal water 
power act: 

This is an action to enjoin the construc- 
tion of a dam across the Osage River, near 
Bagnell, in Miller County, Mo. It is 
alleged by complainants that the object of 
said construction is to secure power for a 
hydroelectric plant, and that said plant is 
to be operated by the defendant Union 
Electric Light & Power Co. solely for the 
purpose of generating electricity for profit. 
Although complainants assert that the 
Osage River and many of its tributaries 
are navigable in fact and in law, yet they 
say that the construction of said dam 
would not serve to promote navigation 
thereon, but would impede same; that the 
size of said dam, as now contemplated, 
would inevitably create an immense reser- 
voir and cause the inundation of vast 
tracts and bodies of land, the submergence 
of many public highways and school dis- 
tricts, and the permanent overflow of the 
village of Linn Creek in Camden County, 
which is now the county seat of said county; 
and that the courthouse and other public 
property situated in said Linn Creek 
would be flooded and rendered useless. 

It is further alleged that said dam is not 
intended as a public improvement and in 
fact would not be for the public interest, 
but is wholly designed as a private enter- 
prise for the generation of electricity to be 
disposed of commercially, and on account 
of the lake formed thereby a condition 
deleterious to the public health would be 
created. 

The defendants, on their part, admit the 
proposed and intended construction of said 
dam . They assert, however, that it would 
be an aid and benefit to navigation. The 
defendants, and particularly the Union 
Electric Light & Power Co., plead the legal 
right]to construct said dam, which, it says, 
is T vestedjby virtue of Federal license proj- 



ect 459, Missouri, granted by the Federal 
Power Commission, pursuant to the pro- 
visions of the Federal water power act of 
June 10, 1920, being chapter 12, title 16 of 
the United States Code (16 U. S. C. A. 
sees. 791-823). The authority of the 
Federal Power Commission, it is asserted, 
arises from clause 3, section 8, of article 1 
of the Constitution of the United States, 
whereby power is vested in the Congress, 
"to regulate commerce with foreign na- 
tions, and among the several States." 

The defendants, and particularly the 
Union Electric Light & Power Co., plead 
compliance with said water power act and 
assert the right not only to construct said 
dam but to acquire by condemnation, if 
necessary, all property of a private or 
public nature, situated within the pro- 
posed reservoir or in any manner affected 
by said project. 

***** 

The evidence, on the part of the com- 
plainants, tended to show that navigation 
on the Osage River and its tributaries had 
been carried on uninterruptedly for many 
years, but that the volume of business had 
been so far reduced that it was practically 
negligible at the present time. Such navi- 
gation was seasonal and dependent in a 
large measure upon the stage of the rivers 
affected, which in turn were largely de- 
pendent upon uncertain rainfalls. 

The evidence was undisputed that the 
dam, as proposed by the defendant Union 
Electric Light & Power Co., would have 
the effect to accumulate a vast body of 
water in a huge reservoir, and that the 
entire region within the valley of the 
Osage River and the valleys of its tribu- 
taries, for a distance of more than 100 
miles, would be overflowed. This would 
result in submerging both public and 
private property, including the courthouse 
and jail in the village of Linn Creek, a 
large number of school districts, and at 
sundry points inundate the public high- 
ways. It was undisputed that Camden 
County would be divided in three parts 
by the lake to be formed, and that each 
part would be rendered inaccessible to the 
other parts. 

It further appeared beyond question 
that a large portion of the more fertile 
bodies of land in Camden County, lying 
along and in close proximity to the Osage 
River and its tributaries would be in- 
undated, so that the county, so far as 
agriculture is concerned, would be per- 
menently deprived of its most valuable 
productive areas. There was evidence 
as to the necessary withdrawal of such 
lands from State and local taxation and 
the serious effect that would follow upon 
the revenues of Camden County. There 



was evidence that insanitary conditions 
would be created by the exposure of large 
areas covered with mud and bog due to the 
recessions of the lake. 

The evidence on the part of the defend- 
ants showed that navigation on the Osage 
and its tributaries had been so greatly 
reduced in recent years that it was now 
negligible. It was admitted that valu- 
able properties, both public and private, 
would be inundated. The testimony of 
the defendants, however, showed that no 
unhealthy conditions would result from 
the construction of said dam and reser- 
voir, but that, on the contrary, the areas 
covered by mud and bog would be greatly 
reduced by reason of said construction. 

The Osage River and its tributaries are 
subject to frequent and extensive over- 
flow in their natural state. Much of the 
area to be taken as part of the proposed 
reservoir is now subject to overflow. 
Following such overflows, deposits are 
left similar to that which would follow the 
withdrawal of waters in the reservoir and 
are far more extensive. 

The evidence, on the part of the defend- 
ants, tended to show that navigation 
would be materially benefited by the 
construction of said dam; that the Osage 
River would be rendered navigable for 
heavy draft boats between Warsaw in 
Benton County and Bagnell in Miller 
County; and that this would comprehend 
a distance of approximately 100 miles and 
would connect with railroad carriers at 
both of these points. 

The evidence was that for many years 
there has not been continuous navigation, 
but that freight was ordinarily taken from 
the river at Bagnell and thereafter 
carried by railroad. There was much 
evidence that the release of water from 
the reservoir would much more evenly 
distribute the flow on the Osage River 
below the dam, and that navigation would 
experience a dependable and adequate 
flow of water. Moreover, the Missouri 
River would be affected somewhat favor- 
ably for navigation at periods of low 
water. 

***** 

1. At the outset the court is concerned 
with the fundamental and jurisdictional 
question as to whether the project is one 
of Federal judicial cognizance. As a 
postulate to a further consideration of 
the case, it must be acknowledged, and 
the parties so concede, that the National 
Government, under the power "to re- 
gulate commerce with foreign nations and 
among the several States," has full and 
complete jurisdiction over all matters 
affecting navigation. (Addyston Pipe & 
Steel Co. v. United States, 175 U. S. 211, \ 



February, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



25 



20 S. Ct. 96, 44 L. Ed. 136; Gibbons t>. 
Ofjden, 9 Wheat. 1, loc. cit. 229, 6 L. Ed. 
23: Alabama Power Co. v. Gulf Power Co. 
(D. C.) 283 F. 606, loc. cit. 613.) More- 
over, this power and authority extends 
just as fully and completely to navigation 
upon the navigable waters wholly within 
a State. 

In Sewell v. Arundel Corporation, 20 F. 
(2d) 503 loc. cit. 504, the Court of Appeals 
for the Fifth Circuit, said: "It is well 
settled that Congress has complete domin- 
ion over the navigable waters of the 
United States, whether wholly within the 
boundaries of a State or otherwise, and 
has authority to undertake and prosecute 
such work as may be thought necessary 
to improve their navigability. This au- 
thority includes the power to obstruct, 
and when Congress gives consent to the 
creation of an obstruction to navigation 
it ceases to be a nuisance and the courts 
are powerless to interfere. (Wisconsin c. 
Duluth, 96 U. S. 379, 24 L. Ed. 668; 
Pennsylvania v. Wheeling & Belmont 
Bridge Co., 18 How. 421, 15 L. Ed. 435.)" 
***** 

Complainants are correct in their con- 
tention that, if the construction and 
maintenance of the dam is for the prime 
and sole purpose of generating electricity 
for commercial purposes, and not for its 
influence upon navigation, then the sub- 
ject matter would not be within the power 
of the Congress or within the jurisdiction 
of this court. (Addyston Pipe & Steel 
Co. v. United States, supra.) 

***** 

8. By section 21 of the water power 
act (16 U. S. C. A. sec. 814) it is expressly 
provided that: "When any licensee can 
not acquire by contract or pledges an 
unimproved dam site or the right to use 
or damage the lands or property of others 
necessary to the construction, mainte- 
nance, or operation of any dam, reservoir, 
diversion structure, or the works appur- 
tenant or accessory thereto, in conjunc- 
tion with an improvement which in the 
judgment of the commission is desirable 
and justified in the public interest for the 
purpose of improving or developing a 
waterway or waterways for the use or 
benefit of interstate or foreign commerce, 
it may acquire the same by the exercise 
of the right of eminent domain in the 
district court of the United States for 
the district in which such land or other 
property may be located, or in the State 
courts. 

The licensee has been granted the power 
to acquire property by the exercise of 
eminent domain in express terms. Con- 
cededly this right may be exercised as 
against private property. 

"Public lands," as used in the act, refers 
only to lands owned by the United States. 
The only question, therefore, that is here 
presented is whether the right of eminent 
domain may be exercised against property 
already dedicated to a public use when 
situated within the proposed reservoir and 
to be affected by the improvement. 

9. While it is well settled that the legis- 
lature may authorize the taking of prop- 
erty already devoted to a public use, it is 
equally well established that a general 
delegation of the power of eminent domain 
does not authorize the taking of property 
already devoted to a public use, "unless 
it can clearly be inferred from the nature 
of the improvements authorized or from the 



impracticability of constructing them with- 
out encroaching upon such property that 
the legislature intended to authorize such a 
taking." (10 R. C. L., sec. 169; Western 
Union Telegraph Co. v. Pennsylvania 
R. R. Co. et al, 195 U. S. 540, 25 S. Ct. 
133, 49 L. Ed. 312, 1 Ann. Cas. 517.) 
In this connection it can not be ques- 
tioned but that Congress had the power 
to confer the right of eminent domain 
upon the defendant Union Electric Light 
& Power Co. (10 R. C. L. sec. 167.) 

In the instant case the Congress must 
have contemplated this identical situa- 
tion; hence the requirement of notice. 
Moreover, the proposed improvements 
could not be accomplished except through 
the exercise, if necessary, of eminent 
domain against property already dedi- 
cated to public use. To deny the right 
of eminent domain as against this public 
property would not only defeat the func- 
tions of the National Government, but 
would run contrary to the obvious intent 
of the Congress as expressed in the water 
power act. (Stockton, Attorney General, 



WATER SUPPLY CONDITIONS 

December was characterized by 
slightly subnormal temperatures and a 
marked deficiency in precipitation. 
In many localities only a negligible 
amount occurred during the month. 

While it is yet early for predictions 
concerning the 1931 water supply, 
with most of the runoff producing 
snowfall normally occurring after 
December 31, the present extremely low 
snow cover on the watersheds indicates 
small runoffs for the ensuing year. 

For reservoirs with concurrent rec- 
ords available, the storage contents on 
December SI, 1930, were 8,819,000 
acre-feet, compared with 4,531,000 
acre-feet for the same date in 1929. 



v. Baltimore & New York R. R. Co. 
(C. C.) 32 F. 9; 20 C. J. sec. 90, P. 602; 
Vermont Hydro-Electric Corporation v. 
Dunn et al., 95 Vt. 144, 112 A. 223, 12 
A. L. R. 1495; Imperial Irrigation Co. v. 
Jayne, 104 Tex. 395, 138 S. W. 575, Ann. 
Cas. 1914B, 322.) 

***** 
12. This court can take no cognizance 
of the enforced removal of the county seat 
of Camden County. The Congress act- 
ing under its power to regulate commerce 
is supreme, and its authority must be 
upheld and executed, even though it 
involves the removal of the county seat 
of Camden County. Even a county seat 
could not endure as an obstruction and 
barrier to the free exercise of govern- 
mental authority. 

***** 

NOTE. The States can not condemn 
Federal property. (Utah Power & Light 
Co. v. United States, 243 U. S. 389), 
but in Nahant v. United States (136 Fed. 
273), and Bedford v. United States (23 



Recently Enacted 
Legislation 



CHINOOK DIVISION MILK RIVER PROJECT 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That the 
act of May 25, 1926 (Forty-fourth Stat- 
utes at Large, page 636), be and the same 
is hereby, amended by adding after sec- 
tion 20 of said act sections 20-A and 
20-B, as follows: 

"SEC. 20-A. There shall be deducted 
from the total cost chargeable to the 
Chinook division of this project the 
following sum : 

"(1) Twenty-one thousand six hundred 
and eighty-four dollars and fifty-eight 
cents, or such amount as represents the 
construction cost as found by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior against the following 
lands: 

"(a) One thousand seven hundred and 
seventy and seventeen one-hundredths 
acres permanently unproductive because 
of nonagricultural character. 

"SEC. 20-B. All payments upon con- 
struction charges shall be suspended 
against the following lands in the Chinook 
division: 

"(a) Twelve thousand six hundred and 
seventeen and sixty-four one-hundredths 
acres temporarily unproductive because of 
heavy soil and seepage; (b) eleven thou- 
sand three hundred and seven acres for 
which no canal system has been con- 
structed, all as shown by the land classi- 
fication of the Chinook division made un- 
der the direction of the Secretary of the 
Interior and approved by him under date 
of January , 1930. The Secretary of the 
Interior, as a condition precedent to the 
allowance of the benefits offered under 
sections 20-A and 20-B, shall require 
each irrigation district within the Chinook 
division to execute a contract providing 
for repayment of the construction charges 
as hereby adjusted within forty years and 
upon a schedule satisfactory to said 
Secretary; and no water from the Saint 
Mary River watershed shall be furnished 
for the irrigation of lands within any dis- 
trict after the irrigation season of 1930 
until the required contract has been duly 
executed." 

SEC. 2. All contracts with the Govern- 
ment touching the project shall be uni- 
form as to time of payment and oharge for 
the construction of the Saint Mary 
diversion. 

Approved, July 3, 1930. 

Fed. (2d) 453) the Federal condemnation 
of State property has been permitted. 
The foregoing case is in line with the 
Nahant and Bedford cases. 



26 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February, 1931 



I By H. A BROWN, Director of Reclamation Economics I 




Settlement and Development of the Boulder Canyon Project 



FOR the benefit of those who see in 
the Boulder Canyon project only 
another large area of land to be brought 
into cultivation in the near future for 
the production of crops to compete with 
agricultural products of the East and 
Middle West, let it be said at the outset 
that, as has been the case with other 
statements, it is perfectly all right except 
that in the first place there will be little 
or no such competition, and in the second 
place it will be seven or eight years before 
water will be available for growing crops 
on the withdrawn public land. 

What our economic condition may be 
at that time no one can foretell with any 
degree of accuracy. It seems reasonably 
safe to assume, however, that what has 
been true in the past concerning the local 
absorption of the products of Federal 
irrigated agriculture will be equally true 
of the agricultural development under 
the Boulder Canyon project, and that 
these future products of Federal irrigation 
will be readily absorbed by the growing de- 
mands of the Southwest whose population 
and industrial development are confi- 
dently expected to respond in a marked 
degree to the stimulus of the construction 
of Hoover Dam. 

The anticipated influx of capital and 
population to this region as a result of 
the vast power development at the dam 
and the assurance to Los Angeles and a 
score of smaller cities of an adequate 
supply of water for domestic purposes, 
thus insuring their continued phenomenal 
growth, must be met by an increased food 
supply. The arid areas irrigable from 
Hoover Dam will help to supply this need. 

SETTLEMENT OPPORTUNITIES ON 
COMPLETION OF WORKS 

At present all public land susceptible of 
irrigation from Hoover Dam has been 
withdrawn from entry and will not be 
opened to settlement until water for 
irrigation is available. That means not 
until after the Hoover Dam is completed 
and canals and laterals constructed to 



bring the water to the land, or from seven 
to eight years hence. 

When water is available for irrigation 
and the land is opened to entry, ex- 
service men will have a preference right 
of three months to enter such land before 
citizens without a military or naval 
background are allowed to make applica- 
tion. The land will doubtless be opened 
in units of a few thousand acres at a 
time as water becomes available for a 
particular area and in order that there 
may not be too great a lag between com- 
pletion of construction and full settlement. 



TITLES TO ILLUSTRATIONS ON 
OPPOSITE PAGE 

Upper: Commencement of construc- 
tion of Hoover Dam. Left to right: 
Senator Key Pitlman of Nevada; 
Governor Fred B. Balzar of Nevada; 
Carl R. Gray, president of Union 
Pacific System; Hon. Ray Lyman 
Wilbur, Secretary of the Interior; 
Senator Tasker L. Oddie of Nevada. 

Lower: Government engineers in 
charge of construction. Left to right: 
Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner of 
Reclamation; Raymond F. Walter, 
chief engineer; Walker R. Young, 
construction engineer; John C. Page, 
office engineer; Ralph Lowry, assis- 
tant construction engineer. 



CROPS ADAPTED TO PROJECT 

It is not anticipated that much, if any, 
difficulty will be experienced in settling 
these lands as they become available. 
This region has been aptly called America's 
Valley of the Nile, where a potentially 
fertile soil and abundant sunshine, coupled 
with an adequate water supply and intelli- 
gent farming methods, will work wonders 
in transforming an arid waste into a garden 
spot. Here will be duplicated the crops of 
the Salt River Valley and the Yuma proj- 
ect in Arizona, and those of the Imperial 
Valley in California. A wide variety of 



crops is possible, including alfalfa, cotton, 
winter vegetables, cantaloupes, lettuce, pe- 
cans, citrus fruits, figs, dates, and many 
other crops normally grown in the tem- 
perate and subtropical zones. 

It is believed that, as in the case with 
land opened to entry on the Tule Lake di- 
vision of the Klamath project, Oregon- 
California, the demand for these Boulder 
Canyon project lands will exceed the 
supply, and that as a result a miniature 
agricultural empire will in time be grad- 
ually developed here to meet the needs of 
population increase and industrial expan- 
sion in the nearby cities and towns of the 
Southwest. 

Every effort will be made by the Bureau 
of Reclamation to see to it that the land 
opened to entry is economically feasible 
of producing crops of a character and in 
sufficient quantities to provide a living for 
the farmers and repay the charges to the 
Government. Careful land classifications 
and soil analyses will be made to deter- 
mine this essential factor. In addition the 
men who take up the public land will be 
required to demonstrate to an examining 
board that they have the necessary quali- 
fications for success, particularly experi- 
ence in farming and a reasonable amount 
of capital. The combination of the right 
man with adequate capital, a fertile soil, 
an adequate water supply, and nearby 
markets should eliminate most of the 
hazards of changing raw land into pro- 
ducing farms. Every means will be used 
by the bureau to bring about this happy 
combination in the settlement and de- 
velopment of the Boulder Canyon project. 



A? the end of the month a milk 
producers' association was in process 
of organization on the Klamath project. 
Thirty to 35 dairymen are expected to join 
the association, the members of which will 
be under contract to market their products 
through the Klamath Dairymen's Associa- 
tion. 



1 




28 



NEW KECLAMATION EHA 



February, 1931 



Government Plans Model Town at Boulder City, Nevada 



ON December 18 Secretary Wilbur 
approved the plans for Boulder City, 
Nev., the new town to be constructed by 
the Government on the Boulder Canyon 
project, about 6 miles west of the site of 
the Hoover Dam. For several months 
S. R. De Boer, city planner and landscape 
architect, of Denver, Colo., has been at 
work on plans for this town, which has 
resulted in a layout that will probably 
serve as a model in town planning for 
years to come. The employees of the 
Government and of the contractors, to- 
gether with those who wish to engage in 
business, or to follow their trades or prac- 
tice their professions, will find in Boulder 
City all the conveniences and comforts 
which the Government is able to provide. 
In southern Nevada there is an annual 
temperature range from 20 to 120, with 
a mean temperature in December of 52 
and of 94 in July. The summers are hot 
and dry, while the winter climate is quite 
agreeable. Trees, green grass, and flowers 
are missing in the vicinity of the town site, 
and instead are found sandy soil, bare 
rocks, and occasional desert shrubs. But 
a transformation will be worked in this 
particular instance, and here the "desert 
will blossom like a rose." Boulder City 
will truly be an oasis in the desert, a rest- 
ing place for the weary traveler. The 
workers on the project who live in this 
"model town" will have comfortable Hy- 
ing quarters specially designed for the 
prevailing climatic conditions, and the 
town will lack nothing to be found in the 
average progressive community elsewhere 
in the country. 

There will be expended by the Bureau 
of Reclamation in the construction of 
Boulder City about $2,000,000, and it is 
expected that about 3,000 people will 
have residence there during the construc- 
tion period. The size of the population 
after the dam and power plant are com- 
pleted is problematical, but it seems very 
likely that it will be a sizable tourist town. 
With a main transcontinental highway as 
projected from Kingman, Ariz., on the 
east, and crossing over the top of the 
dam, thousands of tourists will use this 
route on their way to the Pacific coast. 
The 730-foot dam and 115-mile lake will 
compete with the National Parks as 
scenic attractions. A maintenance force 
will also be needed at the dam and power 
plant. 

GENERAL PLANS FOR CITY 

The city plan contemplates that the 
construction contractor's camp, the Gov- 
ernment camp, and various business estab- 
lishments to care for the needs of these 
people will be assembled in the city under 



Government administration. The streets, 
business section, residence section, and 
parks will be laid out as shown on the 
accompanying plan. Streets will be 
graded and oil surfaced, concrete curbings 
and sidewalks constructed, and street 
lighting system installed. The Govern- 
ment will construct a town hall, school, 
garage, dormitory and guest house, audi- 
torium, administration building, and 75 
cottages for its employees comprising five 
6-room, nineteen 5-room, twenty-six 4- 
room, and twenty-five 3-room cottages; 
also 50 small garages, a swimming pool, 
and playground. About $600,000 will be 
expended on these features. 

The proposed water system will have 
sufficient capacity for the needs of 3,000 
people, together with incidental city uses. 
The water will first be pumped from the 
Colorado River to a mechanical presedi- 
mentation plant and then pumped in two 
lifts to a chemical treating plant, sand 
filter, and storage system at the city, with 
a total lift of about 2,000 feet. Sufficient 
distribution system is to be installed by 
the Government to make water available 
to each lot. The water system will cost 
upwards of $400,000. A sewage system 
to cost about $150,000 will also be con- 
structed, to consist of city distribution, 
with service connections to Government 
buildings and a disposal plant located 
about three-fourths mile from the city. 

A transmission line from the substation 
of the Southern Sierras Power Co. at the 
dam site, substations at the water-supply 
pumping plant and at the city, and the 
city distribution and lighting system, are 
included in the bureau's construction 
plans. Sufficient capacity will be installed 
to handle all cooking and refrigeration uses 
as well as other requirements, making 
Boulder City an electric community. An 
ornamental street-lighting system is 
planned for the business section. Land- 
scaping is also provided for in the Govern- 
ment estimates. 

TOWN GOVERNMENT 

The administration of the town govern- 
ment will be in the hands of a commission 
of three, one of whom will probably be a 
representative of the contractor for the 
dam. A city manager will have direct 
charge under supervision of the com- 
mission, with United States deputy 
marshals appointed as police officers. 
All operation and maintenance of water, 
sewer, and electric systems, streets, parks 
(with a combined area of about 10 acres), 
and other municipal works will be under 
the direction of the city manager. The 
duties of police judge will be taken care 
of by a United States commissioner and 



there will be a superintendent of public 
works with the usual city maintenance 
force. 

The contractor for the Hoover Dam, 
power plant, and appurtenant works will 
have a section of the town set aside for 
his construction camp, in which he may 
erect an office building, warehouses, 
garages, commissary, hospital, dormi- 
tories, boarding houses, homes for em- 
ployees, and other necessary buildings. 
These buildings are required to have a 
neat attractive appearance and the plans 
for same are subject to the approval of 
the Government. For the use of the 
land set aside for the contractor, and for 
the municipal services and facilities made 
available, he will be charged $5,000 per 
month during the construction period, 
together with additional charges for 
water and electricity. After acceptance 
by the Government of the dam, power 
plant, and related works, the contractor 
will have the right to lease the land occu- 
pied by his camp at the regular established 
rates. The specifications covering con- 
struction work at the dam site include 
a provision requiring the contractor to 
house not less than 80 per cent of his 
employees in Boulder City. There will 
necessarily be a few isolated camps, at 
places such as the Arizona gravel pits, 
and also boarding and lodging facilities 
which will be needed at the dam site. 

SUMMIT SITE SELECTED 

Due to the inaccessibility of the work, 
the magnitude of the operations, and the 
severe weather conditions during the hot 
summer months, and having in mind the 
health, comfort, and general welfare of 
those engaged on the work, the town has 
been located at the "summit" on a saddle 
of the divide between the river area and 
Las Vegas. The elevation is 2,500 feet, 
which is about 1,000 feet higher than the 
top of the canyon at the dam site. The 
location is about 6 miles west of the dam 
site and 23 miles southeast of Las Vegas, 
Nev., on a branch line (now under con- 
struction) of the Los Angeles & Salt Lake 
Railroad, a part of the Union Pacific sys- 
tem. A main highway will connect 
Boulder City with Las Vegas and the dam, 
and will probably join with a highway 
from Kingman, Ariz., and the east, in tin- 
near future. This summit site has an 
average temperature 6 lower than that of 
any of the other sites under consideration. 
It is at the top of the divide with a rather 
steep descent to the north, and a uniform 
3 per cent slope to the south, with hills 
both to the east and west. There is an 
unusually beautiful view to the north 
overlooking the proposed 145,000-acrc 



Tebruary, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



29 








3364631- 



30 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February, 1931 



reservoir 4 miles away. This lake will 
have an area 20 per cent larger than Lake 
Tahoe in California-Nevada. 

The main axis of the town has been 
placed at a slight variation with the com- 
pass to give a more equal exposure of sun- 
light for all building walls. There will be 
no automobile parking allowed on streets, 
but provision will be made for parking on 
specially created open plazas in the down- 
town business blocks. In the business dis- 
trict the blocks have been provided with 
alleys, the interior part of which will be 
46 feet in width, thus providing a loading 
and unloading space for trucks. Main 
through-arteries will be separate from 
business and residential streets. Street 
widths contemplated are as follows: Main 
highways 112 feet, roadway 56 feet, with 
possible extension to 76 feet; business 
streets 92 feet, roadway 56 feet; residential 
streets 60 feet, roadway 30 feet. All 
buildings in the town will be in harmony 
as to design. Different types of stores and 
business establishments will be given 
definite locations. Residential blocks 
have great length in the more densely 
populated districts, as much as 900 feet, 
with an average width of about 260 feet. 
In the design of these residential blocks 
provision has been made for open plazas 
in the block interiors to provide small 
parks and playground facilities. 

STREET LAYOUT 

Three main arterial highways are the 
basis of the street plan, the center one of 
the three being the axis of the city, and all 
three highways centering on the Govern- 
ment administration building located on 
a saddle overlooking the reservoir to the 
north. The west boulevard (Arizona- 
Nevada Highway) connects with the high- 
way to Las Vegas and passes the railroad 
station, following the railroad on the west 
side of the city. The central boulevard 
(California Avenue) will pass through the 
center of the business district, with the 
administration building facing squarely 
on it, at the upper end of the street grade. 
The third arterial boulevard (Utah Ave- 
nue) on the east is of residential character. 

At right angles to the arterial boulevards 
is the main business street (Second Street) 
with the railroad station at the west end. 
All the other streets connecting the radial 
boulevards are to be parallel to this main 
street. Residential streets are all planned 
to parallel the three radial boulevards and 
generally run in a southerly direction. 
The blocks south of the business district 
will have the greatest density of popula- 
tion, while the eastern part of the city 
has been set aside as a residential district 
of a more open character and less density. 
The higher part of this residential district 
to the north and directly east of the 
Government group of buildings is pro- 
posed for residences of the Government 
employees. 



PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS 

The office building of the Bureau of 
Reclamation has been made the central 
feature of the city. It will front on a 
central park (Wilbur Square) and have 
auto parking areas on both sides. To the 
southeast and close by will be the dormi- 
tory and guest house, while the audi- 
torium and garage will be located in 
block 2 adjoining on the west. 

The business section (blocks 12, 13, 15, 
16, 17, and 18) has been designed around 
open plazas partly closed on the ends, 
with the central one the most important. 
With the provision of parking space in 
the plazas, and the elimination of parking 
in the streets, the business frontage is 
shifted from street to plaza. These 
plazas, with grass plots and trees through 
the center to provide open vistas, have 
parking space for over 1,400 automobiles 
and trucks. This capacity is independent 
of parking facilities provided for Govern- 
ment buildings, railroad station, and 
other public buildings. It is planned to 
design all stores with arcades over the 
sidewalks. 

The city hall and post office are to be 
located in the two end buildings on the 
north end of the central business plaza. 
It is proposed to group together the stores 
that logically belong together and assign 
definite types of buildings to the various 
plazas. Stores for wearing apparel, no- 
tions, books, etc., would be located in the 
south half of the plaza with grocery, hard- 
ware, and furniture stores in the north half. 
Directly on the main street on the four 
corners of the intersection of the main 
street with the plaza would be the drug 
stores. Hotels and lodging houses will be 
in the business district fronting on Wilbur 
Square, while a large tourist hotel is pro- 
posed at the east end of the main street 
(Second Street) on a small hill, where a 
4-acre tract is set aside for this purpose. 

RESIDENTIAL SECTION 

Sites for apartment houses are located 
just south of the business section, and in 
this area there are small parking spaces at 
every corner. These apartment houses 
will face on the open courts of the resi- 
dential blocks to the south, giving an 
unusual amount of air and light. Several 
blocks south of the apartment house area 
(blocks 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, and 35) 
are designed for multiple dwellings, with 
interior courts 100 feet in width, in which 
will be playground apparatus, and the 
remainder will be made into lawn. 
Between the buildings and court is a 
space from 20 to 30 feet wide set aside for 
private yards. These dwellings will be set 
back from the curb about 20 feet, with 
garages in pairs made a part of the build- 
ing design instead of being independent 
structures. 



In the eastern part of the .city a district 
(blocks 36 and 37) has been set aside for 
single family dwellings, with more space 
allowed for individual gardens and less 
community space. The Government resi- 
dential area in the northeast section will 
have probably the most desirable loca- 
tion in Boulder City. Parks and play- 
grounds are plentifully provided in the 
proposed plans. The central park facing 
the Government administration building 
will serve as a civic center. North of the 
Government buildings the ground drops 
away rapidly and there is a valley between 
some small hills which can be used ad- 
vantageously for a swimming pool. An 
industrial zone is planned to the south- 
west of the railroad station. On the 
Arizona-Nevada Highway entering the 
city from Las Vegas will be placed 
garages, filling stations, repair shops and 
business establishments of a similar 
nature. A forest belt will encircle the 
southern and eastern part of the city as 
a protective shelter from the desert 
beyond. In this belt can be located play 
areas such as football fields and tennis 
courts, the larger part of block 39 being 
planned for an athletic and recreational 
area. Facing the forest area in block 27 
is a site for a high-school building. A 
driveway, bridle path, and walking path 
can be placed through the trees. In the 
eastern section of the forest area (block 8) 
will be located the tourist hotel with a 
golf course. A second forest belt farther 
out from the town is designed for a 
future time, in which will be located a 
municipal airport and municipal golf 
course. There will also be a district set 
aside for truck gardening and orchards, 
for which the second forest belt will 
provide a protection 

PLAYGROUNDS AND PARKS 

With the creation of courts in the resi- 
dential blocks, there will be a small play- 
ground in the interior of every block 
which can be equipped with apparatus for 
the small children and also croquet lawn 
and horseshoe pitching court for elderly 
people. With these playgrounds it will 
not be necessary to have play facilities 
for small children in schoolgrounds and 
parks, but the latter can be used rather 
for older boys and girls, young men and 
women, and be equipped with football and 
baseball fields, tennis courts, etc. Two 
triangular blocks (27 and 34) are set aside 
for school grounds. These blocks are 
away from the main traffic lines, but still 
conveniently located, and face the forest 
area. Grouping of church buildings is 
proposed at the east end of Second Street 
in blocks 14, 19, 7, and 20. In the nam- 
ing of streets, the names of States in the 
Colorado River Basin are used for the 
main thoroughfares. A careful study is 

(Continued on p. 41) 



February, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



31 



Diversified Farming on Riverton Project 

By A. G. Keys, PaMion, Wyo. 



The December issue of the ERA carried 
an article on the production and market- 
ing of irrigated crops in the lower Yakima 
Valley which is of interest to settlers in 
other irrigated sections and has called 
forth the following statement from a 
farmer on the Riverton project, Wyoming: 

Although the crops adapted to the 
Yakima Valley would bring poor returns 
on the Riverton project, the diversified 
plan could be carried out with the idea of 
producing the maximum amount of 
forage from new land, in addition to two 
or three cash crops which would allow the 
farmer to meet his water charges, taxes, 
payments on implements, and provide for 
his family with the surplus. 

In the absence of cheap transportation 
Riverton is handicapped in the production 
of bulky crops which must be trucked to 
the railroad. At the present time it takes 
about 25 per cent of the crop to cover this 
charge. To overcome this disadvantage 
many farmers have seeded their places 
down to alfalfa and sweet clover to be fed 



to livestock so that the finished product 
can be marketed with reduced transpor- 
tation charges. 

This year's crops proved beyond a 
doubt that exceptional returns may be 
expected from Riverton soil, but more 
thought should be given to the individual 
who must succeed from the start if the 
project is to go forward. With the ex- 
perience gained on older projects a pro- 
gram covering a 10-year period might be 
worked out that would serve as a guide 
to a man who is not familiar with local 
conditions. Too many men depend on 
oats or wheat for the first year's crop, 
with disappointing results as a rule. 
Others seed their land to alfalfa and 
sweet clover when they have no pros- 
pect of getting the money to fence the 
clover off for pasture or of supplying 
winter feeding for their sheep or cat- 
tle. They pass up the sidelines of chick- 
ens, turkeys, and a good truck patch 
which would mean a living for their 
familes. 



With a small amount of commercial 
fertilizer there is an increased yield in 
potatoes, corn, beans, millet, and small 
grains. Raw land will produce potatoes 
for seed, flax, cabbage, stock carrots, to- 
matoes, and other vegetables which would 
find a ready sale in an outside market. 
The man who wishes to specialize in dairy 
stock, beef cattle, sheep, hogs, or poultry 
can not be bound by any set rule, but these 
men will be in the minority and any pro- 
gram should fit the needs of the fellow who 
depends on the soil alone to get his start. 

A suggested program is given in the 
accompanying sketch. After the settler 
has arranged his fields according to the 
lay of the land and the location of head 
ditches he will probably have a good idea 
of the crops to be grown. This will 
enable the county agent to advise him 
intelligently, but without a definite plan 
ahead and little knowledge of what can be 
expected from any particular crop the new 
settler, as well as some of the older ones, 
is bound to fail if he is depending on hay 
or grain alone to carry him along. 

Examples of the success of men who 
practice diversified farming should be 
hammered home at every opportunity in 
order that their experiences may prove 
profitable to new settlers. 



SUGGESTED ROTATION PROGRAM FOR 80-ACRE FARM UNIT 

RIVERTON PROJECT, WYOMING 


1ST. YEAR 




2ND. YEAR 




3RD. YEAR 


4TH. YEAR 


5TH. YEAR 


OATS OR RYE 
BLDOS. WITH 
AND SWEET CLOVER 
GARDEN FOR 
PASTURE OR HAY 


BLDGS. 
AND 
GARDEN 


HARROW IN BROME, 
ORCHARD, 
AND BLUE GRASSES 
FOR 
PERMANENT PASTURE 


BLDGS. 
AND 

GARDEN 


PASTURE 


BLDGS. 
AND PASTURE 
GARDEN 


BLDGS. 
AND PASTURE 
GARDEN 


OATS 
WITH 
ALFALFA 


BEANS. 
CORN. 
POTATOES 


ALFALFA 


OATS 
WITH 
ALFALFA 


ALFALFA 


ALFALFA 


BEETS. 
POTATOES. 
CORN. 
OR 
PEAS 


ALFALFA 


BEETS. 
BEANS. 
BARLEY, 
OR 
PEAS 


POTATOES 
OR 
CORN 


BEANS 
AND 
FLAX 
OR 
FALLOW 


FALL PLOW 


BEANS, 
CORN, 
POTATOES 


FLAX 
OR 
WHEAT 
WITH 
CLOVER 


GRAIN 
WITH 
ALFALFA 


BEANS 
OR 
CORN 
AND 
POTATOES 


ALFALFA 


OATS 
WITH 
CLOVER 


ALFALFA 


BEANS 
OR 
PEAS 


6TH. YEAR 




7TH. YEAR 




8TH. YEAR 


9TH. YEAR 


10TH. YEAR 


BEETS. 
BLDGS. POTATOES. 
AND CORN, 
GARDEN OR 
PEAS 


BLDGS. 
AND 
GARDEN 


BEETS, 
PEAS. 
BEANS, 
OR 
CORN 


BLDGS. 
AND 
GARDEN 


OATS 
WITH 
SWEET CLOVER 


'AND*' = 
OABDEN CLOVER 


BLDGS. 
AND PASTURE 
GARDEN 


OATS OR RYE 
WITH 
SWEET CLOVER 
FOR 
PASTURE 


BEETS 
OR 
BEANS 


PASTURE 


BEETS 
OR 
BARLEY 


PASTURE 


OATS 
WITH 
ALFALFA 


POTATOES 
OR 
CORN 


ALFALFA 


BEETS 


ALFALFA 


ALFALFA 


GRAIN 
WITH 
ALFALFA 


POTATOES 
OR 
CORN 


ALFALFA 


BEETS, 
BARLEY, 
OR 
BEANS 


ALFALFA 


BEETS 
OR 
BEANS 


ALFALFA 


GRAINS 
WITH 
CLOVER 
OR 
ALFALFA 


POTATOES 
OR 
CORN 


1ST. YEAR. SO HE 
2ND. YEAR -IOC 
3RD. YEAR- 1 
PLANT A F 
LATER. S 
EXCHl 
IN P 
Cl 


NS. 1 COW- 1 SOW-6 TURKEY HENS AND 1 GOBLER. 
HENS -2 COWS- 1 SOW- IS EWES OR SOME -BUM" LAMBS-1O TURKE 
4CREASE POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK AS FINANCES WILL PERMIT. 
EW NATIVE TREES AND SHRUBS EACH YEAR AND FILL IN WITH NURS 


Y HENS. 

ERY STOCK 
BLE. 
NEY TO INVEST 
TUTE SEED 


NGE WORK AND FARM TOOLS WITH YOUR NEIGHBOR. SAVE YOUR MC 
3ULTRY AND LIVESTOCK. PLANT A GOOD GARDEN EACH YEAR. SUBST 
IOPS ON NEW LAND AS LOCAL MARKET DEVELOPS. 



32 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



Febiuaiy, 1931 



By C. A. BISSELL, Chief, Engineering Division 




Specifications and Plans Available for Work at Hoover Dam 



THE most important construction 
job ever undertaken by the Bureau 
of Reclamation, and the largest Govern- 
ment project since the Panama Canal is 
now being advertised, and bids are to be 
publicly opened at the Denver, Colo., 
office at 10 o'clock a. m. on March 4, 
1931. In one contract there will be in- 
cluded the Hoover Dam, power plant, 
and appurtenant works estimated to cost 
about $108,000,000, which amount in- 
cludes both labor and materials. Specifi- 
cations and plans have been printed and 
were available for distribution on January 
10 at the Washington, Denver, and Las 
Vegas offices. The specifications contain 
about 100 pages of text and 76 drawings 
and sell for $5 a copy. A bid bond in 
the amount of $2,000,000 must be sub- 
mitted with each bid, and the successful 
bidder who is awarded the contract will 
be required to furnish a performance 
bond of $5,000,000. The Colorado River 
board of engineers and geologists, of 
which Maj. Gen. William H. Sibert is 
chairman, has approved the designs for 
the diversion works and other features 
which must be completed during the early 
stages of construction. Final approval 
of plans for the section of the dam and 
spillways is deferred, awaiting the results 
of further analyses and of tests on models 
of these features. 

DIVERSION WORKS 

The works for diversion of the river 
during construction, which will be built 
first, consist of upper and lower coffer- 
dams and four tunnels, and are described 
in the specifications as follows: The up- 
stream cofferdam will be of the earth and 
rock-fill type, the upstream earth-fill slope 
being protected by a 3-foot rock blanket 
covered with 6 inches of reinforced con- 
crete paving. Steel sheet piling will be 
driven in a trench at the upstream toe to 
.form a water-tight cut-off wall in the 
river bed. The downstream cofferdam 
will also be of the earth and rock-fill type, 
the downstream slope being protected 
from eddy action by a rock barrier. 
This rock barrier will be placed down- 
stream from the downstream cofferdam 
and will consist of a massive embankment 
of 127,000 cubic yards of dumped rock. 



These cofferdams are sizable structures in 
themselves, the upper dam being about 
80 feet in height with a top width of 70 
feet. In the two cofferdams will be 
placed 798,000 cubic yards of earth and 
227,000 cubic yards of rock. 

There will be four diversion tunnels, 
two on each side of the river, circular 
in section, lined with a minimum of 2 
feet of concrete and measuring 50 feet in 
diameter inside of the lining. In length 
the four tunnels average about 4,000 feet. 
They will require 1,563,000 cubic yards 
of tunnel excavation, as well as an addi- 
tional 400,000 cubic yards of open-cut 
rock excavation, and the placing of 
337,000 cubic yards of concrete in the 
inlet and outlet structures and linings. 
Plugs in the tunnels will require 121,000 
cubic yards of concrete. 

After the downstream cofferdam and 
rock barrier have served their purpose they 
will be removed from the river channel 
by the contractor. 

HOOVER DAM 

The dam will be of the massive concrete 
arch-gravity type. It will be about 1,180 
feet long on the crest and about 730 feet 
in height above the lowest point of founda- 
tion bedrock. The radius of curvature of 
the axis will be about 500 feet. About 
3,400,000 cubic yards of concrete will be 
placed in the dam out of a 4,400,000 total 
for all the works. A cut-off trench will 
be excavated in the foundation rock along 
the upstream toe. The foundation and 
abutment rock are to be drilled and 
pressure grouted, the holes being located 
at 5-foot intervals in one line in the trench. 
Grout holes will vary in depth up to a 
maximum of about 150 feet. The dam 
will contain a very complete drainage 
system, with a main drainage gallery 
parallel to the axis of the dam, connecting 
with radial drainage conduits discharging 
at the downstream toe of the dam. To 
provide for expansion and contraction the 
concrete will be built up in sections or 
columns. The setting heat of the concrete 
will be dissipated by means of a refriger- 
ation plant supplying and forcing cooled 
water through pipes imbedded in the 
concrete. In addition to the drainage 
galleries there will be a number of inspec- 



tion galleries. Two elevator shafts will 
connect the two wings of the power house 
with the top of the dam. The contractor 
must take out 857,000 cubic yards of 
common excavation for foundations of 
dam, power house, and cofferdams; and 
400,000 cubic yards of rock for the dam 
foundation. 

SPILLWAYS 

Two spillways will be constructed, one 
on each side of the river. Each of these 
will consist, in downstream order, of a 
50-foot by 50-foot Stoney gate, a concrete 
ogee overflow crest about 700 feet long, 
a reinforced concrete-lined open channel, a 
50-foot diameter concrete-lined inclined 
tunnel, through which the water will pass 
into the outer diversion tunnel. This 
outer tunnel, after having served its pur- 
pose as a diversion tunnel, will be plugged 
with concrete immediately upstream from 
its junction with the inclined spillway 
tunnel, and the downstream portion will 
then become a part of the spillway system. 
It is estimated that the spillways will 
require 1,012,000 cubic yards of open-cut 
excavation and 144,000 cubic yards of 
excavation in the inclined tunnels. 

OUTLET WORKS 

The outlet works on each side of the 
river will consist of two separate systems, 
each being regulated by a cylinder gate 
in the bottom of an intake tower, the 
two towers being about 185 feet apart in 
a direction parallel with the river. The 
system regulated from the upstream in- 
take tower will consist, in downstream 
order, of the tower with a cylinder gate 
31 feet in diameter, discharging into a 
30-foot diameter inclined tunnel connect- 
ing with the inner diversion tunnel; the 
upstream tunnel plug in the diversion 
tunnel with temporary slide gates; the 
inner diversion tunnel below the upstream 
tunnel plug; the downstream lower and 
upper canyon-wall outlet gates and needle 
valves; the downstream tunnel plug with 
outlet gates and needle valves installed 
therein; and the 50-foot by 50-foot Stoney 
gates at the outlet end of the inner diver- 
sion tunnels. 

The system regulated from the down- 
stream intake tower will consist of the 



February, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



33 



tower with its cylinder gate 31 feet in 
diameter discharging into a 30-foot di- 
ameter horizontal penstock tunnel, lead- 
ing to the upstream lower and upper 
canyon-wall outlet gates and needle 
valves. Power penstocks divert from 
each system. The lower and upper 
canyon-wall outlet gates and needle 
valves on each side of the river are housed 
in separate buildings, and in each of the 
four buildings there will be eight 72-inch 
needle valves for discharge control. The 
canyon-wall valve houses will require 
255,000 cubic yards of excavation, and 
the placing of 51,000 cubic yards of 
concrete, while 108,000 cubic yards of 
concrete are specified for the intake 
towers, foundations, and superstructures. 

POWER PLANT 

The power plant will be located im- 
mediately downstream from the dam. 
It will be a U-shaped structure of con- 
crete and structural steel with one wing 
on each side of the river, with the con- 
nection portion constructed across the 
downstream toe of the dam. Each wing 
of the building will be built sufficiently 
large to accommodate at least six, and 
possibly eight, main power generating 
units, together with transformers, switch- 
ing and control equipment, and auxiliary 
apparatus. The length of the river face 
of each wing will be about 500 feet, the 
depth to the excavated canyon wall about 
66 feet, and the height from the generator 
floor to the top of the roof will be about 
85 feet. Construction of the power house 
is covered by the specifications, but the 
hydraulic and electrical machinery, equip- 
ment, and wiring will be installed by the 
Government. The power house will re- 
quire the placing of 143,000 cubic yards 
of concrete. 

INCLINED FREIGHT ELEVATOR 
The inclined freight elevator guide 
structure will be located on the slope of 
the canyon wall immediately downstream 
from the power house on the Nevada side 
of the river. The top of the structure 
will be about elevation 1,261 and the bot- 
tom elevation about 667. It will consist 
of a channel excavated in the rock wall 
and lined with concrete, in which track 
rails, structural guides and other metal 
work will be installed to guide the elevator 
car. This guide structure will be con- 
nected to the power house by a spur track 
constructed in a concrete foundation. 
After the construction of the dam, power 
plant, and appurtenant works is com- 
pleted, the inclined freight elevator and 
spur track will be used by the Govern- 
ment for general operation and mainte- 
nance purposes. The distance between 
upper and lower landings will be 594 feet, 
the speed of the transfer car 60 feet per 
minute, and the size of the car platform 
12 feet by 50 feet. The elevator may be 



used by the contractor during the con- 
struction period for transporting labor, 
materials, equipment, and supplies. If 
the contractor desires this, the Govern- 
ment will, upon request, proceed with the 
purchase and installation of the elevator 
equipment. The elevator would then be 
operated and maintained by the contrac- 
tor during the construction period. 

PREFERENCE IN EMPLOYMENT 

The contractor and his subcontractors 
will be required to give preference at the 
time of employment, so far as practicable; 
first, to qualified ex-service men, and sec- 
ond, to qualified citizens of the United 
States. Preference for ex-service men is 
a requirement of the Boulder Canyon 
project act, and the citizens' preference 
was recommended by Secretary Wilbur 
and approved by President Hoover on 
December 17, 1930. 

CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM 

It is expected that the successful con- 
tractor will receive notice to proceed about 
April 15, 1931, and will begin work within 
30 days after that date. The program 
outlined calls for completion of the four 
diversion tunnels by October 1, 1933, and 
the cofferdams by May 1, 1934. It is 
thought that placing of mass concrete in 
the dam will start not later than Decem- 
ber 1, 1934. The program contemplates 
that all concrete, the construction of all 
necessary features for the beginning of 
storage of water by June 15, 1936, and of 
all other necessary features for the gen- 
eration of power by September 1, 1936, 
with the storage of water to elevation 935, 
will be completed by the required dates. 

All that portion of the two wings of the 
power house sufficient to permit installa- 
tion of the six upstream power units on 
each side of the river; the portion of the 
building connecting the two wings; the 
substructure of the power house, for in- 
stallation of two additional power units 
on each side of the river immediately 
downstream from the other power units, 
up to elevation 660; and all other portions 
of the power plant and other works which 
must be completed before the necessary 
power machinery and other equipment to 



be installed by the Government for the 
operation of power units Nl, N3, N5, Al, 
A3, and A5 can be placed, are to be com- 
pleted within 1,600 calendar days (about 
October 1, 1935). 

All other portions of the dam, power 
plant, and appurtenant works which will 
permit, without damage to any part of the 
required works, the permanent storage of 
water up to a maximum elevation of 935, 
and the operation of power units Nl, N3, 
N5, Al, A3, and A5, are to be completed 
within 1,965 calendar days (about Octo- 
ber 1, 1936). All of the remainder of the 
work under the schedule, including com- 
pletion of the power house and power 
plant for six power units on each side of 
the river, must be completed within 2,565 
days, or 7 years (about May 1, 1938). 
If the Government gives the contractor 
notice within 1,600 days that seven or 
eight power units will be required on each 
side of the river, instead of six, this addi- 
tional work must also be completed within 
the 2,565-day period. 

If any part of the work is not completed 
on or before the date fixed for its com- 
pletion by the terms of the contract, the 
contractor shall pay to the Government 
as fixed, agreed, and liquidated damages 
the sum of $3,000 per day for each calen- 
dar day's delay for each part of the 
work, as described in the two previous, 
paragraphs. 

MATERIALS FURNISHED 

As a general rule the Government will 
furnish to the contractor all materials, 
which are to enter into the completed 
work. These include the more important 
items of cement, reinforcement steel, pipe 
and fittings, plate-steel conduit linings, 
gates and hoists, needle valves, power- 
house machinery, and structural steel. 
These materials will be purchased by the- 
Government from time to time during the- 
construction period, as they are needed- 
The contractor must furnish sand, broken 
rock or gravel and cobbles for concrete,, 
form materials, and lumber. Sand, gravel, 
and cobbles will be obtained by the con- 
tractor from deposits on Government 
property, on the Arizona side of the river 
about 8 miles upstream from the dam site.. 



Open-cut excavation 1,800,000 cubic yards. 

Tunnel and shaft excavation 1 ,900,000 cubic yards. 

Earth and rock fill in cofferdams and river channel protection _ _ 1 ,200,000 cubic yards . 

Concrete 4,400,000 cubic yards. 

Grout 2S8,000 cubic feet. 

Drilling grout and drainage holes 290,000 linear feet. 

Installing reinforcement bars 5,500,000 pounds. 

Installing small metal pipe and fittings 1,900,000 pounds. 

Installing large metal conduits 32,500,000 pound? . 

Installing structural steel 10,600,000 pounds. 

Installing gates, hoists, and other metal work 20,000,000 pounds. 



,W.S.ei.l232.00-tMves.Spillways ana Power Plant 400,000 s.f. ) 

.W.S.CI. 1229.00 -(Overflow Spillways ant Power Plant 
...Crest ft (223.6; / >- . _ 75,000 s.f. J Crest ft (232.00 



SO'xSO'StoniyGat* 



Rock Line assumed from Diamond Drill Records--'' 



UPPER COFFERDAM 

1106 




SECTIONAL ELEVATION ON CE Efi 



Dumped Rock 
UPPER COFFERDAM 




CANYON WALL OUTLET WORKS 
(16-12- Needle Valves) 1 , 



, f SO" ..Too of Cofferdam El. 690. 00 
a --W.S.EI. 683.00 



sSt&^i&S^^^S^^i;}^a^^J 

Assumed Rock Line 






- 

/SO'xSO'StoneyGatt 
S> ...,- 



jt"\y i V *1 ' i '.< ii / '~v LilUHHR.a'"' ADI J*;r - . 



S/ope2'/-><50^ ShpeS-l 

LOWER COFFERDAM 



DCP*TMCNT or rue i 

BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 
SOL/LDEfl CANYON PROJECT 

HOOVER DAM 

DAM AND APPURTENANT WORKS 
GENERAL LAYOUT 



NOTE 

The 30' and 50' Penstock Tunnels, 
the II' Penstocks and the 91" Conduits 
are Pressure Tunnels. 




36 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February, 193U 



HIGHWAY AND RAILROAD 

A highway will connect with the end 
of the 7-mile construction highway 
from Boulder City to the dam site, and 
descend to the crest of the dam on the 
Nevada side of the river. After crossing 
over the canyon to the Arizona side on the 
roadway along the crest of the dam, the 
highway grade will rise to a terminus above 
the canyon rim, where it can connect with 
a contemplated State highway from King- 
man. There will be constructed by the 
contractor about 4,000 feet of highway on 
the Nevada side and 1,400 feet on the 
Arizona side. 

The construction railroad from Bracken 
Junction on the Los Angeles & Salt Lake 
Railroad of the Union Pacific system to 
the dam site will be completed about Sep- 
tember 1, 1931. The United States sec- 
tion of 10% miles from the summit, near 
Boulder City, to the dam site will be 
turned over to the contractor for the dam, 
power plant, and appurtenant works, to 
be operated and maintained by him during 
the construction period. 

ACCEPTANCE OF COFFERDAMS BY 
GOVERNMENT 

After the upstream cofferdam, rock 
blanket in the river channel, the down- 
stream cofferdam and rock barrier and ad- 
jacent rock protection have been com- 
pleted, in accordance with the specifica- 
tions, they will be accepted by the Govern- 
ment, provided that the four diversion 
tunnels have been completed and the river 
satisfactorily diverted through them. 
After this acceptance the Government will 
assume liability for any damage to the 
accepted works, due to flood or other 
causes not the fault of the contractor, and 
for damage resulting thereby to other 
features of required construction. 

EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF POWER 

It is expected that four units of the 
power plant will be placed in operation 
about 1 year and 8 months prior to the 
completion of the dam, and two additional 
units about 1 year later, all of these units 
to be operated by the downstream in-take 
towers. In this connection the Govern- 
ment reserves the right to commence the 
generation of power at any time after 
water hag been stored to elevation 900. 

WALLS ALONG CANYON RIM 

It will be necessary to construct rubble 
masonry walls along the canyon rim above 
the power plant and in-take towers and 
below the highway on both sides of the 
canyon, for protection of the permanent 
works from injury by falling rocks. 

GROUT AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

The contractor will be required to drill 
258,000 linear feet of grout holes in tun- 



nels, adits, shafts, and foundations for 
<l:un and spillway crests; also 34,000 
linear feet of drainage holes in the founda- 
tion for the dam. There will be 422,000 
cubic feet of pressure grouting required, 
of which 376,000 cubic feet will be placed 
in tunnels, adits, and shafts. Grout holes 
in the foundations will be drilled to vary- 
ing depths up to a maximum of 150 feet. 
In the upstream cut-off trench of the dam 
the grout holes will be drilled at about 
5-foot intervals. 

CONTRACTION JOINTS IN DAM 

Contraction joints in the concrete of the 
dam will be provided for convenience in 
construction and to take care of expansion 
and contraction of the concrete in hori- 
zontal directions. These contraction 
joints will divide the dam into sections. 
Horizontal keys are to be built into the 
circumferential joints and vertical keys 
into the other contraction joints. 

CONCRETE 

With about 4,400,000 cubic yards of 
concrete to be placed in the dam, power 
plant, and appurtenant structures, strict 
precautions will govern in the mixing and 
placing of concrete. In general, the pro- 
portions shall be such as to produce con- 
crete having an ultimate compressive 
strength at the age of 28 days, varying 
from not less than 2,500 pounds per square 
inch for the mass concrete of the dam, to 
not less than 3,500 pounds per square inch 
for slabs, beams, and other thin reinforced 
members. The accuracy of the weighing 
equipment shall conform to the require- 
ments of the United States Bureau of 
Standards. Placing of concrete in the 
dam must, in general, be done by means 
of bottom-dump buckets or other methods 
whereby each complete mixer batch or 
combination of mixer batches is conveyed 
in one mass to its location in the dam. 
The rate of placing concrete in any panel 
or column of the dam shall be such that not 
more than 5 feet in depth shall be placed 
in 72 hours, and not more than 35 feet in 
depth in 30 days. Methods of conveying 
concrete to any of the structures, by 
which the mixed batch or combination of 
batches is progressively loaded into 
chutes, belts, or conveyors, or other 
similar equipment and carried in a thin 
continuous flow to the forms, will not be 
permitted, except by permission of the 
contracting officer, for very limited, 
isolated sections of the work. The con- 
tinuous flow methods of conveyance are 
excluded under the specifications. 

COOLING CONCRETE IN DAM 

After any portion of the concrete in the 
dam and tunnel plugs has set for a mini- 
mum period of six days it shall be cooled by 
removing the excess heat above 72 F. 
The temperature is to be reduced by 



running cooled water through pipes 
placed in the concrete. The contractor 
shall furnish, install, and operate a com- 
plete refrigeration plant for removing the 
excess heat. This plant is to be a 3-unit 
plant, interconnected so that the units- 
may be used in combination as well as 
separately, and the plant must have a 
capacity sufficient to reduce the tempera- 
ture of a flow of 2,100 gallons of water per 
minute from 40 to 47. The average 
temperature rise due to setting of con- 
crete is approximately 40 F. above plac- 
ing temperature; and the amount of heat 
to be removed is approximately 700 B. t. 
u. per degree per cubic yard of concrete.. 
In the month of July with a mean monthly 
temperature of 93.8 and the maximum 
temperature of the concrete 133.8, it is 
estimated that cooling water must be 
applied for 2.4 months to reduce the 
temperature of the concrete to 71.7, the 
average of the mean monthly temperature 
for the year. It is contemplated that 
2-inch standard pipe and fittings, or 
boiler tubing, will be used and that there 
will be required the installation of about 
800,000 linear feet or 150 miles of pipe, 
in lines 10 feet apart, and involving the 
use of 16,000 couplings. 

STEEL REQUIREMENTS 

The contractor will be required to install 
6,435,000 pounds of plate-steel conduit 
linings for the outlet works and 13,915,000 
pounds for the power penstocks. A por- 
tion of the metal conduit linings in the 
upper and lower canyon-wall outlet works, 
and in the tunnel-plug outlets will be 
plate-steel pipes embedded in concrete. 
These linings will have an inside diameter 
of 7 feet 7 inches, with the plate thickness 
varying from \}i inches to % inch, with 
welded longitudinal seams and bolted 
flanged joints. 

Power penstocks connecting the tur- 
bines with the 30-foot diameter penstock 
tunnels and the inner 50-foot diameter 
diversion tunnels will be lined with plate 
steel varying in thickness from 1% to 2 
inches, and embedded solidly in concrete. 
The inside diameter of these power pen- 
stocks will be 11 feet with the lining vary- 
ing from % inch to 2 inches. There will 
also be 9,570,000 pounds of conduit lining 
castings installed. 

In the dam, power plant, and appur- 
tenant works will be placed 35,000,000 
pounds of reinforcement bars and rails. 
There will be required the installation 
of 6,600,000 pounds of standard steel 
and cast-iron pipe, fittings and valves. 
Another item in the schedule calls for in- 
stalling 17,875,000 pounds of structural 
steel. The contractor will furnish and 
erect 3,170,000 pounds of steel ribs, liner 
plates, and arch ring segmental bars in 
tunnels, adits, and shafts. 

(Continued on p. 38) 



Jfbtuwj-. 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



37 



Aqueduct 265 Miles Long to Cost $200,000,000 



THE Parker route for the proposed 265- 
mile aqueduct, which will carry water 
from the Colorado River to the cities and 
towns of soutlitrn California, was approved 
on December 19, 1930, by the board of 
review comprising Andrew J. Wiley, 
Richard E. Lyman, and Thaddeus Merri- 
man. This aqueduct is planned to pro- 
vide an adequate future domestic supply 
for lx>s Angeles and vicinity, and the esti- 
mate of cost is $200,000,000. A recom- 
mendation in favor of this route had pre- 
viously been made to the board by Frank 
E. Weymouth, chief engineer of the Metro- 
politan Water District of Southern Cali- 
fornia, formed to build and operate the 
aqueduct. To provide funds for this con- 
struction, it will now be necessary for the 
district to vote bonds, and it is reported 
that a proposition to authorize their issu- 
ance will be submitted to the voters within 
the next few months. 

Diversion from the Colorado River is 
planned at a point a few miles above 
Parker, Ariz., about 150 miles below the 
Hoover Dam, and a pump lift of 1,523 feet 
will be- required. The route of the aque- 
ductis via Rice toHayfield Reservoir; then 
to Shavers Summit, Whitewater, Portero, 
Moreno, Ferris, and the Puddingstone 
Tleservoir near Pomona. The annual 
maximum cost of maintaining and oper- 
ating the aqueduct and delivering 1,500 
cubic feet of water per second is estimated 
by the board at $6,106,000 per annum; but 
this annual cost does not include either 
interest on the original investment or 
annual payments on amortization of bonds. 
' The total carrying charges, including 
interest, will be $15,606,000, but this maxi- 
mum will not be reached until about the 
twentieth year after beginning of con- 
struction. 

ADVANTAGES OF PARKER ROUTE 

Among the reasons given by the board 
of review for selecting the Parker route in 
preference to the Bridge Canyon, Black 
Canyon, Bull's Head, Picacho or All- 
American routes, are the following: From 
the viewpoint of geology, it passes through 
the beet terrain; no unusually large tunnels 
are involved, construction hazards are the 
smallest, and safety against earthquake 
damage is the greatest. The route is less 
expensive in first cost than all others, and 
comparative estimates show a smaller 
operating cost because of a lower pump 
lift. The quantity of power required for 
pumping, over and above that produced 
by drops in the aqueduct line itself, is less 
than on either the Picacho or All- American 
route. At the Hayfield Reservoir site 
intermediate storage is available, an ad- 
vantage not found on any of the other 



routes. The Parker route for its entire 
length is in the State of California, thus 
avoiding the question of taxes or assess- 
ments in any other State. 

BUILDING OF PARKER DAM TO BE 
DEFERRED 

The board is of the opinion that it is 
desirable to defer construction of the 
Parker Dam on the Colorado River for 
several years after the completion of the 
Hoover Reservoir. This reservoir will 
remove silt from the river, and the clear 
water below will then pick up and remove 
silt now present in the bed and along the 
banks, and change and modify the regi- 
men of the stream. Until this readjust- 
ment has taken place, the consulting 
engineers believe that it is best to defer 
building the Parker Dam. A combined 
diversion and power dam may later be 
constructed and it is estimated that 
enough power can be produced at the 
site to pay the cost of the dam. Prior to 
construction of the dam, diversion may be 
made by pumping directly from the 
stream, with clarification of the water by 
basins and mechanical apparatus. 

The average diversion from the river 
will be 1,500 second-feet, and about 10 
per cent will be lost by seepage and evap- 
oration. Four pumping plants will be 
required, with a total lift of 1,523 feet. 
Electric power required for pumping 
amounts to 291,040 kilowatts, or about 
390,000 horsepower. At the point of 



diversion 29,100 kilowatts can be pro- 
duced, and with a power drop beyond the 
divide at Colton of 406 feet, an additional 
38,430 kilowatts will be available. The 
remainder of the power required will be 
purchased from the power plant at Hoover 
Dam. There will be 74.1 miles of open 
canal (lined or unlincd), 80.3 miles of 
closed surface conduit, 92.6 miles of tun- 
nels, and 18.4 miles of pipe lines. The 
longest tunnel will be 13 miles, with a 
9.7-mile tunnel the next in length. 

An initial pump lift of 539 feet is pro- 
posed at the river and the aqueduct then 
enters the 13-mile tunnel through the 
Whipple Mountains. Near Shavers Sum- 
mit three pumping plants are required to 
lift the water to the summit elevation of 
1,817 feet. At the base of the last pump- 
ing plant is a natural reservoir site (Hay- 
field) of large capacity. The line west of 
Shavers Summit is to be principally in 
tunnel along the face of the San Ber- 
nardino Mountains. Crossing the upper 
end of the Coachella Valley the line will 
be in open conduit and the San Jacinto 
Mountains are to be tunneled. 

According to the report of the board, 
six routes for the aqueduct were surveyed 
and carefully studied, all but one requir- 
ing pumping the water over the interven- 
ing mountains with total lift ranging from 
1,523 feet on the Parker route to 2,051 
feet on the Bull's Head route. In length 
the five pumping routes vary from 234 to 
299 miles, while the gravity route from 




JMke 






O X A. Las Vegaa O 

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Los Angeles e>Z~~ * 'oSan Bernard iti< 
K O ->^ 

O Riverside 




COLORADO RIVER 
AQUEDUCT ROUTES 




San Diej-o 



38 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February, 1931 



Bridge Canyon is 315 miles long. The 
All-American Canal route would have 
been the cheapest, but would involve 
joint use of the canal which is planned for 
irrigation of the Imperial and Coachella 
Valleys, and the board of review did not 
believe this to be either desirable or 
practicable. The Bridge Canyon gravity 
line would cost $468,000,000 and require 
two very long tunnels, one 89 miles and 
the other 75 miles. With a gravity 
aqueduct it is estimated that the cost per 
acre-foot of water delivered at terminal 
reservoirs over a 40-year period would be 
$51.23, as compared with $26.56 for the 
adopted Parker route. 

The Metropolitan Water District is 
composed at the present time of 12 cities 
and towns Anaheim, Beverly Hills, Bur- 
bank, Colton, Glendale, Los Angeles, 
Ontario, Pasadena, San Bernardino, San 
Marino, Santa Ana, and Santa Monica. 
These have a combined population of 
about 1,500,000. A number of other 
cities and towns have indicated an inter- 
est in the plan to obtain a supplemental 
water supply from the Colorado River, 
but have not yet made final decision 
through special elections. A contract has 
already been made with the United States 
which provides for the delivery to the 
district each year from the Boulder 
Canyon Reservoir, up to and not to 
exceed 1,050,000 acre-feet of water, which 
corresponds to an average flow through- 
out the year of 1,500 cubic feet per sec- 
ond. The district will be charged 25 
cents per acre-foot for Boulder Canyon 
Reservoir water during the project 50- 
year repayment period. This will mean 
an annual payment to the Government 
of about $250,000. 

Specifications and Plans 
Hoover Dam 

(Continued from p. 36) 

GATES AND OTHER MACHINERY 

Four structural steel Stoney gates with 
their hoists, counterweights, structural 
steel guides, and other appurtenances, 
weighing 2,600,000 pounds, will be re- 
quired. One of these gates will be in- 
stalled in the upstream end of each spill- 
way structure, and the other two gates at 
the downstream end of the inner diversion 
tunnels. Each gate will be 50 feet in 
height by 54 feet 7% inches in width, made 
up of structural-steel plate girders ap- 
proximately 72 inches in depth, and 
mounted on caterpillar roller trains, run- 
ning on heavy structural H-beams at- 
tached to the concrete structure. 

The hydraulically operated high-pres- 
sure gates, 56 in number and weighing 
10,340,000 pounds, include emergency 
gates in the upper and lower canyon-wall 
outlet works and the slide gates in the 



upper concrete plugs in the inner diver- 
sion tunnels. In each of the 30-foot 
diameter intake towers a 31-foot diameter 
by 10-foot cylinder gate will be installed, 
each gate with hoist weighing about 570 
tons. Twelve 8-foot by 10-foot metal 
shutter gates will be provided for each 
tower, to be used for closing the water 
passages for repairs to the cylinder gates. 
Forty 72-inch needle valves weighing 
4,070,000 pounds will be installed, 32 of 
which are to be in the 4 canyon-wall 
buildings. Fourteen traveling cranes will 
be furnished by the Government for use in 
installing and maintaining gates, hoists, 
and valves. The 4 cranes in the intake 
towers will be 15-ton capacity; 36-foot 
span; in the canyon-wall outlets there will 
be 4 cranes of 30-ton capacity and 36.5- 
foot span. 



Contractors Request 
Hoover Dam Specifications 

The following contracting firms (not 
necessarily prospective bidders) have re- 
quested plans and specifications for the 
Hoover Dam from the Washington office: 
The Arundel Corporation, Baltimore, 
Md.; Mason-Hanger Co., New York City; 
Underpinning & Foundation Co. (Inc.), 
New York City; R. S. Morrow & Son, 
Omaha, Nebr.; Joseph Miele Construction 
Co., Maplewood, N. J.; Ward Engineering 
Co., San Francisco, Calif.; A. Phelps & 
Sons, Detroit, Mich.; Spencer, White & 
Prentis (Inc.), New York .City; Booth & 
Flinn Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Parker & Gra- 
ham (Inc.), Slatington, Pa.; The Carleton 
Co. (Inc.), New York City; Harrison- 
Wright Co., Charlotte, N. C.; The Ameri- 
can Foundation (Inc.), Cincinnati, Ohio; 
Robert E. McKee, El Paso, Tex.; States 
Corporation, Chicago, 111.; PaulJ. Moranti 
(Inc.), New York City; Allied Engineers 
(Inc.), New York City; W. S. Lee Engi- 
neering Corporation, Charlotte, N. C.; 
Mark R. Hanna Co., Detroit, Mich.; 
Gauger-Korsmo Construction Co., Mem- 
phis, Tenn.; A. Guthrie & Co. (Inc.), 
Chicago, 111.; The Hunkin-Conkey Con- 
struction Co., Cleveland, Ohio; White & 
Dart, New York City; M. P. Smith 
Construction Co., Chattanooga, Tenn. 



New Map Available 

A new map of the Boise irrigation 
project, Idaho, has just been received 
from the lithographer. Four printings 
have been used to show topography, 
reservoirs, principal canals, and irrigable 
areas of the Boise and adjacent projects. 

The map is numbered 23900, the scale 
is 8 miles to an inch, the size is 10% by 
13% inches, and the price is 10 cents per 
copy. 



Colorado River Commissions 
and Boards 

Colorado River Compact Commission. 
The members of the original Colorado 
River Compact Commissiqn who signed 
the Colorado River compact Nov. 24, 
1922, which was approved for the United 
States by Hon. Herbert Hoover, then 
Secretary of Commerce were: W. S. Nor- 
vel, of Arizona; W. F. McClure, of Cali- 
fornia; Delph E. Carpenter, of Colorado; 
J. G. Scrugham, of Nevada; Stephen B. 
Davis, jr., of New Mexico; R. E. Cald- 
well, of Utah; Frank C. Emerson, of 
Wyoming; and Herbert Hoover, chair- 
man. 

The Colorado River compact provides 
that the chief official of each State charged 
with the administration of water rights, 
together with the commissioner of Bureau 
of Reclamation, and Director of Geologi- 
cal Survey shall cooperate along certain 
lines. The organization contemplated by 
the compact has not yet assembled. 

Upper basin compact commission. The 
upper basin States have organized a com- 
pact commission consisting of the follow- 
ing: Delph E. Carpenter, Colorado River 
commissioner, Colorado; Francis C. Wil- 
son, Colorado River commissioner, New 
Mexico; W. W. Ray, attorney, member 
Colorado River Commission, Utah; and 
John A. Whiting, State engineer, Wyom- 
ing. 

Colorado River Board. Under Public 
Resolution No. 65, dated May 29, 1928, 
Seventieth Congress, the Secretary of the 
Interior, on July 6, 1928, appointed a 
board of engineers and geologists to con- 
sider plans and specifications for the 
Boulder Canyon project comprising 
Maj. Gen. William L. Sibert, Mobile, Ala., 
chairman; Prof. Charles P. Berkey, Co- 
lumbia University, New York; Prof. 
Daniel W. Mead, University of Wiscon- 
sin; Robert Ridgway, 49 Lafayette 
Street, New York; and Prof. Warren J. 
Mead, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
Wis. 

This board has made three reports as 
follows : 

(1) November 24, 1928, House Docu- 

ment 446, Seventieth Congress, 
Second session, 15 pages. 
(Summary in Reclamation Era. 
January 1929, pp. 2-3.) 

(2) April 16, 1930, raising height of 

dam 25 feet, and other mat- 
ters. (Summary in Reclama- 
tion Era, June, 1930, p. 113.) 

(3) December 6, 1930, approval given 

to the designs for diversion 
works and other features which 
must be completed during the 
early stages of construction. 
(Continued on p. 41) 




GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND ENGINEERS INSPECTING BLACK CANYON ON THE COLORADO RIVER. THE SITE 

OF HOOVER DAM 39 



40 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February, 1931 



Hoover Dam as Seen by Engineering News-Record 



HERETOFORK tlu- Boulder Canyon 
Dam, or Hoover Dam, to use the 
name given it by prenatal christening, 
has been thought of as excelling chiefly in 
size. Even the description given in our 
pages last February seemed to convey 
little more. Now the bidding plans and 
specifications reveal it as the most ad- 
vanced, the boldest and most thoroughly 
studied hydraulic enterprise in engineer- 
ing history. 

That it proved possible through special 
effort to put the call for bids ahead six 
months, and thereby help to bring earlier 
relief to our lagging productive activities, 
entitles the engineers and officials of the 
Reclamation Bureau to thanks and con- 
gratulations. But they deserve even 
greater commendation for the quality of 
their work. The plans and specifications 
are of rare perfection. Not only are the 
arrangement and details of the structure 
worked out with high originality and 
painstaking care but the specification of 
desired results approaches measurably 
near to that ideal at which the engineer's 
arbitrary judgment is eliminated. Such 
preparation goes far toward assuring suc- 
cessful and satisfactory construction. 

Hoover Dam is to be nearly twice as 
high as any dam yet built. But this 
single fact gives only a fragmentary view 
of the dimensions of the tasks involved. 
With 5,000,000 cubic yards of concrete, 
30,000 tons of structural steel, and over 
70 miles of grouting holes, with rock 
tunnels ranging from 50 to 70 feet in 
diameter and 2,000 tons of needle valves, 
the structure that is to be. set in the path 
of the turbulent Colorado in a sheer- 
walled narrow gorge at the bottom of an 
inaccessible desert canyon, in the remo- 
test region of the United States, consti- 
tutes a work ranking with the greatest 
ever attempted by human hands. Size 
and remoteness aside, however, the pro- 
ject gave rise to broader and more funda- 
mental study of the strength and action 
of dams than engineering science until 
now has known. It will doubtless be- 
come a new datum point in the record of 
dam and hydraulic construction. 

Two years ago a review board of engi- 
neers and geologists answered various 
doubts about the safety of the projected 
dam by indorsing the general scheme, 
with a conservative recommendation as 
to foundation loads 30 in place of 40 
tons per square foot. The same board 
was then charged with the responsibility 
of approving the final design before con- 
struction. It has done so, and only 
details remain to be considered certain 
construction features of the dam and the 
discharge works. As now presented to 



bidders the project is substantially final, 
and no engineering problems stand in 
the way of early beginning of work or 
its successful prosecution through the 
seven years of construction. 

CONTRACTUAL PROBLEMS OVERCOME 

Very recently it had been feared that 
ditticulities would arise in the contractual 
relations between the bidder and the 
Government because of the size of the 
work, the risk of loss by floods and the 
possibility of unforeseeable changes in 
labor and material costs during the long 
time involved. Some people believed 
that the contractor would need to be 
protected by a special contract to relieve 
him of undue risk, while others asked 
that local labor be given a preference, 
that a prevailing-wage requirement be 
included, and the like. In short, the 
contractual relation appeared to be a 
serious problem. It is highly fortunate, 
we believe, that a simple and normal 
contract is now proposed to bidders. 
Only three unusual clauses appear: 
(1) The bid bond and the construction 
surety are set at fixed and moderate 
amounts ($2,000,000 and $5,000,000 re- 
spectively); (2) the Government, after 
once accepting the cofferdams built to its 
design, assumes the risk of flood damage 
to all property except contractor's plant; 
(3) qualified veterans and citizens have a 
preference right to employment. These 
provisions give such protection as is 
needed and are not likely to cause delay 
or to limit the contractor's freedom in his 
effort to get efficient and economical 
results. It may be noted also that the 
Government will supply all main mate- 
rials, except concrete aggregates, but 
this is not without precedent and should 
not bear on satisfactory construction 
relations. 

INTENSIVE STUDY OF DAM 

Of the structures of the project, the 
great dam itself commands interest far 
overshadowing that of the accessories. 
It was early recognized as presenting a 
critical problem in respect to determining 
the stress action, especially because the 
arched form (suited to the gorge location 
and the hard rock walls) made it inevitable 
that much load would be borne laterally 
by arch action. Intensive study was 
therefore given to mathematical analysis 
of the structure in order to determine the 
precise nature of the interaction between 
the horizontal arch elements and the 
vertical beam elements of the dam. As 
a result, a high degree of certainty has 
been attained in determining how the 
dam will resist water pressure. Model 



tests are to be made in confirmation, but 
perhaps after all a model 3 or 4 feet high 
will not be able to bring out as much 
truth as does the mathematical study. 
The dead-load stresses and those stresses 
which exist in the unloaded mass are of 
course unknown; the construction methods 
are planned to set limits to these stresses 
as far as possible. 

A more critical question was that of 
building the dam so as to obtain an 
integral mass and avoid cracking, which, 
outside of foundation uncertainties, is 
the most serious defect in modern con- 
crete dam construction. Both shrinkage 
(due to moisture change) and thermal 
action (due to heating of the concrete while 
it is setting and to subsequent cooling and 
contraction) are factors here. Shrinkage 
is dealt with in Hoover Dam by building 
the structure in blocks or vertical co- 
lumnar prisms 50 feet square, the joints 
between which are to be grouted under 
pressure later on, thereby creating a solid 
arch. The heating difficulty is dealt with 
by placing within the concrete a close 
network of cooling pipes, through which 
refrigerated water is to be circulated 
during the setting of the concrete to keep 
it cool and draw out the heat generated 
by the chemical action of set. The ideas 
embodied in these two expedients are 
closely in harmony with those entertained 
by leading workers in the field of dams for 
some time past, but they have never been 
translated so definitely into practical 
form. Block construction has been 
adopted in many dams ever since 
Schussler's Crystal Springs clam of 40 or 
more years ago; but as now used, with 
bitumen-painted sides fully keyed, and 
subsequent grouting, it is unmistakably a 
new departure. Far more radical an 
innovation, however, is the cooling-pipe 
system, an expedient which perhaps is due 
in part to the hot summer climate at the 
site. Its virtues are untried, but on the 
other hand it can not harm the dam. It 
is preeminently the most original feature 
of the dam. 

Dry mixtures are to be used in all the 
concrete work, to obtain high strength 
and density, and accordingly bucket plac- 
ing is specified. But it is timely to remark 
here that many questions relating to the 
concrete work are still to be considered in 
detail. A special committee of concrete 
experts outside the Reclamation Bureau 
has been appointed for this purpose; its 
sessions early in January are expected to 
place the questions of cement and con- 
crete on a final basis. They will contrib- 
ute to making Hoover Dam a significant 
milestone in the progress of dam science 
and construction. 



February, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



41 



In view of these remarkable studies and 
design developments, the exceptional site, 
the deep foundation work, and the 
thorough grouting of the foundation rock 
that is proposed, the magnitude and com- 
plexity of the associated structures, it is 
in no way extravagant to conclude that 
that Boulder Canyon project has been 
given an engineering stature fully pro- 
portionate to its position as a surpassing 
contribution to the development of the 
Southwest, and indeed its security. Full 
appraisal of the service that the control 
of the Colorado will render to that region 
must be left to the future, but at the most 
moderate estimate the service constitutes 
a challenge to the engineering profession 
that it support the project with the high- 
est performance within its power. The 
engineers responsible for the project have 
done their part. 

Colorado River Commissions 
and Boards 

(Continued from p. 38) 

Hoover Dam consulting board. The 
following board of engineers and geolo- 
gists has been appointed by Commissioner 
Elwood Mead as a consulting board on 
Hoover Dam: Prof. W. F. Durand, 
Leland Stanford University, Calif.; D. C. 
Henny, Portland, Oreg.; L. C. Hill, Los 
Angeles, Calif.; F. L. Ransome, River- 
side, Calif.; and A. J. Wiley, Boise, Idaho. 

Board of consultant specialists on con- 
crete. The following have been appointed 
by the Bureau of Reclamation to consider 
problems regarding cement and concrete 
for the Hoover Dam: F. R. McMillan, 
director of research, Portland Cement 
Association, Chicago, 111.; Prof. William 
K. Hatt, school of civil engineering, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.; Prof. 
Raymond E. Davis, department of civil 
engineering, University of California; 
Prof. H. J. Gilkey, University of Colorado, 
Boulder, Colo.; Dr. P. H. Bates, chief, 
cement division, Bureau of Standards, 
Washington, D. C. 

Colorado River Planning Commission. 
A planning commission (the membership 
is not quite yet complete) includes the fol- 
lowing: Porter J. Preston, for the United 
States; M. C. Hinderlider, for Colorado; 
H. W. Yeo, for New Mexico; W. D. Beers 
and George M. Bacon, for Utah; and 
John A. Whiting, for Wyoming. Repre- 
sentatives for the other States are to be 
requested on the commencement of the 
investigations in those States. 

STATE COMMISSIONS 
Arizona. Colorado River Commission 
includes Governor George W. Hunt, ex 
officio; Charles B. Ward, chairman; John 
M. Ross, secretary. 

California. Colorado River Commis- 
sion includes John M. Bacon, chairman, 



W. B. Matthews, Earl C. Pound, and 
F. H. Mclver, secretary. 

Colorado. Colorado River Commission, 
Delph E. Carpenter, commissioner, and 
the Colorado River Planning Commission; 
M. C. Hinderlider, State engineer. 

Nevada. Colorado River Develop- 
ment Commission: Governor F. B. Bal- 
zar, chairman; George W. Malone, State 
engineer; and Ed. W. Clark. 

New Mexico. Interstate Water Com- 
missioner Francis C. Wilson; Colorado 
River Planning Commission, H. W. Yeo, 
State Engineer. 

Utah. Colorado River Planning Com- 
mission, W. R. Wallace, chairman, W. W. 
Ray and W. D. Beers, Colorado River 
Planning Commission; W. D. Beers and 
George M. Bacon, State engineer; Utah 
Water Storage Commission, William R. 
Wallace, chairman, George M. Bacon, 
secretary, Richard R. Lyman, A. F. 
Doremus, A. P. Bigelow, W. W. Arm- 
strong, William Paterson, J. R. Murdock, 
John G. M. Barnes, W. O. Creer, Wilford 
Van Wagenen, S. M. Nielson, and B. O. 
Colton. 

Wyoming. State Engineer John A. 
Whiting is representative on all State 
organizations having to do with inter- 
state stream problems. 

Model Town Planned at 
Boulder City 

(Continued from p. 30) 

to be made of the planting of trees along 
the streets as well as in the parks. Along 
residential streets tree planting will be in 
groups, thus admitting sunlight and giving 
shade alternately. In the business blocks 
at setbacks in the buildings individual 
trees can be placed. P. I. Taylor, Engi- 
neer, Bureau of Reclamation. 



Representative Arentz's 
Name Omitted 

The January issue of the NEW RECLA- 
MATION ERA carried on page 10 an excerpt 
from the speech of Hon. Ray Lyman 
Wilbur, Secretary of the Interior, at the 
celebration in connection with the com- 
mencement of construction of the Boulder 
Canyon project, as quoted from a recent 
press release by the Department of the 
Interior. 

In the original speech Secretary Wilbur 
gave credit to Hon. Samuel S. Arentz, 
Member of Congress from Nevada, for 
participation in the enactment of the 
Boulder Canyon Project legislation, along 
with Senators Johnson, Pittman, and 
Oddie, and Representative Swing, but 
through an inadvertence Representative 
Arentz's name was omitted in the news 
release. The ERA regrets this omission 
and hastens to make the correction. 



In the Imperial Valley of Southern 
California the silt content of the irrigation 
water from the Colorado River was 3.55 
per cent by volume in the year 1929, as 
compared with 1.94 per cent in 1928. 



The Owyhee Dam on the Owyhee 
project, Oregon, is 51 per cent completed, 
and the General Construction Co. is very 
little behind schedule with the work. 
Concrete operations slowed down in 
December, and suspension of this feature 
was looked for in January. Cold weather 
necessitated keeping up fires and protect- 
ing fresh concrete with canvas as soon as 
poured. Aggregates and water were 
heated at the mixer, so that no concrete 
reached the forms at a temperature lower 
than 50" F. At this temperature the 
concrete was protected for 72 hours. 




Construction o.' Xewell town-site drain, Belle Fourche project, 8outh Dakc 



42 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February, 1931 



HNURR. Assistant to the Commissioner ~=s~~ 




Boulder Canyon Project and Its Effect on Future Development 

Address by Miss Mae A. Schmtrr. assistant to the Commissioner. Bureau of Reclamation, at the annual meeting, land reclamation dioision American Society 

of Agricultural Engineers, San Francisco, Calif., January 6 and 7, 1931 



THE Boulder Canyon project has 
been in the public eye for many years, 
and magazines, newspapers, and lec- 
turers have featured this project until it 
might be thought there would be no phase 
of its development which had not been 
covered, but when one tackles the subject 
of this project's effect on future develop- 
ment it offers an opportunity to discuss 
evident benefits and stirs the imagination 
as to probable ones. 

The interest of the United States in the 
Boulder Canyon project is now largely 
centered upon it as a colossal feat in engi- 
neering. This dam will be nearly twice 
as high as any hitherto attempted, the lake 
fourteen times the size of the lake at As- 
suan in Egypt and ten times the size of any 
existing artificial reservoir for irrigation 
purposes in the United States. It is a 
wonderful engineering undertaking to 
place this huge wedge of concrete in a can- 
yon nearly 2,000 feet deep and where man 
will have to work under a summer temper- 
ature of over 100. 

AFFECTS WATER LAW 

The greatest significance is to be found, 
however, in the social and economic 
changes which the building of a single 
structure is destined to bring about. Al- 
ready it has wrought a significant change 
in our water laws. California, wedded to 
the riparian doctrine, will experience a 
revolutionary change by building a huge 
aqueduct 265 miles long to carry the Colo- 
rado River into another watershed. The 
Colorado River compact, which dedicates 
to particular States a perpetual share in 
this water supply, modified both the ripa- 
rian doctrine and that of appropriations 
which have heretofore controlled. But 
the great change is in the increase in 
wealth and the improvement in living 
conditions over a wide area of the South- 
west. 

REMOVES MENACE TO IMPERIAL VALLEY 

The original reason for enlisting the aid 
of the Federal Government was the plight 
of the people living in Imperial Valley. 



Before the water of the Colorado was 
brought into this basin, it was a hideous 
desert, but supplied with water it became 
a center of production that has been bene- 
fiting the whole Nation. The thousands 
of carloads of lettuce which every spring 
go out of the Imperial Valley to every 
large eastern city, have changed the diet 
on their tables, and the thousands of car- 
loads of Imperial Valley cantaloupes have 
made this a better world to live in from 
one ocean to the other. But the people 
who have wrought this transformation 
have had to do it under a continuous 
menace, because where the river crosses 
the boundary into Mexico, it is 100 feet 
above where their irrigation canal crosses 
the international boundary, and the lower 
part of the valley is 300 feet below the 
river. It is kept out of the valley by a 
levee 70 miles long and that levee is 
menaced by every flood. The only way 
to remove that menace, and give per- 
manence to the lives and fortunes of the 
100,000 people in Imperial Valley is by 
means of a reservoir large enough to hold 
all the water in times of emergency, and 
large enough to regulate its flow so that 
the disastrous floods of the past will be 
only a memory. That is why Hoover 
Dam was first thought of. That is why it 
was designed to have a reservoir large 
enough to completely regulate the river, 
and why the one planned will hold all 
the water that comes down the river for 
two years. 

When this matter was brought to Con- 
gress 10 years ago it was seen that without 
some modification of existing water laws, 
it would be a menace to the development 
of the upper section of the stream. It 
took years to inspire Congress with cour- 
age enough to sanction a dam that broke 
all precedents, and in that time the 
Southwest was growing as no one had ever 
dreamed it would grow. Los Angeles, 
San Diego, and other California cities 
more than doubled in population while 
Congress was deliberating on Hoover 
Dam, and all through this meagerly 
watered section of the Southwest, more 
people, more orchards, more factories 



were creating a demand for water which 
could not be supplied locally. 

When Los Angeles went 250 miles to 
the Owens River to reinforce its water 
supply, everyone drew a breath of relief. 
They said "Now that question is settled. 
We have water for all time. Not only 
water enough for the city but enough to 
irrigate the San Fernando Valley." Se- 
cure in that conviction, little attention 
was paid by the people of that city to 
what was proposed on the Colorado, but 
before Congress had passed the act, Los 
Angeles had become a city of over a 
million people, and had begun to dream 
about being the largest city on the con- 
tinent. To insure that, an adequate 
supply of pure water had to be provided, 
as no city can expand larger than its 
water supply, and the only source was the 
Colorado, so that now Los Angeles is 
planning the largest and longest aqueduct 
in the world, a fit counterpart in its 
engineering features to the Hoover Dam 
and the great lake above it. 

Public opinion would never have sanc- 
tioned approval of the Boulder Canyon 
Project Act if it could not be shown that 
the project would pay for itself. It was 
thus that the development of hydro- 
electric power entered into the delibera- 
tions of Congress and was finally accepted 
as the instrument to finance this project. 

Hoover Dam power means lightening 
the burden of settlers, the establishment 
of industries, and the economic develop- 
ment of natural resources. The dam 
will be located in a mineralized section; 
as a result its latent resources will very 
probably be developed. 

SCENIC ATTRACTIONS 

As water begins to gather behind the 
dam, forming a huge lake 110 miles long, 
we will see in the making what is destined 
to be a wonderful scenic attraction. 
Hoover Dam will be a connecting link 
between Arizona and Nevada, and the 
combination of the dam and the lake will 
undoubtedly create a Mecca for tourists. 

We are planning a model city for 5,000 
people, 7 miles from the damsite to be 






February, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



43 



known as Boulder City. It is reasonable 
to expect that with natural attractions 
and good accommodations, tourists may 
be expected to come in great numbers. 
Denver is now largely supported by 
tourist travel to the Rocky Mountains, 
having formerly depended on its smelters. 
It is a phase not to be overlooked. 
Chambers of Commerce recognize its 
possibilities to foster further development. 

In the case of the Boulder Canyon 
project tourist travel would maintain 
certain enterprises started during the 
7-year period of construction by employees. 

I have touched on some of the effects 
of the Boulder Canyon project on future 
development; there must be many others. 

I appreciate the opportunity to address 
you. The fact that I was sent to this 
meeting from Washington indicates an 
interest in your society and the things 
you are trying to accomplish. We have 
a wholesome respect for your organiza- 
tion and the way you go about matters 
that the society interests itself in. The 
magazine of the society, The Agricultural 
Engineer, is an aristocrat in its field. 

You will always find us ready and will- 
ing to cooperate in any way we can. 



Imperial Valley Has 

424,000 Acres in Crops 

The annual report of the Imperial Ir- 
rigation District of California, just 
received in the Washington office, contains 
much interesting data concerning this 
area which is to be greatly benefited by 
the construction of the Boulder Canyon 
project. The district includes 605,000 
acres (the largest irrigation district in the 
United States) of which 515,000 acres are 
irrigable. In this valley situated below 
sea level there is a population of 60,000 
persons. The annual diversion from the 
Colorado River for the year 1929 
amounted to 3,423,511 acre-feet or 20 per 
cent of the river's discharge at Yuma, 
Ariz., of which 615,934 acre-feet or 18 per 
cent were delivered to water users in 
Mexico. Of this amount 1,173,390 acre- 
feet were wasted or lost, and the remain- 
ing 2,250,121 acre-feet were delivered to 
the farms, or 3.95 acre-feet to each acre. 
The net area cropped was 424,145 acres, 
and the grand area in crops was 675,843 
acres, which includes 251,698 acres 
counted twice. Among the principal 
crops and their acreages are, alfalfa, 
245,775; barley, 117,793; corn, 29,251; 
cotton, 20,431; lettuce, 77,654; canta- 
loupes, 64,773; melons, 24,530. In Mex- 
ico the principal crops with acreages and 
percentages were, cotton, 145,452, 88.1 
per cent; alfalfa, 16,893, 10.3 per cent; 
grain, 2,185, 1.3 per cent. 



Project Holds Third Annual Dairy Show 

By Maurice D. Scroggs. Irrigation Manager, SunnysiJe Dioision, Yak/ma Project 



The Third Annual Sunnyside Dairy 
Show was held October 3 and 4, 1930, at 
which there were 168 entries of registered 
and grade dairy cattle of the Jersey, 
Guernsey, and Holstein breeds. Over 
60 exhibitors entered and several hundred 
project men and women attended the 
2-day show. 

The success of the Sunnyside Dairy 
Show, which was initiated in 1928 by the 
Sunnyside Commercial Club, has been 



Yakima 

Oh, Yakima we praise thee, 

All glory to thy name, 
The God of genius' ideas 

Made possible thy fame. 

There once the coyote traveled, 
A seeming worthless plain, 

Burned by the sun of summer 
And destitute of rain. 

'Twas man's imagination, 

The work of many years, 
That brought about your progress 

By skillful engineers. 

The water in abundance 

Comes from the mountain stream 
To decorate your acres, 

All with a lovely green. 

Your beauty and your grandeur, 

Your majesty supreme, 
Would mock the boasting artist 

Beyond his thought or dream. 

There stand the great snow mountains, 
Their lofty peaks soar high, 

To bless the fields and hamlets 
When all is parched and dry. 

Your people all are happy, 

Contented to remain; 
' Tis proof that many blessings 

With Reclamation came. 

John S. Gabbard, 
R. F. D. 6, Yakima, Wash. 



made possible by the financial and adminis- 
trative support of the business men of 
Sunnyside and the active interest and 
participation of the farmers of the Sunny- 
side division. 

The purpose of the show is to encourage 
and stimulate the dairy-cow owner, 
especially the small farmer with grade 
cows, for whom, the sponsors of the show 
realized, success in the dairy industry 
rested primarily upon production. Al- 
though prizes are offered for registered 
cattle, the larger share of the premiums 
go to the exhibitors of grade cattle. Every 



effort is made by special production classes 
and otherwise to place the emphasis upon 
breeding and building for production. 
The scrub bull is taboo and the purebred 
sire of proven worth encouraged. 

One of the most gratifying phases of the 
show is the participation of the youth of 
the farm, especially those enrolled in 4-H 
clubs. This interest has grown each year 
and it is planned to foster it in every way 
possible. 

The committee for the Sunnyside 
Commercial Club this year was: A. G. 
Fleming, chairman; Fred H. Langford, 
secretary; George R. Gochnour, superin- 
tendent; S. H. Harrison, John Heffron, 
and Maurice D. Scroggs, directors. These 
had the very active assistance of the 
Washington State College, the county 
4-H leader, the State supervisor of live- 
stock, and the Yakima Dairy Develop- 
ment League; as well as many farmers and 
business men throughout the Yakima 
Valley. 

The budget for the Dairy Show has 
approximated $2,000 each year. The 
chief item of expenditure has been for 
premiums. The permanent building for 
housing the exhibits was constructed in 
1929 and another is planned for the near 
future. Permanent grounds near the center 
of the business district of Sunnyside have 
been acquired and adequate arrange- 
ments have been provided for the watering, 
care, and exhibiting of the stock. The 
Sunnyside Dairy Show seems to be on a 
permanent basis. With the unquestioned 
possibilities and indeed necessity for 
dairying in the Yakima Valley, this 
annual event should be increasingly 
effective in contributing to the growth and 
success of the industry. While some 
prophesy greater things, the sponsors of 
the Dairy Show are planning conserva- 
tively, well content with that all too rare 
an accomplishment a community enter- 
prise in which so many are enthusiastically 
and constructively cooperating. 



WORK has been started by the State 
Highway Department of California 
on the paving of 6 miles of the Los Angeles 
and San Diego Highway starting at the 
Colorado River bridge at Yuma. This 
work includes a relocation of a portion of 
the highway, erection of several bridges 
over washes, making of a number of grade 
changes, and the laying of 6 miles of 20- 
foot bitulithic paving. The building of 
this highway, the completion of which is 
anticipated by June, is expected to relieve 
to a considerable extent the local unem- 
ployment situation. 



44 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February. 1931! 



Notes For Contractors 



Boulder <.'<in yon project. Bids were 
opened on January 7, 1931, for the con- 
struction of the highway between Boulder 
City and the Hoover Dam (specifications 
No. 517). Sixteen bids were received, 
the low bid being that of the General 
Construction Co. of Seattle, Wash., 
whose bid on the basis of a 30-foot oiled 
surface highway was $388,207 and on the 
basis of a 22-foot oiled surface was 
$329,916. 

On January 12, 1931, bids under speci- 
fications No. 518 were opened at Las 
Vegas, Nev., for constructing about 10% 
miles of the United States construction 
railroad from the summit to the Hoover 
Dam site. The low bidder was the Lewis 
Construction Co. of Los Angeles, Calif., 
with a bid of $455,510. 

Specifications No. 519 covering con- 
struction of the Hoover Dam, power 
plant and appurtenant works are now 
available at the Denver, Las Vegas, and 
Washington offices. The price of the 
plans and specifications is $5 a copy. 
Bids for this work will be opened at the 
Denver office at 10 o'clock a. m., March 4, 
1931. 

Plans and specifications for the various 
features of the construction of Boulder 
City are being prepared as rapidly as 
possible. Bids were opened on January 
15 for furnishing two riveted plate-steel 
tanks for the water-supply system. On 
January 26 bids were opened at the Den- 
ver office, under specifications No. 501-D, 



for furnishing three deep well pumps, each 
having a capacity of 550 gallons per 
minute, when operating under a total 
effective head of 110 feet; six horizontal, 
centrifugal pumps, each having a capacity 
of 450 gallons per minute, when operating 
under a total effective head of 1,200 feet; 
and three horizontal, centrifugal pumps, 
each having a capacity of 550 gallons per 
minute, when operating under a total 
effective head of 170 feet. These pumps 
are for installation in the water-supply 
system for Boulder City. Specifications 
have also been issued which cover the 
construction of twelve 3 and 4 room 
houses for Government employees. 

Other specifications! which are being 
prepared and which will be issued as fast 
as completed, include the purchase of 
materials for the water-supply pipe line 
from the river to the city, construction of 
the pipe line, purchase of materials for the 
city water-supply system and the sewer 
system, including a sewerage disposal 
plant, the construction of the sewer and 
water system, purchase of electrical 
apparatus for transmission lines and sub- 
station for the city electrical system, 
construction of the electrical system, 
grading streets, construction of sidewalks 
and curbs, construction of an administra- 
tion building and garage, and the con- 
struction of additional houses. 

Vale project. Bids were opened on 
December 19, 1930, for earthwork and 
structures on the Vale main canal between 



Low River at Yuma 

The discharge of the Colorado River at 
Yuma, Ariz., on December 1, was 5,500 
cubic feet per second. During the greater 
part of the month the flow was stationary 
at 3,300 to 3,800 cubic feet per second. 
The last few days of the month the dis- 
charge fell off and on the 31st was 2,350 
cubic feet per second. Run-off for the 
month of December was the lowest of 
record, being only 45 per cent of normal. 
The run-off for the calendar year 1930 of 
10,629,000 acre-feet was the lowest for 
26 years, 1904 being the only year of 
record with a lower run-off. This low 
river is a convincing argument for the 
need of storage in the reservoir behind the 
Hoover Dam, and the resulting regula- 
tion of river flow. (LATER. On January 
7 the discharge was 1,740 cubic feet per 
second.) 



DURING the fall months approxi- 
mately 1,000 acres were planted to 
new alfalfa on the Vale project. 



Columbia Basin Project 

Yields Abundant Fruit 

During Commissioner Mead's visit to 
the Columbia Basin project last fall he 
was driven through a 157-acre apple 
orchard which had produced several 
varieties of apples, setting a record for a 
place of that size. The owner of this 
orchard, Charles Simpson, packed for 
shipment during the season the following 
boxes: Jonathans 55,757, Delicious 
54,304, Winesaps 25,571, Stayman Wine- 
saps 22,484, Spitzenburg 14, a total of 
158,130, or 1,007 boxes per acre. 

In another section of the Columbia 
Basin project Neppel, Moses Lake 
where irrigation is done by pumping, 
450 carloads of apples, pears, and other 
fruit were shipped out during the season. 
The Milwaukee Railroad, which con- 
siders this the brightest spot on its line, 
received $300,000 in freight from these 
shipments. The Schnuerlie orchard in 
this section packed over 1,000 boxes of 
apples to the acre during the season. 



stations 2060 + 58 and 2450 and the Bully 
Creek east bench lateral system, under 
specifications No. 515. The low bidder 
for schedules Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, 
which included the canal work and lateral 
excavation, was W. H. Puekett Co., of 
Boise, Idaho, at $75,323.50. The low 
bidder for schedule No. 2 was Henry C. 
Boyer, of Ontario, Oreg., at $5,080 and for 
schedules 7 to 11, inclusive, covering the- 
construction of lateral structures, Gabbey 
& McNeil, of Boise, Idaho, were low with 
a bid of $32,630.45. 

Owyhee project. On December 23, 1930,. 
bids were opened at Denver, Colo., under 
specifications No. 516, for furnishing 
three 48-inch internal differential needl& 
valves for the Owyhee Dam. The 
American Locomotive Co., of Schenectady, 
N. Y., was low bidder, with net price 
f. o. b. cars at Dunkirk, N. Y., of $18,831, 
and delivered cost $19,986.61. The award, 
of contract was approved on January 5. 

Bids were opened at the Denver office- 
December 18, 1930, under invitation 
No. 16205-A for 5,000 barrels of cement 
in sacks, and 200,000 barrels of bulk 
cement for the Owyhee project, and pro- 
posals were received from five companies. 
The low bid for the bulk cement was 
submitted by the Utah-Idaho Cement Co., 
of Ogden,Utah, for 40,000 barrels of cement 
only at a price of $1.31 per barrel, which, 
with the addition of the freight item, 
would amount to $2.438 per barrel. It- 
is proposed at this time to make an award 
for only 40,000 barrels and later to make 
recommendations with respect to the 5,000 
barrels of sack cement and the remaining 
160,000 barrels of bulk cement. 







Hauling apples from orchard to packing 
Columbia Basin project, Washington 



JFebruaiy, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



45 



Articles on Irrigation and Related Subjects 



Mead, Elwood: 

Hoover Dam plans ready for bidding, 
illus., and plans. Eng. News-Rec- 
ord, Dec. 25, 1930, vol. 105, pp. 
1011-1017. 
Hoover Dam: 

Digue de Piedra, de mas de 700 Pies de 
Alto, el mas Alto del Mundo, illus. 
Dun's International Review, De- 
cember, 1930, p. 48. 

Government ready for bids on Boulder 
Dam project, illus. Union Pacific 
Magazine, December, 1930, vol. 9, 
p. 19. 

Specifications for Hoover Dam ready 
December 15. The Constructor, De- 
cember, 1930, v. 12, p. 38. 

Call for bids on 60 to 70 million dollar 
Boulder project to be issued Decem- 
ber 1, illus. Excavating Engineer, 
December, 1930, vol. 24, pp. 581 
and 582. 

Hoover Dam plans ready soon, illus. 
Western Highways Builder, Decem- 
ber, 1930, vol. 12, p. 28. 

Hoover Dam. (Long editorial) Eng. 
News-Record, Dec. 25, 1930, vol. 
105, p. 974-995. 

Bidders on projects at Hoover Dam are 
sent specifications, illus. of dam. 
U. S. Daily, Jan. 2, 1931, vol. 5, p. 8 
(p. 3318). 

San Diego to receive more power from 
Hoover Dam. Eng. News-Record, 
Jan. 1, 1931, vol. 106, p. 41. 

Model Government owned town at 
Boulder (Hoover) Dam, civic com- 
ment. Am. Civic Asso., December, 
1930, pp. 4 and 5. 
Hydraulic laboratory: 

Site is selected for laboratory of hy- 
draulics. U. S. Daily, Dec. 10, 1930, 
v. 5, p. 3 (p. 3087). 
Weiss, Andrew: 

The Don Martin Irrigation project, 
Mexico, illus. Proc. Am. Soc. C. E., 
December, 1930, vol. 56, pp. 2141- 
2160. 
We\ mouth, F. E.: 

Parker route costing $200,664,000 rec- 
ommended for Colorado River aque- 
duct, illus. Western City, Decem- 
ber, 1930, vol. 6, pp. 37-41. 

Notable features of Parker route for 
Colorado River aqueduct, profile. 

' Southwest Builder and Contractor, 

Jan. 2, 1931, vol. 76, pp. 54-55. 
Peterson, K. Berry, attorney general, 
Arizona: 

Bill of complaint regarding construction 
Boulder Canyon project, inserted 
Record by L. W. Douglas. Con- 
gressional Record, Dec. 12, 1930, vol. 
73, pp. 653-660. 



Houk, Ivan E.: 

Temperature variations in concrete 
dams, illus. Western Construction 
News, Dec. 10, 1930, vol. 5, pp. 601- 
608. 
Taylor, P. L: 

Boulder Canyon project statistics. 
Western Construction News, Dec. 
10, 1930, vol. 5, pp. 613-615. 
Smith, F. F.: 

Echo Dam, illus. Professional Engi- 
neer, December, 1930, vol. 15, pp. 
16-17 and 32. 
Wooley, Ralf R.: 

Fluctuations in level of Great Salt Lake 
chart. Professional Engineer, De- 
cember, 1930, vol. 15, pp. 6-8. 
Lane, E. W. 

Materials in existing earth dams, charts. 
Eng. News- Record, Dec. 18, 1930, 
vol. 105, pp. 961-965. 
Bashore, H. W.: 

Hinged steel weir gates in the Vale 
project diversion dam (Harper), 
illus. Eng. News-Record, vol. 105, 
pp. 1009 and 1010. 
Adkins, A. W.: 

Hoover Dam, illus. Tech. Engineer- 
ing News, January, 1931. 
Dead wood Dam: 

Large dam (Deadwood) constructed 70 
miles from a railroad, illus. Union 
Pacific Magazine, January, 1931, 
p. 23. 

Salt River Valley Water Users Asso- 
ciation : 

Balance sheet and statement of revenues 
and expenses to Sept. 30, 1930. 
Arizona Producer, Jan. 1, 1930, vol. 
9, p. 6. 



Conservation Committee 

Holds Final Meeting 

On January 12, 1931, Chairman James 
R. Garfield opened the third and final 
meeting of the members of the Com- 
mittee on the Conservation and Adminis- 
tration of the Public Domain, at the 
conclusion of which the report was 
signed and transmitted to the President. 

The act authorizing the appointment 
of the committee was approved on 
April 10, 1930, and funds were made 
available on May 14. The first meeting 
of the committee, under the enabling act, 
was held early in June, and the second in 
November, when a tentative draft of the 
report was prepared. The January meet- 
ing was called by Chairman Garfield for 
consideration of this tentative draft and 
such changes as had been suggested by 
the various members. 

The members attending the meeting 
were as follows: James R. Garfield, 
chairman; I. M. Brandjord, H. O. Bur- 
sum, James P. Goodrich, Perry W. 
Jenkins, Rudolph Kuchler, George H. 
Lorimer, George W. Malone, Elwood 
Mead, Charles J. Moynihan, I. H. Nash, 
William Peterson, Mrs. Mary Roberts 
Rinehart, Huntley N. Spaulding, R. K. 
Tiffany, Wallace Townsend, and Francis 
C. Wilson. Pressure of other business 
prevented the attendance of Gardner 
Cowles, E. C. Van Petten, and W. B. 
Greeley, but the committee had the 
benefit of their written expressions of 
opinion. 

The contents of the report had not been 
released as the ERA goes to press. The 
general and special recommendations and 
the text relating to reclamation will be 
printed in the magazine as soon as 
available. 




Farm, buildings, and registered Holsreins of Vernon Herrlgstadt, near Savage, Lower Yellowstone project , 

Montana-North Dakota 



46 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



February, 1931 




Appropriations for Boulder Canyon Project 

Memorandum of Procedure Agreed to by Secretaries of Interior and Treasury 



THE Boulder Canyon project act, 
approved December 21, 1928 (U. S. 
C., Supp. Ill, title 33, ch. 15A), author- 
izes the appropriation of $165,000,000 
from the General Treasury. Pursuant to 
this act, $10,660,000 was appropriated by 
the second deficiency act, fiscal year 1930, 
approved July 3, 1930. 

2. Section 2 (a) of the Boulder Canyon 
project act establishes a special fund to be 
known as the Colorado River dam fund, 
and directs that all revenues received in 
carrying out the provisions of the act 
shall be paid into and expenditures shall 
be made out of the fund, under direction of 
the Secretary of the Interior. 

3. Section 2 (b) authorizes the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury to advance to the 
fund, from time to time and within the 
appropriations therefor, such amounts as 
the Secretary of the Interior deems neces- 
sary for carrying out the provisions of the 
act, * * * and that interest at the 
rate of 4 per cent accruing during the 
year upon the amounts advanced and 
remaining unpaid shall be paid annually 
out of the fund, except as otherwise 
provided. 

4. Section 2 (d) provides that the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury shall charge the 
fund as of June 30 in each year with such 
amount as may be necessary for the pay- 
ment of interest on advances made under 
subdivision (b) at the rate of 4 per cent 
per annum accrued during the year upon 
the amounts so advanced and remaining 
unpaid, except that if the fund is insuffi- 
cient to meet the payment of interest the 
Secretary of the Treasury may, in his dis- 
cretion, defer any part of such payment, 
and the amount deferred shall bear interest 
at the rate of 4 per cent until paid. 

5. Whether the annual interest is paid 
out of funds advanced to the Colorado 
River dam fund, as provided by section 2 
(b) or deferred as provided in section 2 (d) , 
the interest charge practically amounts 
to interest compounded annually. 

6. In view of the decision of the Attor- 
ney General of the United States that 



advances on account of the Ail-American 
Canal are not interest-bearing, it becomes 
necessary to account separately for ad- 
vances on account of the Boulder Canyon 
project and the All-American Canal. 
The following accounts will be estab- 
lished on the books of the Treasury : 



Appro- 
pria- 
tion 

symbol 



4X510. . 
4X511.. 
4S512... 
4S513... 



Title of account 



Advances to Colorado Eiver dam fund, 

Boulder Canyon project (no year) . 
Advances to Colorado River dam fund, 

All-American Canal (no year). 
Colorado Eiver dam fund, Boulder Canyon 

project (no year). 
Colorado River dam fund, All-American 

Canal (no year). 



7. Appropriations made by Congress 
pursuant to the Boulder Canyon project 
act of December 21, 1928, supra, for ad- 
vances to the Colorado River dam fund 
on account of the Boulder Canyon project, 
and the All-American Canal will be classi- 
fied as general funds and will be estab- 
lished upon the books of the Treasury 
by appropriation warrants under the fol- 
lowing appropriation symbols and titles: 



Appro- 
pria- 
tion 

symbol 



4X510. . 

4X511.. 



Title of account 



Advances to Colorado River dam fund, 
I Boulder Canyon project (no year). 
Advances to>. Colorado River dam fund, 
All-American Canal (no year) . 



8. Upon request by letter from the Sec- 
retary of the Interior to the Secretary of 
the Treasury, transfer appropriation war- 
rants will be issued in amounts requested 
therein, charging account 4X510 or ac- 
count 4X511, as appropriate, with corre- 
sponding credits to account 4S512 or 
account 4S513. For the purpose of report- 
ing expenditures in the daily statement of 
the United States Treasury, "expendi- 
tures, general fund general," will be 



charged when transfer appropriation 
warrants are issued advancing money to 
the Colorado River dam fund under 
section 2, and "special fund expenditures 
other," will be credited. Checks against 
the Colorado River dam fund will be issued 
under special fund symbol numbers as- 
signed to the special fiscal agents. 

9. Interest on advances from the appro- 
priation "4X510 advances to Colorado 
River dam fund, Boulder Canyon project 
(no year)," will be computed from the date 
of appropriation transfer warrant. The 
actual-day method will be followed in com- 
puting interest chargeable on advances to 
the Colorado River dam fund. In case a 
greater sum has been advanced to the 
Colorado River dam fund (4S512 or 4S513) 
than is necessary to provide for current 
payments, the excess amount may be 
transferred back to the advances account 
(4X510 or 4X511) upon letter from the 
Secretary of the Interior to the Secretary 
of the Treasury requesting such action, 
and interest on the amounts so returned 
will cease on the date the transfer warrant 
is issued. Amounts returned to the ad- 
vances account (4X510 or 4X511} under 
this procedure will not be considered "re- 
payment of advances" under section 2 (e) 
of the act of December 21, 1928. 

10. In case interest is deferred under 
section 2 (d) of the act, an appropriate 
certificate will be issued by the Secretary 
of the Treasury to the Secretary of the 
Interior. As there are no means of re- 
cording such indebtedness on the accounts 
of the Treasury relating to receipts, appro- 
priations and expenditures, in order that 
the indebtedness for deferred interest may 
be readily reconciled with the accounts of 
the Interior Department, the Treasury 
Department will maintain a memorandum 
account to record the interest so deferred, 
and the interest on such deferred interest. 

11. On June 30, of each year, unless 
interest is deferred under section 2 (d), a 
direct settlement will be made against the 
Colorado River dam fund (48512) the 
proceeds of which will be deposited into the 



February, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



47 



Treasury as "miscellaneous receipts 
interest on advances to Colorado River 
dam fund." In the event there are in- 
sufficient funds in the Colorado River dam 
fund to meet interest due on June 30 of any 
year the Secretary of the Treasury, upon 
request of the Secretary of the Interior, 
may advance to the Colorado River dam 
fund within the appropriation available 
therefor, an amount sufficient to cover such 
interest and such advance will bear inter- 
est at the rate of 4 per centum per annum 
as in the case of other advances made under 
section 2 (b) of the act. However, the 
Secretary of the Treasury may, in his 
discretion, defer any part of such interest 
under the provision of section 2 (d) of the 
act as explained in paragraphs 4 and 10 of 
this memorandum. 

12. Advances will be made to fiscal 
agents of the Department of the Interior 
only from the Colorado River dam fund 
(4S512 and 4S513). Deposits by fiscal 
agents of unexpended balances will be 
made to the Colorado River dam fund for 
credit to the accounts 4S512 and 4S513, 
as appropriate. 

13. Although section 2 (a) directs that 
all revenues received in carrying out the 
provisions of the act shall be paid into the 
fund under the direction of the Secretary 
of the Interior, in order to conform to the 
standard practice of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, collections by fiscal agents will be 
deposited temporarily to the credit of 
" 4025 Miscellaneous receipts revenues, 
Colorado River dam fund (Boulder Can- 
yon project)" and "4026 Miscellaneous 
receipts Revenues, Colorado River dam 
fund (All- American Canal)." Such col- 
lections will not be considered repayments 



of advances under section 2 (e), but will 
be transferred monthly by appropriation 
warrant and credited to the Colorado 
River dam fund, 4S512 or 4S513, as 
appropriate. 

14. Upon certification of the Secretary 
of the Interior to the Secretary of the 
Treasury at the close of each fiscal year 
of the amount of money in the Colorado 
River dam funds (4S512 and 4S513) in 
excess of the funds required for construc- 
tion, operation and maintenance, and pay- 
ment of interest, settlement warrant will 
issue charging the Colorado River dam 
fund (4S512 or 4S513, as appropriate) and 
the amount will be deposited into the 
Treasury as "miscellaneous receipts re- 
payments of advances to the Colorado 
River dam fund." 



All- American Canal Inves- 
tigations 

The report on the All-American Canal 
investigations is now being prepared in the 
Denver office, under the supervision of 
Homer J. Gault, engineer. This work is 
being done under a cooperative contract 
with the Coachella Valley County Water 
District and the Imperial Irrigation Dis- 
trict, both of California. It is thought 
that the report will be available about the 
first of February. 

The most important structure will be 
the diversion dam and desilting works at 
the head of the canal, the plans for which 
features are well advanced. Studies of 
this feature have been confined princi- 
pally to the upper diversion site, but con- 
sideration is being given to the Laguna 



site, and also to a site 1% miles above the 
Laguna Dam. 

On account of the unusual magnitude 
of some of the features, the application of 
unit costs in the estimates becomes 
important, and especially with regard to 
excavation from the dam to the west side 
of the sand hills. 



ERICKSON Brothers of Fruitdale, S. 
Dak., have constructed new pens at 
the Belle Fourche sugar factory for pulp 
feeding. This firm, which fattens about 
7,000 lambs for market, is also wintering 
4,000 ewes for breeding stock. 



THE Black Hills sugar plant, South 
Dakota, closed on December 31 
after a run of 94 days, during which 125,- 
000 tons of beets were sliced bringing 
the contributing farmers $885,000 gross. 



PLANTING of cantaloupes and water- 
melons on the Yuma project started in 
January, and with favorable spring con- 
ditions the crop will be ready to market 
in May or early June. 



ON the Uncompahgre project efforts 
are still being made to effect a con- 
solidation of the three poultry organiza- 
tions on the Western Slope into one 
association. 



ON the Yuma auxiliary project 18 
cars of grapefruit and 3 cars of 
oranges were packed and shipped from 
local groves during December. 




DON MARTIN DAM, SALADO HIVER, MEXICO 

Upper, Dam and storage reservoir. Lower left, Downstream side of spillway. Lower right, Natives fishing in reservoir. 



48 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



Fvbruaiy, 19J1 



Reclamation Organization Activities and Project Visitors 



Dr. Elwood Mead, commissioner, gave 
an illustrated lecture on Hoover Dam 
before the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology at Cambridge, Mass., on 
January 9. This address was one of a 
series of Aldred lectures which were 
founded in 1923 at the institute by John 
E. Alfred, of New York City. 

On January 21, Dr. Mead attended the 
annual meeting in New York City of the 
officers and directors of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, and on Janu- 
ary 22 left for California for a conference 
at Sacramento with the members of the 
Hoover- Young Commission on the report 
on water conservation in central Cali- 
fornia. While in the West Doctor Mead 
spoke on Hoover Dam before the Associ- 
ated General Contractors of America, con- 
ferred at Los Angeles with the Imperial 
and Coachella Valley Irrigation districts 
relative to all-American canal matters, 
and visited Hoover dam site. 



R. F. Walter, chief engineer in the 
Bureau of Reclamation, spent several days 
in the Washington office in connection 
with the financial situation of the bureau, 
returning to Denver on January 22. 



Hugh A. Brown, who has been detailed 
for the past nine months as executive 
secretary of the Committee on the Con- 
servation and Administration of the Pub- 
lic Domain, has resumed his duties in the 
Washington office as director of recla- 
mation economics. 



Early in the month J. R. W. Davis, 
chief engineer; Thomas Balnier, Colonel 
Mears, and C. B. Harding, officials of the 
Great Northern Railway, conferred with 
B. E. Hayden, superintendent of the 
Klamath project, regarding the changed 
location of the proposed Great Northern 
Railroad across project lands. 




At Hoover dam site, January, 1031. showing excavation to determine character of abutment for dam. Left to 
right: Ralph Lowry, assistant construction engineer; Miss Mae A. Sclmurr, assistant to Commissioner of 
Reclamation; Walker R. Young, construction engineer; D. L. Carmody, associate engineer. 



J. G. Moody, California deputy real 
estate commissioner, was a caller at the 
Orland project during the month. 



Miss Mae A. Sclmurr, assistant to the 
commissioner, who was in the field the 
latter half of December and the first 
half of January, attending various recla- 
mation meetings and visiting a number 
of the projects, returned to the Washing- 
ton office on January 15. As usual, Miss 
Schnurr made a number of interesting and 
valuable contacts. Her address in San 
Francisco at the meeting of the land recla- 
mation division of the American Society 
of Agricultural Engineers is printed in 
this issue of the ERA. 



Miss Chloe D. Mantle, who has been a 
member of the Washington force of the 
Bureau of Reclamation since its organiza- 
tion in 1902, retired from active service 
on December 1. Miss Mantle will make 
her future home in Watertown, N. Y. 



Miss Gertrude M. Athey, of the engi- 
neering division, has returned to Wash- 
ington after an interesting trip to various 
points in Florida. 



The headquarters of R. J. Coffey, dis- 
trict counsel, were changed from Berkeley 
to Los Angeles, Calif., effective Jan- 
uary 14. 



George O. Sanford, assistant director 
of reclamation economics in the Washing- 
ton office, accompanied by Mrs. Sanford, 
motored to his old home in eastern Massa- 
chusetts and spent the Christmas holidays 
with relatives and friends. 



On December 23 the Wasliington office 
force enjoyed its second Christmas party 
sponsored by Mrs. Margaret G. Young, 
supervisor of the stenographic section, and 
her several able assistants. Santa Glaus 
made his appearance to the delight of the 
guests, and Miss Regina C. Watkins, of 
the chief clerk's division, gave an appro- 
priate recitation. Mrs. P. I. Taylor, wife 
of a member of the engineering division, 
contributed a very important part by 
presenting the ladies with a delicious 
home-made devil's food cake, duplicating 
the one which she donated on the occasion 
of our first Christmas party a year ago. 



J. L. Savage, chief designing engineer 
in the Denver office, was on leave several 
days during the month during which he 
served as a member of the Pine Canyon 
Dam Consulting Board. Mr. Savage 
later joined Chief Engineer Walter on his 
trip to Panama. They returned to Den- 
ver early in January. 



Harold E. Rocker, of the mails and 
files section of the Washington office, 
was on leave for several days during the 
month of December, during which an- 
nouncement was made of his marriage. 
The bride, Miss Doris Martin, is a native 
of England, but has been residing in 
Washington for several years. 



Walker R. Young, construction engi- 
neer, Boulder Canyon project, spent one 
day in Denver en route from Washington 
to his headquarters at Las Vegas, Nev. 



J. R. lakisch, drainage engineer, was 
in the Denver office during the month 
preparing his report on the Saratoga in- 
vestigations in Wyoming. Mr. lakisch 
stopped at the Yuma project office the 
latter part of the month in order to secure 
data in connection with his studies of 
the drainage system on that project. 

The Punjab, one of the most populous 
and prosperous regions of India, takes its 
name from the "five rivers" which irri- 
gate the area, and is made up of the Brit- 
ish Province of Punjab and 34 native 
States. 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 19)1 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION FOR THE BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR, SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Jos. M. Dixon, First Assistant Secretary; John Edwards, Assistant Secretary; E. C. Finney, Solicitor of the Interior Department; 

E. K. Builew, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary and Budget Officer 

Northcutt Ely and Charles A. Dobbel, Executive Assistants 

Washington, D. C. 
El wood Mead, Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



Miss M. A. Schnurr, Assistant to the Commissioner 
W. F. Kubach, Chief Accountant 



P. W. Dent, Assistant Commissioner 

C. A. Bissell, Chief of Engineering Division 

C. N. McCulloch, Chief Clerk 



Hugh A. Brown, Director of Reclamation Economics 
George O. Sanford, Assistant Director of Reclamation 
Economics 



Denver Colo, Wilda Building 

R. F. Walter, Chief. Eng; S. O. Harper, Gen. Supt. of Construction; J. L. Savage, Chief Designing Eng.; E. B. Debler, Hydrographic Eng.; L. K. McClellan, Electrical 
Eng.; C. M. Day, Mechanical Eng.; Armand Oflutt, District Counsel; L. R. Smith, Chief Clerk; Harry Caden, Fiscal Agent; C. A. Lyman, Field Representative. 

Projects under construction or operated in whole or part by the Bureau of Reclamation 



Project 


Offlce 


Official in charge 


Chief clerk 


Fiscal agent 


District counsel 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 




Yuma, Ariz 


R. M. Priest 


Superintendent . 
Constr. engr 


J. C. Thrailkill... 


E. M. Philebaum. 
Charles. F. Wcin- 
kauf. 
C. H. Lillingston.. 

E. A. Peek . 


R. J. Coffey... 


Los Angeles, Calif. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Do. 
Los Angeles, 
Calif. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
El Paso, Tex. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 




Las Vegas, Ncv 

Orland, Calif 


Walker R. Young. 
R. C. E. Weber .. 


E. R. Mills .. . 


/.. do.... 




Superintendent . 
do 


C. H. Lillingston.... 
E. A. Peek . 


\J. R. Alexander... 
R. J. Coffey 

J. R. Alexander 




Grand Junction, Colo. 
Montrose, Colo 
Boise, Idaho 


W J Chiesman 




L. J. Foster. .. 


do 


O. H. Bolt... 
W. L. Vernon 


F. D. Helm. 
Denver office 
do 


do.. 

B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 


Boise i --- 
Boise. Deadwood Dam-- 


R J Newell 


do 


... do . 


do 


C. B. Funk... 


Burley, Idaho 


E. B. Darlington . 
H. H. Johnson .- 


....do... 


G. C. Patterson 
E. E. Chabot 


Miss A. J. Larson. 
E. E. Chabot 
H. W. Johnson 


do 






...do... 


Wm. J. Burke 
...do 


Sim River, Greenfields. . 




\ W Walker 


do 


H. W. Johnson 




H A Parker 


do 


N. O. Anderson 


Denver office 


.. do . 






C. F. Gleason--. 
L. E. Foster 
L. R. Fiock 
C. L. Tice 
Chas.C.Ketchum. 
B E Hayden 




A. T. Stimnfkr ' 


A. T. Stimpfig 


do - 


Carlsbad -- 


Carlsbad, N. Mex 


Superintendent- W. C. Berger. _ 
do 1 II. H. Bnrrvhill 


W. C. Berger 
H. H. Berryhill 


H. J. S. Devries.. 
... do 


Umatilla, McKay Dam. 
Vale 


Pendleton, Oreg 
Vale, Oreg 

Klamath Falls, Oreg.. 
Owyhee, Oreg 
Newell, S. Dak... 


Reserv. supt 
Superintendent . 
do 


C. M. Voyen 


Denver office 

O. M. Voven 


B. E. Stoutemyer. 
.. . do 


N. G. Wheeler J. C. Avery 


. do 


O wyhee 


F. A. Banks 

F. C. Youngblutt. 
F. F. Smith 




H N. Bickel F. P. Greene 


. do 


Superintendent. 
Constr. engr 
Acting supt 
Constr. engr 
Superintendent . 
do 


J. P. Siebeneicher... J. P. Siebeneicher. 


Wm. J. Burke 
J. R. Alexander... 
B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 




Coalville, Utah 


C. F. Williams Denver office 




Yakima, Wash 


John S. Moore 
R B Williams 


R. K. Cunningham C. J. Ralston 






Ronald E. Rudolph. 
R. B. Smith... 


do 






H. D. Comstock.. 
L. H. Mitchell.--- 


Denver office.. 


Wm. J. Burke 
do 


Shoshone fl ,-- 


Powell, Wyo.-. 


W. F. Sha 


do 



i Arrowrock Reservoir, Boise diversion dam, and Black Canyon power plant. 

Jackson Lake and American Falls Reservoirs, power system and Gooding division. 

s Malta, Glasgow, and Storage divisions. 

' Pathfinder and Guernsey Reservoirs, and power systems. 

s Acting. 



Storage, main, and Tule Lake divisions. 

* Echo Reservoir. 

Storage, Tieton, and Sunnyside divisions. 

1 Reservoir, power plant and Willwood division. 



Completed projects or divisions constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation and operated by water-users' organizations 



Project 


Organization 


Office 


Operating official Secretary 


Name Title 


Name 


Address 


Salt River 


Salt River Valley, W. U. A... 
Orchard Mesa irrig. distriet..- 


Phoenix, Ariz... 
Grand Junction - 
Boise, Idaho 


C. C. Cragin 


Gen. supt. and chief engr. 
Sunprintpndp.nt 


F. C. Henshaw 


Phoenix, Ariz. 
Grand Junction. 
Boise, Idaho. 
Glenns Ferry. 
Rupert, Idaho. 
Burley, Idaho. 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
Do. 
Harlem, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont. 
Do. 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr. 

Gering, Nebr. 
Torrington, 
Wyo. 
Bridgeport, 
Nebr. 
Fallon, Nev. 

Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg. 
Bonanza, Oreg. 
Do. 
Payson, Utah. 
Okanogan.Wash. 

Powell, Wyo. 
Deaver, Wyo. 


Grand Valley, Orchard Mesa. . 


C W Tharpe 


H. O. Lambeth 


Wm. H. Tullpr ... Project manaeer... 


F. J. Hanagan 




King Hill irrigation district... 


King Hill.Idaho 
Rupert, Idaho. _ 


F. L. Kinkade...- 
R. L. Willis 


Manager 


Chas. Stout. .. 




do... 


W. C. Trathen 






Hush L. Crawford. 
E. E. Lewis 


do 


Geo. W. Lyle .. 




Huntley irrigation district 

Alfalfa Valley irrig. district 
Fort Belknap irrig. distriet.-. 


Ballant i ne, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
do. 


Superintendent.. 


H. S. Elliott 


Milk River, Chinook division.. 
Do 


A. L. Benton 
H. B. Bonebright. 
Thos. M. Everett. 
R. E. Musgrove.. 
John W. \rcher 




R. H. Clarkson . 


. .do 


L. V. Bogy 
Geo. H. Tout 


Do 


Harlem irrigation district 
Paradise Valley irrig. district-- 


Harlem, Mont.. 
Chinook, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont . . 
Fort Shaw, 

Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr.. 

Gering, Nebr ... 
Torrington, Wyo. 

Northport, Nebr. 
Fallon, Nev 

Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg 
Bonanza, Orcg. 
do 


...do . 


Do 


do 


J. F. Sharpless 
H. M. Montgomery. 
H. W. Genger 


Do 


....do. 


Sun River, Fort Shaw division. 
North Platte: 


Fort Shaw irrigation district . . 

Pathfinder irrigation district. . 
Gering-Fort Laramie irrig. dist. 


H W Genger 




T. W. Parry 
W O. Fleenor 


Manager 


Mary McKay Kin- 
ney. 
C. G. Klingman 
Mrs. Nello Armi- 
tage. 
Mrs. M. J. Thomp- 
son. 
L. V. Finger 




.. do 


Do 


B. L. Adams 


do 




Northport irrigation district. .. 
Tiuckee-Carson irrig. district. 

Hermiston irrigation district . . 
West Extension irrig. district.. 
Langell Valley irrig. district. .. 


D R Dean 


do 




D. S. Stuvcr... .. 


Project manager . 


Umatilla: 


E. D. Martin 


...do... 


W. J. Warner.. 


West division 


A. C. Houghton... Secretary and manager.. 
R. S. Hopkins Manager 


A. C. Houghton 
R. S. Hopkins 




Do 


Wm. F. B. Chase. .. 




Strawberry W U A Prnvn. Utah 


Lee R. Taylor 
J. C. Iddings 

Frank Roach 
Sydney I. Hooker. 


President and manager . 
Superintendent 


E. G. Breeze 




Okanogan irrigation district. .. 

Shoshone irrigation district 
Deaver irrigation district 


Okanogan, 
Wash. 
Powell, V/yo 


Nelson D. Thorp 

Geo. W. Atkins... 
Edw. T. Hill 


Shoshone: 


Irrigation superintendent 
do 




Deaver, Wyo... 









1 Boise, Kuna, Nampa Meridian, Wilder, New York, Big Bend, and Black Canyon irrigation districts. 

Important investigations in progress 



Project 


Office 


In charge of 


Cooperative agency 




Denver, Colo . 


H. J. Gault 


Imperial and Coachella districts. 






W. R. Young and C. A. Bissell.. 


State of California. 




Salt Lake City Utah 


E. O. Larson 


State of Utah. 






H. W. Bashore 













Fnblio 




RECLAMATION ERA 



VOL. 22. NO. 3 




MARCH, 1931 







RAKING SAGEBRUSH ON THE KITTITAS DIVISION, YAKIMA PROJECT. WASH. 



Independence . . . 



The man who owns a reasonable number of acres 
of fertile land . . . 

. . . Making his home on the land 

. . . The members of his family doing most of the work in 
connection with his farming operations 

. . . Producing all of his fruits and vegetables for his table 
twelve months in the year 

. . . Canning sufficient supply of his farm products as the 
food carry-over for the use of his family 

. . . Owning at least two cows for his milk and butter fup- 
ply, also shimmed milk for his poultry and livestock 

. . . Hogs to produce his own table meat twelve months 
in the year 

. . . Chickens for eggs, and also meat for his table 

. . . A few sheep to keep down weeds and brush 

. . . Producing all the other livestock, hay, and grain 

. . . Production in excess of family food and livestock feed 
requirements to sell, either locally or through cooperatives 

... 7s one of the MOST INDEPENDENT citizens 
in the Nation. 

GEORGE R. WHEELER. 
Columbia College, Columbia, S. C. 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 

Issued monthly by the DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C. 

Price 75 cents a year 



HAY LYMAN WILBUR 
Secretary of the Interior 



Vol. 22, No. 3 




ELWOOD MEAD 
Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



MARCH, 1931 



Interesting High Lights on the Federal Reclamation Projects 



THE 1930 cotton crop on the Yuma 
project was practically all picked at 
the close of the month, including snap 
cotton. Yields this season were approxi- 
mately a bale per acre, or a normal 
season's production. 



OETTLEMENT and farm develop- 
kj ment on the Boise project continued 
active with the same lively demand for 
farms for rent and occasional sales. An 
attempt is being made in the State 
legislature to revise the taxing system 
and lessen the proportion of burden on 
farm lands. 



THE increasing importance of the 
dairy industry on the Minidoka 
project is shown by the annual report of 
the Mini-Cassia Cooperative Dairymen's 
Association for 1930. During the year 
the association handled 789,000 pounds 
of butterfat, an increase of more than 
84,000 pounds over the corresponding 
amount for 1929. The average price paid 
last year for cream butterfat was 33.5 
cents per pound, and 41.8 cents for milk 
butterfat. A total of 369,000 pounds 
of casein was manufactured and sold, of 
which 259,000 pounds came from the 
Burley plant and 110,000 pounds from 
the Rupert plant. 



THE Dennis Construction Co., of San 
Diego, Calif., has started work on its 
contract with the California Highway 
Association for the laying of six miles of 
bitulithic pavement on the Ocean-to-Ocean 
Highway across the Reservation division, 
Yuma project. This contract calls for 
several heavy fills and bridge crossings 
over washes and relocation of a portion 
of the present highway. The contract 
calls for the completion of this work by 
June 1. 

OEVENTEEN cars of grapefruit were 
O packed and shipped during the month 
from groves on the Yuma auxiliary 
project. 

3920131 1 



PRUNING of orchards continued 
throughout the mouth on the Orland 
project. The last of the season's crop of 
navel oranges was shipped. With the 
mild temperatures prevailing near the 
close of the month, almond buds were 
beginning to swell with indications of 
early blossoming if the warm weather 
continues. 



Warning to Unemployed 

Heedless of urgent warnings, large 
numbers of applicants have pro- 
ceeded to Las Vegas, Nev., only to 
find that opportunities for employ- 
ment in connection with construction 
of Hoover Dam will not exist for 90 
days or more. In fact the United 
States Employment Service at Las 
Vegas has on hand applications suffi- 
cient to care for possible employment 
needs for the next six months. 

Under existing conditions, none 
should go to Las Vegas unless he is 
assured of employment upon ar- 
rival, or is equipped with independent 
means to carry him over a period of 
several months. 



MRS. M. L. BURTON, of Burley, 
Minidoka project, who has followed 
the most advanced methods in poultry rais- 
ing, has demonstrated the possibilities of 
profitable annual returns from a well- 
kept flock. The original investment of 
$50 made by Mrs. Burton in 1925 has 
increased until the present value of her 
plant is $7,500. In 1930 she brooded 
5,000 baby chicks, from which 2,150 
pullets were developed, 1,300 of which 
were retained and are now yielding a 50 
per cent egg production. The balance 
were sold. Mrs. Burton's flocks, which 
are accredited, supply the hatcheries in 
Twin Falls and Paul, Idaho, with eggs, 
Her business yields a substantial annual 
income. 



/CONSIDERABLE activity in settle- 
\_ji ment matters continues on the Sun 
River project. The Chicago, Milwaukee, 
St. Paul & Pacific Railroad has employed 
a special agent and is advertising the 
project in many newspapers and periodi- 
cals having a wide circulation among pros- 
pective settlers. Martin Himler, a Hun- 
garian settlement worker and also con- 
nected with the railroad, visited the 
project the latter part of the month for 
the purpose of getting first-hand infor- 
mation on project lands. Associate 
County Agent D. P. Thurber, 'A. W. 
Walker, superintendent, and J. E. Young, 
banker, met at Great Falls to discuss 
with R. W. Reynolds, commissioner of 
agricultural development and coloniza- 
tion, settlement plans for the Sun River 
project. 



THE First National Bank of Olathe 
and the Olathe State Bank, which 
was a subsidiary of the First National 
Bank of Montrose, Uncompahgre project, 
have merged into one institution for the 
purpose of giving better service to the 
community. The new bank is known as 
the First National Bank of Olathe and is 
controlled by the First National Bank of 
Montrose. This leaves four banks on the 
project, all of which are in excellent con- 
dition financially. 



' I ^HE Glasgow Irrigation District and 
JL Chamber of Commerce on the Milk 
River project have started a campaign to 
secure options to vacant lands in an effort 
to encourage dry farmers of that vicinity 
to locate on the project. This plan has 
brought several new settlers to the Malta 
division, and should be effective on the 
Glasgow division also. 



THE R. Hardesty Manufacturing Co., 
makers of culvert pipe, headgates. 
and all irrigation appliances, are planning 
the early location of a branch at Sidney, 
Lower Yellowstone project. 

49 



50 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



Murcli, 1931 



Problems of Western Reclamation l 

By R. C. E. Weber. Superintendent Orland Irrigation Project, Calif. 



IN dismissing (lit- subject of "Problems 
of Western Reclamation," comment. 
will be confined to those difficulties con- 
fronting reclamation activities as carried 
out by the Federal Government through 
the agency of its Bureau of Reclamation. 
The problems of reclamation are many 
and varied; they include economic, polit- 
ical, and engineering as well os legal 
phases. Of these, the economic aspect is 
the most important ;iml difficult. It in- 
volves numerous phases, among the more 
important of which may be enumerated 
payment of reclamation charges, settle- 
ment of lands for which irrigation water 
is available, and feasibility of undertaking 
now construction. 

REPAYMENT OF CHARGES FURTHERS 
NEW CONSTRUCTION 

Payment of charges as these accrue 
annually are vitally important to the 
future of reclamation activities, for with- 
out the accretions to the reclamation 
fund from repayment sources, new con- 
struction by the bureau will be seriously 
curtailed in extent. With the lesser area 
of public lands now available for sale, as 
well as the decreased amounts of money 
derived from mineral and oil royalties, 
the repayment of construction, together 
with operation and maintenance charges, 
constitutes the major portion about two- 
thirds of the revenue, from which activ- 
ities of the bureau are presently financed. 
This limitation, however, does not apply 
to the Colorado River development of the 
bureau at Hoover Dam, which is financed 
by special legislation of Congress. 

Business principles constitute the basis 
of reclamation work by the Federal Gov- 
ernment. Funds for the construction of 
irrigation works are advanced by the 
Government under the provisions of a 
contract, by which the landowners agree 
to retire the cost of the system. This 
obligation of indebtedness is as binding as 
any other upon the lands of project 
settlers. Meeting these payments is often 
difficult, especially in times of agricultural 
depression. A majority of the settlers 
lack the necessary capital to improve their 
farms promptly, making it impossible for 
them to derive at the outset the full 
benefits of irrigation and the income with 
which to make repayments. On the 
whole, however, the results have been 
remarkably satisfactory. During 1929, 
reclamation settlers paid the Government 
97 per cent of what was due that year on 
their contracts. In 1930 there was some 
delay in payment on a few projects, but 



'Address before American Farm Bureau Federa- 
tion, San Francisco, Calif., February 10, 1931. 



the payments to the Government have 
compared favorably with those of farmers 
generally in connection with their obliga- 
tions to banks. 

The test of reclamation is whether the 
additional charges for irrigation works are 
too heavy to be met by ordinary farmers, 
and if the opportunities created are suf- 
ficient to equal the responsibilities so that 
the resulting obligations in the way of 
repayments can be successfully assumed. 
This is often little considered by propo- 
nents of new construction, when the policy 
of reclamation is presented in a most 
attractive light with the assurance that the 
costs of the proposed system can and will 
be promptly paid. When a movement 
for reduction in charges and postponement 
of repayments in connection with existing 
projects is inaugurated simultaneously 
with demands for new construction, the 
question arises as to whether the request 
is based on economic necessity, or whether 
it is a guise under which is an effort to 
break down the policy of reclamation as a 
business enterprise. 

REPAYMENTS NOT REQUIRED ON POOR 
LAND 

Among the more important activities 
of the bureau is the endeavor to assist 
in maintaining morale among project water 
users and in increasing their earning 
power. The morale of the settlers on 
reclamation projects is far better than it 
was a few years ago, the improvement 
dating from the time when farmers were 
relieved from payments in connection 
with lands of inferior quality as well as 
areas affected by alkali or seepage. Agri- 
cultural depression, which has in part 
contributed to requests for extensions and 
reductions in charges, is not altogether 
responsible, as political influences also 
operate. On account of the fact that 
Government reclamation is a production 
activity and one in connection with which 
the money expended is required to be 
refunded, while so many kindred activi- 
ties of the United States are a direct 
charge on the General Treasury with no 
repayment requirements, there has nat- 
urally grown the belief among many that 
the cost of reclamation works should be 
borne entirely by the Government and 
that repayment of the constiuction cost 
should not be required. 

Those familiar with the general senti- 
ment of the East regarding reclamation 
are fully aware that such a policy is 
impossible and an attempt to adopt it 
could only result in an abrupt termination 
of all new development. Furthermore, 
since existing contracts now constitute 
the main source of revenue to the recla- 



mation fund, their integrity is particularly 
essential to new construction. As it is, 
the income is insufficient to prosecute 
construction most economically on work 
in progress, or to meet the demands for 
new construction to supply water where 
it is urgently needed. Because money can 
not be provided and more progress in new 
development is not made, there is im- 
patience and criticism directed toward 
the bureau. 

THE SETTLEMENT PROBLEM 

Of the total of nearly 2,000,000 acres 
in Federal irrigation projects, for which 
the Reclamation Bureau has completed 
works and was prepared to deliver water 
in 1929, there are only about one-half 
million acres not being cultivated. Most 
of this area was being used for other farm 
purposes, or was not yet opened to settle- 
ment, so that probably little more than 
10 per cent was available for settlers. 

The settlement of this area, to bring 
it under irrigation, agriculture, and profit- 
able farming, constitutes, however, a 
problem of major significance with which 
reclamation is confronted. Idle lands, 
subject to the fixed charges of irrigation 
construction costs, can not long be held 
without financial loss to the owners as 
well as an ultimate loss to the Govern- 
ment, when development is deferred until 
the accumulation of delinquent reclama- 
tion charges approaches or exceeds the 
intrinsic land value. 

The problem of settlement brings with 
it the question of finances and agricul- 
tural experience of prospective settlers. 
When the reclamation act was passed in 
1902, it was framed to meet an agricul- 
tural and rural life that was primitive in 
character. At the time it was antici- 
pated that the land reclaimed would be 
free, the cost of irrigation works low, and 
that self-denial and industry would be 
the main requirements of success. 

REQUIREMENTS OF SETTLERS 

Conditions to which the reclamation 
act has been subjected in the intervening 
years since its enactment have under- 
gone a revolutionary change. The popu- 
lation of the States to which it applies 
have more than doubled, the costs of both 
irrigation works and the preparation of 
lands for irrigation have been far greater 
than originally estimated, and free lands 
have not materialized in the actual work- 
ing out of the original act. The primitive 
agriculture, which was once considered 
the basis of reclamation development and 
progress, will no longer answer. Only by 
intensive agriculture through properly 



March, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



51 



improved and equipped farms can the 
costs of reclamation be met. Ordinarily, 
it was believed that if water was provided, 
the settler, without capital or farming 
experience, could establish a home and 
meet repayment costs. It is now known 
that this can not be done. The farmer 
must have considerable capital or access 
to ample credit to adequately finance his 
irrigated farming activities. If not an 
experienced farmer, means must be pro- 
vided to enable him to become one. 

The necessity of capital and farming" 
experience is even more important in 
connection with the settlement of new 
projects because of the larger costs en- 
tailed. Future construction must neces- 
sarily be more expensive for the reason 
that the supply of natural flow waters 
available for direct appropriation is 
limited, and consequently storage must 
be provided. Another factor contribut- 
ing to increased costs is that existing works 
have embraced the least expensive and 
most favorable developments, leaving 
only those of greater cost for future con- 
struction. Where costs of from $50 to 
$100 per acre were involved in the past, 
further irrigation development will com- 
prise charges for construction ranging 
from $100 to $150 and upward per acre. 
These costs can be repaid only if settle- 
ment takes place promptly by farmers 
financially able and agriculturally quali- 
fied to cultivate intensively the lands for 
maximum returns. With the increasing 
cost, greater care must be exercised in 
preliminary investigations to determine 
a- project's feasibility, and particular 
attention must be directed to settlement 
and economic development, on which 
depends largely the return of the expendi- 
tures incurred. 

BROAD ENGINEERING EXPERIENCE OF 
BUREAU 

Engineering problems now occupy a 
position of lesser importance than they 
assumed in early construction. As a 
result of over 25 years' experience, the 
Reclamation Bureau has built up an engi- 
neering organization able to design and 
construct irrigation works economically 
and efficiently. In the early history of 
reclamation construction, the work was 
pioneering to a large degree, as there were 
no precedents to follow, and problems of 
an engineering nature were of major im- 
port. With a background of many years 
of successful practice and experience, 
engineering problems, although still oi 
magnitude and particularly important 
where the stability of works is concerned 
for the safety of life and property, admit 
more readily of solution than other prob- 
lems confronting western reclamation. 

The interstate location of many western 
streams from which irrigation waters are 



derived and the different laws of the vari- 
ious States relative to water rights intro- 
duce legal problems in reclamation work. 
On many rivers, the irrigated farms are 
situated along the banks for many miles. 
The rights of water and their protection 
during periods of low flow are essential to 
the prosperity of farmers, as well as to the 
stability and value of irrigation properties. 
These rights are established and pro- 
moted under State laws and by State 
authorities, which is sufficient where 
streams originate and the waters are used 
within a State's boundaries. But large 
rivers cross State boundaries, and in the 
nstances of the Colorado, the Columbia, 
and the Missouri Rivers the watershed 
areas include a number of different States, 
and Federal reclamation works are oper- 
ated in many of them. Contracts must 
:onform to the laws of the several States 
as well as numerous amendments to the 
original reclamation act. 

RIPARIAN RIGHTS 

Adherence to the riparian theory in 
connection with water laws in some West- 
ern States, particularly California, offers 
problems in connection with further 
development of reclamation activities. 
Based upon English law and on condi- 
tions entirely different from those prevail- 
ing in the irrigated sections of the West, 
the theory of riparian rights has saddled 
some commonwealths with an incon- 
gruous and unhappy union of appropria- 
tive and riparian claims and uses. Some 
progress has been made in clarifying the 
legal situation as to the conflict between 
appropriation and riparian rights, but the 
menacing shadow of some feature? of the 
riparian theory lowers over western stream 
systems, and much is still left for the fu- 
ture in the way of further improvement 
in water law as related to irrigation use. 
The correction of misguided opposition 
to the policy of Federal reclamation also 
constitutes a task in the administration 
of Government reclamation activities. 
Opposition to Federal reclamation origi- 
nates from the mistaken belief that it 
contributes to the agricultural surplus. 
As a matter of fact crops produced on 
Government irrigation projects are sup- 
plemental to, rather than competitive 
with agricultural products of other farm- 
ing regions of the United States. Less 
than 1 per cent of the Nation's cultivated 
area is included in the reclamation proj 
ects. The very nature of many of the 
principal irrigated crops is such that they 
can be successfully produced only under 
the peculiar climatic and soil conditions 
which prevail in the arid West. Certain 
crops, which are profitably and exten- 
sively grown on irrigated lands, are mar- 
keted at a season of the year when they 
can not be raised elsewhere. Then, too 



reclamation projects themselves furnish 
xtensive markets for manufactured goods 

as well as farm products not raised under 
rrigation, and thus materially benefit 

rather than work a hardship on other 
'nrining sections. 

BENEFITS OF RECLAMATION 

In concluding a presentation of the 
problems of reclamation, let us review 
)ficfly some of the achievements of Fed- 
iral reclamation in order also to reveal 
the more attractive and constructive side 
of the picture. In 1929 the cultivated area 
receiving an irrigation supply from Gov- 
ernment works was nearly two and three- 
fourths million acres, producing crops 
valued at more than $161,000,000, or $60 
per acre. The cumulative value of crops 
raised on lands irrigated from works of 
the Reclamation Bureau since water was 
first available in 1906 has aggregated ap- 
proximately one and two-thirds billion 
dollars. There were nearly 40,000 irri- 
gated farms on Federal projects during 
1929, with a population of 157,000; 214 
towns and cities with an additional popu- 
lation of nearly one-half million; 130 banks 
witli deposits aggregating $145,000,000 
and 245,000 project and nonproject 
depositors. 

The works already constructed have 
cost $195,000,000, but the benefits from 
them have not yet been fully realized in 
that they are not yet entirely completed, 
and the lands susceptible of irrigation 
under them have not been brought under 
cultivation. Even in this partially com- 
pleted state, the value of the crops 
produced in 1929 was 80 per cent of the 
investment of the United States in recla- 
mation construction. When these sys- 
tems are finished the annual production of 
crops will exceed the entire cost of the 
irrigation works. Add to these results 
those of an indirect nature by way of con- 
tributions to the business and social life 
of the States and communities in which the 
projects are located, as well as the addi- 
tion to national wealth, and it is conserva- 
tive to state that no greater benefits to the 
Nation have ever been derived from a like 
investment of Government funds. 



DURING the month the Lingle power 
plant on the North Platte project 
broke all previous records for output for 
any one month, with a total of 1,155,755 
kilowatt-hours, which in turn gave it a 
plant factor of 88.8 per cent. Likewise 
the average flow of water for power use 
was increased beyond all previous records. 
The above increase in kilowatt-hours out- 
put was chiefly due to the operation of 
the Guernsey plant, the output being 
held as low as possible in order to conserve 
the storage water. 



52 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



March, 1931 



r; 



By P. W. DENT, Asst. Commissioner 




Supreme Court of Wyoming Upholds Irrigation District Contract 

with United States 



IN Lincoln Land Co. v. Goshen Irriga- 
tion District (293 Pac. 373), decided by 
the Supreme Court of Wyoming Novem- 
ber 19, 1930, the court upheld a contract 
made between the district and the United 
States for the payment of the bureau's 
construction cost. 

Excerpts from the decision follow. 

"This appeal presents questions affect- 
ing the legality of the assessment of bene- 
fits and construction charges by respond- 
ent Goshen Irrigation District against 
lands of appellant Lincoln Land Co., for 
irrigation works constructed by the 
United States as a part of the Fort Lara- 
mie unit of the North Platte irrigation 
project. 

"The North Platte project was one of 
the first projects undertaken by the 
United States under the Federal reclama- 
tion act of June 17, 1902 (32 Stat. 388). 
The project was divided into the Inter- 
state and Fort Laramie units. The Inter- 
state unit, which is not affected by this 
controversy, was constructed first. The 
construction of the works for the Fort 
Laramie unit was long delayed, and not 
undertaken until 1915. (Report of Rec- 
lamation Service, 1915-16, p. 271.) The 
irrigable lands in this unit include a con- 
siderable acreage held in private owner- 
ship. In May, 1912, the consulting board 
made a report recommending commence- 
ment of construction on condition that at 
least 95 per cent of the owners of deeded 
lands sign trust deeds, thereby insuring 
the repayment of the building charges to 
the reclamation fund. This recommen- 
dation was approved by the Secretary of 
the Interior, and forms of trust deeds 
were submitted to the landowners for 
signatures. (Reports of Reclamation 
Service, 1911-12, p. 127; 1913-14, p. 191.) 
Later, by section 12 of the reclamation 
extension act of August 13, 1914 (38 Stat. 
689, 43 U. S. C. A., sec. 418), it was pro- 
vided 'that before any contract is let 
or work begun for the construction of any 
reclamation project hereafter adopted, 



the Secretary of the Interior shall require 
the owners of private lands thereunder 
to agree to dispose of all lands in excess 
of an area which he shall deem sufficient 
for the support of a family upon the land 
in question, upon such terms and at not 
to exceed such price as the Secretary of 
the Interior may designate; and if any 
landowner shall refuse to agree to the 
requirements fixed by the Secretary of the 
Interior, his land shall not be included 
within the project if adopted for construc- 
tion.' 

"It seems that the Secretary of the 
Interior was unwilling to authorize con- 
struction of the Fort Laramie unit until 
the deeded lands were pledged for their 
proportionate part of the cost of con- 
struction. For some time the department 
was insisting on trust deeds covering 95 
per cent of the deeded lands, as recom- 
mended in 1912 by the consulting board, 
but in October, 1914, the secretary re- 
duced the requirement to 90 per cent. 
June 7, 1915, there was made to the direc- 
tor and chief engineer of the Reclamation 
Service a report 'to the effect that 90 
per cent of the irrigable area in private 
ownership was then subscribed, and 
shortly thereafter direction was given that 
final location surveys be made for the 
purpose of early advertisement of earth- 
work and the beginning of construction.' 
The first advertisement was made August 
7, 1915. (Report of Reclamation Service 
1915-16, pp. 271, 272.) 

"The appellant, Lincoln Land Co., 
was the owner of much of the deeded lands 
included in the Fort Laramie unit. For 
convenience in discussion, the appellant's 
lands have been divided into two tracts, 
one the Rock Ranch lands, which may be 
disregarded for the present; the other the 
Horse Creek lands, of which we now 
speak. 

"On May 12, 1915, the appellant, as 
grantor, gave a trust deed of its Horse 
Creek lands to the Wyoming Trust & 
Savings Bank. The deed bears the 



indorsement, 'Form approved by Secre- 
tary of Interior January 21, 1915,' and 
contains these recitals or premises: 

'"Whereas the lands hereinafter de- 
scribed lie within the limits of the pro- 
posed Fort Laramie unit of the North 
Platte project, Nebraska-Wyoming, pro- 
posed to be constructed under the act of 
Congress of June 17, 1902 (32 Stat. 388), 
known as the reclamation act, which, 
with all acts amendatory thereof and sup- 
plementary thereto, is hereinafter referred 
to as the reclamation law, are now without 
sufficient water supply, will require irri- 
gation before they will produce adequate 
crops, and the grantor desires to secure 
ample water rights for the irrigation there- 
of under the said unit; and 

"'Whereas the grantor desires to make 
such provisions in accordance with the 
reclamation law for said lands as will 
assure perfection of water rights therefor 
and is willing to conform to the provisions 
of the reclamation extension act of 
August 13, 1914 (38 Stat. 686), and par- 
ticularly the provisions of section 12 
thereof, which require an agreement to 
dispose of all lands owned by it in excess 
of the area deemed by the Secretary of 
the Interior sufficient for the support of 
a family upon the land in question and to 
comply with the other requirements 
thereof; and 

" ' Whereas the grantor therefore desires 
to insure construction of the said Fort 
Laramie unit under the reclamation law 
aforesaid of sufficient extent to provide 
water for said lands and all the lands 
subscribed and contemplated to be re- 
claimed by the said Fort Laramie unit.' 

"It is then in the trust deed declared 
that the grantor, 'in consideration of the 
premises, the benefits to be derived from 
the construction of said Fort Laramie 
unit,' and $1 paid by the trustee, conveys 
to the trustee several thousand acres of 
described lands, known in the case as the 
Horse Creek lands, subject to rights of 
way required by the United States. 



March, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



53 



"The terms of the trust, so far as now 
material, may be summarized as follows: 
The trustee was required to give bonds for 
deeds to such persons and for such por- 
tions of the lands as the grantor shall from 
time to time direct, the bonds to be con- 
ditioned on payments of not more than 
$30 per acre exclusive of improvements 
and charges for water right from works of 
the United States; and conditioned fur- 
ther 'that if the United States decides be- 
fore January 1, 1917, to construct the said 
Fort Laramie unit, and by January 1, 
1922, the Secretary of the Interior de- 
termines that any part of said lands cov- 
ered by such bond are irrigable from and 
are included in said unit, the obligee, his 
heirs, administrators, executors, or assigns 
shall make, within 90 days from the date 
of such bond, if water-right application 
is then receivable for said lands, or if not 
then receivable, within 90 days from date 
when water-right application is first re- 
ceivable therefor, water-right application 
or applications to the United States for 
the irrigable area of the lands obligated 
to be conveyed and included in said unit, 
in accordance with the said reclamation 
law, and rules and regulations thereunder, 
and the acceptance thereof by the United 
States.' It was understood that the 
grantor could have reconveyed to itself 
an irrigable area not exceeding 160 acres 
for which water-right application should 
be made to the United States within the 
period provided for the making of such 
application by holders of bonds for deeds. 
It was further provided that, except as to 
the 160 acres to be reconveyed to the 
grantor, 'water-right application will not 
be accepted from any one person in 
excess of the area which the Secretary of 
the Interior shall determine as sufficient 
for the support of a family.' Upon the 
fulfillment of the conditions of any bond 
for deed, the trustee was required to 
convey to the obligee that portion of the 
lands obligated to be conveyed 'as shall 
have had water-right application in due 
form made and accepted therefor.' Con- 
veyances were to be subject and inferior to 
the lien to accrue to the United States by 
reason of any water-right application 
It was further provided that 'after five 
years from the date of the first public 
notice issued under the reclamation law 
affecting said lands' all portions of the 
lands for which no bond for deed had been 
given, and all portions for which bond 
had been given, but for which water-right 
application had not been made and 
accepted, should be sold from time to 
time by the trustee upon the direction of 
the Secretary of the Interior at public 
auction to the highest bidder qualified 
to make water-right application for the 
lands sold. The deed sets forth in some 
detail the procedure to be followed in 
carrying out this provision for sales under 



the direction of the Secretary of the In- 
terior. The grantor is entitled to retain 
possession and receive the rents and profits 
of the lands, subject to the provisions 
of the trust, 'and shall pay all taxes, 
charges, and assessments that have 
accrued, or that during such possession 
shall accrue, against said lands that have 
now or shall hereafter and during such 
possession become a lien thereon.' It is 
provided that, on the trustee's legal 
disqualification or failure to act, the 
Secretary of the Interior, on his own 
motion or application of the grantor or 
application of the successors of the United 
States in control of the Fort Laramie 
unit, may designate a different trustee. 

"After construction work on the Fort 
Laramie unit was commenced, no public 
notice of construction charges was given, 
and for some time after water was avail- 
able for irrigation, it was furnished on a 
rental basis. In 1923, under State laws, 
the Goshen Irrigation District was organ- 
ized 'to cooperate with the United States 
under the Federal irrigation laws,' and 'for 
the assumption, as principal or guarantor, 
of indebtedness to the United States on 
account of lands in said district.' The 
district includes lands of the appellant 
and other lands in Wyoming in the Fort 
Laramie unit. 

"In 1926, negotiations between the irri- 
gation district and the Secretary of the 
Interior resulted in a contract between the 
district and the United States. The con- 
tract, after approval by the Secretary of 
the Interior and the electors of the dis- 
trict, was signed November 24, 1926. A 
brief summary of its material provisions 
follows: 

"It is recited that the district includes 
about 53,000 acres of lands irrigable from 
the works of the Fort Laramie unit con- 
structed by the United States; that no 
public notice had theretofore been issued 
affecting the lands or fixing and determin- 
ing the cost of construction, and that the 
landowners and entrymen of lands in the 
district desired to secure the benefits of the 
fact finders' act, infra, and through the 
medium of the district to take over the 
operation and maintenance of the irri- 
gation works and to contract as to the 
manner of repayment of the cost of con- 
struction properly chargeable to their 
lands. The United States agreed to store 
water for the irrigation of lands in the 
district, and the district assumed and 
agreed to pay to the United States con- 
struction charges which should not exceed 
$4,985,315. The district agreed to pay 
each year a construction charge to be 
determined by multiplying the average 
rate per acre by the total number of irri- 
gable acres in the district. Both the 
'average rate per acre' and the 'irrigable 
acres' were to be determined and an- 
nounced by the Secretary of the Interior 



following classification of the lands pursu- 
ant to regulations promulgated under 
authority of the fact finders' act. For the 
purpose of determining the annual con- 
struction payment to be made by the 
district all irrigable lands were to be in one 
class, but it was understood that the aver- 
age rate per acre would be 5 per cent of the 
average gross annual acre income, which 
would depend on the classification of the 
land w th reference to its productive value. 
The annual construction charges to be 
paid by the district to the United States 
were to become due on December 1 of each 
year, commencing with the year 1929, 
with a provision for the carrying over of 
part of the charges for the years 1929, 
1930, and 1931. 

"Following the execution of this con- 
tract, and on June 8, 1927, the commis- 
sioners of the district filed their amended 
first report, by which it was made to 
appear that they had determined that 
51,581 acres of land in the district would 
be benefited to the amount of $100 per 
acre by the irrigation works, and assessed 
the cost of construction, $4,985,000, 
against the benefited lands, including 
some 860 acres of applicant's Horse Creek 
lands, at the rate of $95 per acre, payable 
in conformity to the plan outlined in the 
contract of November 24, 1926. 

"The Lincoln Land Co. objected to the 
inclusion of its Horse Creek lands in the 
district, and to the assessment of benefits 
and cost of construction. After trial in 
the district court, the objections in all 
important particulars were overruled, and 
the assessments confirmed. The land 
company appeals. There are many errors 
assigned in the specifications of error, but 
most of them are not argued in the brief, 
and are therefore deemed to be waived. 
(Automobile Ins. Co. v. Lloyd, 40 Wyo. 
44, 49, 273 P., P. 681.) 

"The contentions argued by appellant 
in this court go to the validity of the assess- 
ment of benefits and of cost of construc- 
tion under the State irrigation district 
laws and under the due process clauses of 
the State and Federal Constitutions. 
The questions raised require consideration 
of various provisions of both Federal and 
State statutes, in order the better to 
understand the relation of the State irri- 
gation district to the Federal Fort 
Laramie reclamation unit. 

"It is conceded that works of the 
Fort Laramie unit constructed by the 
United States under the Federal reclama- 
tion act are the only source of supply of 
water for the irrigation district. Ap- 
pellant contends that, because of the 
provision of section 5 of the reclama- 
tion act that no right to water for 
land in private ownership shall be sold 
for a tract exceeding 160 acres to any 
one landowner, the irrigation district 
(Continued on page 67) 



54 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



March, 1931 




By C. A. BISSELL, Chief, Engineering Division 



Easton Dam, Yakima Project, Washington 

By George C. Imrie and A, A. WhUmore, Associate Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, Ellensburg, Wash. 




EASTON DIVERSION DAM is 
located on the Yakima River just 
above the town of Easton, Wash., about a 
mile below the junction of the Karhcss and 
Yakima Rivers. It diverts water from 
the Yakima River into the Kittitas main 
canal for irrigating the Kittitas division of 
thf Yakima project, comprising about 
72,000 irrigable acres. The dam is located 
in a timbered country on the eastern slope 
of the Cascade Range and in a region sub- 
ject to heavy snowfall during the winter 
months. The reservoir formed by the 
dam has an area of about 240 acres, con- 
tains about 4,000 acre-feet of water, and 
creates a beautiful mountain lake about 
\}i miles long by one-half mile wide with 
wooded shores. Two transcontinental 
railroads, the Northern Pacific and Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific, fol- 
low the southern shore of the lake, while 
the Sunset Highway, which is the principal 
State road connecting eastern and western 
Washington, crosses the upper arm of the 
lake. 

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 

Preliminary surveys for the Kittitas 
division indicated that diversion for the 
main canal would have to be located in 
the vicinity of Easton. Just above the 
town and adjacent to the Northern Pacific 
main line tracks the Yakima River has 
cut a narrow gorge through a rock reef, 
and this site offered the only feasible point 
of diversion. During 1924 the proposed 
dam site was tested by drilling and exam- 
ined by Kirk Bryan, geologist, of the 
United States Geological Survey, who 
reported that the rock consisted of Easton 
schist as mapped in United States Geo- 
logical Survey folio 193. The founda- 
tions were found to be favorable, the geo- 
logical report stating in part that 

" The rock is suitable for the foundations 
of any structure and its joints can be suc- 
cessfully grouted. * * * 

"All the types of Easton schist are com- 
posed of minerals that would not be unduly 
subject to weathering and would not have 
greatly lessened strength when subjected 
to continued wetting * * *. The 
microscopic examination indicates that 



there are no minerals present in the rock 
or veinlets that would undergo ready 
change or that would invalidate the calcu- 
lations of the field geologists * * *. 
The rock is not schistose and the original 
structure, which has been partly pre- 
served, indicates that it had a composition 
near that of diorite." 

DESIGN 

In addition to topographic features 
several other factors had to be taken into 
consideration in arriving at a satisfactory 
design for the dam. It was necessary to 
provide for a practically constant lake 
level above the dam and headworks so as 
to secure the required canal capacity, but 
any appreciable rise in water surface 
above this elevation was certain to damage 
the main lines of two transcontinental 
railroads. Provision had to be made for 
passing by the dam during the irrigation 
season varying quantities of water re- 
leased from the Kachess and Keechelus 
storage reservoirs for the lower divisions 
of the Yakima project. Adequate flood 
spillway capacity was required. It ap- 
peared that a gravity-type overflow dam 
with automatically controlled drum gate 
in the spillway section best met the con- 
ditions existing and this type was decided 
upon. 

The dam as designed and constructed 
consists of a gravity-type concrete struc- 
ture 248 feet long and 66 feet maximum 
height. The spillway section is 64 feet 
long and is provided with a 64-foot by 
14'4-foot structural-steel floating drum 
gate. The automatic control mechanism 
for the drum gate is contained in the gal- 
lery in the right pier, adjacent to the spill- 
way section. Emergency valve for con- 
trolling the drum gate by hand operation 
is located in the left pier. Automatic 
control of the drum gate is accomplished 
through a float which actuates a 16-inch 
balanced valve, which in turn controls the 
water pressure in the drum gate float 
chamber beneath the drum gate and 
raises and lowers the gate. The auto- 
matic operating mechanism is designed to 
hold the water level in the reservoir at a 
practically constant level, the drum gate 



automatically rising and lowering to- 
accommodate the varying inflow into the 
reservoir. With the drum gate in its 
lowest position an overflow spillway 
capacity of 13,000 cubic feet per second is 
available, which is estimated to be ample 
for any floods that may occur. 

The dam raises the water surface 
approximately 43 feet above the normal 
low stage, the maximum operating water 
surface being at elevation 2, 180.3. Agree- 
ments with the Northern Pacific and Mil- 
waukee Railroads prohibit raising the 
water surface above elevation 2,181. A 
4.8-foot by 6-foot sluice gate is provided 
at each side of the river, with sills at 
elevation 2,135 for sluicing out sand and 
silt from the upstream side of the dam and 
for passing the low flow of the river dur- 
ing the nonirrigation season. The sluice 
gates are operated by two 65:1 geared 
gate hoists connected to electric motors 
located on top of the dam. A gallery with 
floor at elevation 2,146.63 is provided for 
through the piers and spillway section 
which provides access to the drum gate 
operating machinery and interior of the 
drum gate and also provides a means of 
crossing the river at this point. 

A fishway is provided on the north side 
of the river, being designed and con- 
structed in conformity with the ideas of 
the Washington State Department of 
Fisheries. A unique fish guard consisting 
of a grid of bent steel rods is provided at 
each bay to discourage fish from turning 
back after they have once entered the fish 
ladder below the dam. The fishway has 
20 bays with a 2-foot 1-inch rise between 
the bays. At the top and bottom of the 
fishway, water regulation is secured by 
means of stop plunk. 

The canal headworks are located at the 
extreme right of the dam and at an angle 
of 27 43' to the dam axis. Two 12-foot 
by 11-foot radial gates, motor operated, 
control the water diverted into the canal. 
Water discharged into the canal at the 
headgates goes directly into a short 
pressure tunnel under the Northern 
Pacific tracks and a short distance 
farther is carried under the Milwaukee 
tracks by a similar tunnel. 



March, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



55 



CONSTRUCTION 

Bids for construction of Easton Dam, 
as covered by specifications No. 468, were 
opened on February 10, 1928, and con- 
tract for construction was awarded to (In- 
low bidder, C. F. Graff, of Seattle, Wash., 
contract No. I-2r-1266, dated March 16, 
1928. Work on the contract was started 
in April, 1928. The original contractor 
lacked adequate capital for prosecuting 
the work and owing to financial difficulties 
stopped work on the contract late in 1928. 
The contract was then taken over and 
completed in October, 1929, by Hans 
Pederson, of Seattle, Wash., who was the 
principal bondsman. With the exception 
of a rather severe winter in 1928-29, con- 
ditions were favorable for prosecution of 
the work, river conditions being unusually 
favorable as no high water occurred in the 
river during the period the dam was under 
construction. In spite of the generally 
favorable conditions, however, the cost of 
the work to the contractor was consider- 
ably in excess of contract earnings. 

Care of river. Temporary diversion of 
the river was accomplished by construct- 
ing a timber flume 12 feet wide and 9 feet 
high on the north side of the river with 
inlet floor at elevation 2,142.5. The 
upper cofferdam was built to about eleva- 
tion 2,155, and the lower cofferdam to 
about elevation 2,143. Both cofferdams 
were of rock and gravel construction with 
a clay blanket on the river side and were 
built directly on the sand and gravel bed 
of the river. As a result leakage through 
the cofferdams was excessive, necessitat- 
ing the later driving of interlocking steel 
sheet piling and additional blanketing 
before the foundations could be com- 
pletely unwatered. Fortunately 710 high 
water was experienced and the temporary 
flume took care of the river until the main 
river section of the dam had been com- 
pleted. The flume was then dismantled 
and the river allowed to pass temporarily 
through an opening left in the dam for 



Eauton Dam Costs 



i 'hiss of work 


Unit 


Quantity 


Cnn tract 

I'lli'llillKS 


United 

States 
materials 


Total 








$11) ii'iii 




$10 0110 


Excavation, all classes . 


( 'uhir vard 


7, 52fi 


.."I, I.VJ 


$105 


29, 557 


Placing material on Northern Pacific railroad embank- 


do 


23,718 


8,004 




8,064 


Hiirk fill 


do 


37 


1G 




16 




do 


103 


HX 




88 




do 


487 


584 




584 




do' 


39 


Mli 




146 






2. 233 


7. 592 




7,592 




Each 


107 


171 




171 


Pressure grouting .. 


Cubic foot 


MM 


an 


363 


1.22X 






j, 70(1 


29, 458 


:'<o. 221 


59,679 




Each 


54 


157 




157 


Placing reinforcing steel 


Pounds 


110, )4 


1,031 


1,712 


2,744 


Instillation and painting structural steel 


do .. 


285,981 


!l, 2.'i2 


29.863 


39, 116 




Each 


(i 


41 


213 


2. r >4 








205 




205 




do 


904 


452 




452 




Pound 


34,182 


2.051 


1,511 


3,562 








2,661 


42 


2.703 














Subtotal 






102,2X6 


64,031 


166,317 












24, 152 
























190.469 















this purpose near the north side. This 
opening was later closed and the river 
passed through the sluice gates. 

Foundation excavation. Excavation was 
carried into solid rock for a depth of from 
3 to 4 feet over the entire base, the cut-off 
trench being excavated to a 5-foot greater 
depth. Excavated material was removed 
by stiff leg derricks. 

Foundation grouting. Grout holes were 
drilled on 5-foot centers in the center of 
the keyway for the entire length of the 
dam. These holes ranged in depth from 
25 feet in the river channel to 10 feet on 
the side slopes under the upper part of 
the abutments. Additional grout holes 
were drilled where the rock appeared soft 
or seamy. In the south half of the spill- 
way section, downstream from the key- 
way, 20-foot grout holes were drilled on 
10-foot centers both ways. Grout holes 
were started with 2}^-ineh diameter holes 
ranging down to 1-inch diameter at the 
bottom. In all, 107 grout holes were 
drilled, the total length of all holes being 



2,233 linear feet. The maximum amount 
of grout forced into any one hole was 38J4 
cubic feet while several holes would take 
no grout. The average quantity of grout 
taken per hole was 4.75 cubic feet. Com- 
pressed air with pressure vip to 100 pounds 
per square inch was iipetl for grouting. 
A minimum depth of 5 feet of concrete 
was placed before grouting operations 
were started, the grout pipe, after the 
concrete had set somewhat, being raised 
above the top of the rock so that when 
grouting took place, the grout was free to 
follow any spaces which might exist be- 
tween the bottom of the concrete and the 
underlying foundation rock. 

Concreting. Concrete in the proportion 
of 1:2.75:6.25 was used for the interior 
portion of the dam and to secure a more 
impermeable surface, a mix in the propor- 
tion of 1.5:2.75:6.25 was used for the 
exterior 3 feet of the dam. A 1 cubic 
yard mixer was used and the only change 
required to produce the richer mix was the 
addition of one sack of cement to the 




EASTON DAM, YAKIMA PROJECT, WASHINGTON 

1. Dam and headworks, looking north from Northern Pacific Railway tracks, with reservoir full. 2. Dam from north side of Yakima River, showing spillwny section; 

flshway in lower right hand corner 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



March, 1931 



batch. The change in mix was easily and 
quickly made by means of signals between 
the inspector at the forms and the checker 
at the mixer. Gravel up to 3 feet in size 
wax used in the mass concrete. These 
mixes were adopted only after numerous 
tests had been made in the Ellensburg 
laboratory covering the strength, im- 
permeability, and economy of various 
mixes. Where extra strength was re- 
quired, as in thin reinforced walls, a 
1:2.4:3.6 mix was used. 

In order to secure a good bond between 
successive horizontal lifts, the entire sur- 
faee of the old concrete, including the top 
and sides of the raised keys, was rough- 
ened by removing about % inch of the 
surface with picks. The loose material 
was left in place and kept thoroughly wet 
until forms were in place for a new pour. 
The surface was then thoroughly cleaned, 
using water, air, and steel brushes. Be- 
fore placing the new concrete, a thin layer 
(about 1 inch) of grout of 1.5: 2.75 con- 
sistency was placed on the roughened 
surface and brushed with steel brushes. 
The grout layer was followed by about a 
6-inch layer of 1.5:2.75:6.25 concrete and 
concreting then continued with the 1 : 2.75: 
6.25 mix for tl^ balance of the interior 
pour. Concrete was placed by chuting 
from a tower located on the right bank of 
the river. All sand and gravel was 
shipped in from the Pioneer Sand & 



Gravel Co. pit located at Steilacoom, 
Wash. The total concrete in the dam and 
headworks amounts to 5,706 cubic yards. 

Forms. Metal or metal-lined forms 
were required by the specifications and the 
contractor used a metal-lined panel form 5 
feet by 6 feet in size anchoring the panels 
by using William's type clamps on 5-foot 
centers vertically and 6-foot centers hori- 
zontally. One-half inch diameter anchor 
rods were used, being placed on approxi- 
mately a 2:1 slope and anchored to loops 
set in the old concrete. The height of 
pour varied from 4 feet to 10 feet. Key- 
ways were provided at all construction 
joints. The horizontal keyways were 
obtained by using two 2-inch by 12-inch 
rough planks spaced 18 inches apart at the 
top and 24 inches at the bottom, the two 
boards being held apart by two pieces of 
40-pound railroad rail bent in U shape 
with the ball of the rail on the outside of 
the bend. The keyways were placed 
parallel to the axis of the dam on 6-foot 
centers. It was found that a good dense 
concrete could not be obtained in the key- 
ways with the 3-foot aggregate and the 
richer mix with small aggregate was used 
for this purpose. 

Erecting drum gate and wall plales. In 
order to insure free working of the drum 
gate, a great deal of care was necessary 
in setting the appurtenant parts to true 
line and grade. In setting the 17 



anchor hinges, extra care was taken to 
secure true alignment. The full hinges 
together with the 1%-inch diameter 
anchor bolts were assembled and set in 
form to line and grade with transit and 
level and securely braced. Concrete was 
then poured to within 6 feet of the bot- 
tom of the hinges. After the concrete 
had set, the top bracing was removed 
and a steel wire threaded through the 
bearings and sufficient tension applied to 
make only one center support for the 
wire necessary. The exact alignment and 
elevation was then obtained by manip- 
ulation of the lock nuts on the anchor 
bolts, after which the hinges were con- 
creted in. The end wall plates were set 
in place after the gate itself had been 
erected and partly riveted. 

Personnel. Easton Dam was con- 
structed under the general supervision 
of Walker R. Young, construction en- 
gineer for the Kittitas division, with 
Associate Engineer Archie A. Whitmore 
in direct charge for the United States. 



IT is anticipated that in the near future 
border lights and a field beacon will be 
installed at Fly Field, the local airport 
on the Yurna Mesa, Yuma project, some 
3 miles south of Yuma, so as to equip it 
for night landings. This field will be 
used by a shuttle air mail line from the 
Pacific coast. 



..-64-0"x 14-6" Drum Gate 

..-- J34 Risers 9'- 2S-6" 
T- \33 rreods@ 9". 24-9 



El. 2/55.08 
ff.W.fl. 2/47 



to Sound Rock 
SECTION THRU SPILLWAY 



(Entrance 
\8otfomf 21350 



t~-H W-0+ 

Headworks 



Approach Channel / 
Floor at El. 21700 




March, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



57 



Notes For Contractors 



Boulder Canyon project. On January 
28 bids were opened at the Denver office 
for furnishing pumps and motors for the 
Boulder City water supply system. The 
Byron Jackson Co., of Berkeley, Calif., 
was low on Item 2, six horizontal pumps, 
450 g. p. m., 1200-foot head, with a bid of 
$19,170 f. o. b. Berkeley, and resulting 
in a delivered cost to the Government of 
$20,460.47. This company was also low 
on Item 3, three horizontal pumps, 500 
g. p. m., 170-foot head, its bid f. o. b. 
Berkeley being $1,470, which made a de- 
livered cost of $1,644.21. These deliv- 
ered costs for freight, and efficiency and 
delivery period evaluation. No award is 
to be made under Item 1. 

Bids were also opened at Denver, during 
the month of February, for the following 
materials: On February 16 for material 
for a 50-foot by 150-foot steel storage 
warehouse; on February 19 for 20,000 bar- 
rels of cement; on February 25 for appa- 
ratus for water purification and sewage 
disposal plant for Boulder City. 

The 10J4 miles of construction railroad 
from Boulder City to the dam site, for 
which bids were opened on January 12, 
was awarded to the Lewis Construction 
Co., of Los Angeles, Calif., with a bid of 
$455,509.50. Other low bidders were J. 
F. Shea Co., Portland, Oreg., $469,028, 
and Merritt, Chapman & Scott Corp., San 
Pedro, Calif., $486,936. 

Bids will be opened at Las Vegas, Nev., 
on March 13, for the construction of 12 
cottages, 6 of which will be four-room 
houses and 6 three-room. Alternative 
bids are being requested on a number of 
different types of construction. Speci- 
fications and plans have been completed 
for the construction of an administra- 
tion building, a garage, and a dormitory. 
Bids will be requested for the construc- 
tion of additional residences immediately 



after the opening of bids on March 13 for 
the first group. 

The contract for furnishing and erect- 
ing two riveted plate-steel tanks for the 
Boulder City water supply, one 100 feet 
in diameter and 35 feet high, and one 30 
feet in diameter and 19 feet high, has 
been awarded to the Lacy Manufacturing 
Co. of Los Angeles, Calif., at a total 
price of $21,050. 

Specifications have been completed for 
the electrical apparatus for the Boulder 
City electrical distribution system; in- 
stallation of the sewer and water mains; 
installation of the water pipe line from 
the river to the city; and furnishing and 
installing tanks for the water purifica- 
tion and sewage disposal plants. 

Bids were opened at Denver on Janu- 
ary 5, under invitation No. 3079-A for 
28,000 railroad ties and 53 switch ties 
for the U. S. construction railroad, and 
34 proposals were received. Award was 
made to the Coast Fir and Cedar Prod- 
ucts Co. of Denver, Colo., whose bid was 
$12,088.11, to which was added the 
freight bill of $17,770.02, making a total 
cost of $29,858.13. 

The Butterfield Construction Co. of 
San Diego, Calif., has the contract for 
constructing concrete foundations for 
the two water tanks at Boulder City; 
also building a road to the site of the 
tanks. The amount of the contract is 
$4,285. 

Under invitation No. 3078-A bids 
were opened at the Denver office on 
January 6 for furnishing steel rail and 
track supplies for the U. S. construction 
railroad. Contract was awarded to the 
Union Pacific Railroad Co. as follows: 
Item 1, 1,530 gross tons (114,314 linear 
feet) of 90-pound relaying rail, $38,274.61 ; 
Item 2, 133 gross tons of ,used continu- 
ous rail'joints. $3,323.85. 



Explorers in Colorado River 
Basin 

The General Land Office has published 
a map showing the routes of the prin- 
cipal explorers in the United States from 
1501 to 1844, which can be found in a 
second edition of Geological Survey Bul- 
letin No. 817 on Boundaries, Areas, 
Geographic Centers, and Altitudes of the 
United States and Several States. 

The trail of explorers who entered or 
traversed the Colorado River Basin, 
indicated on the map facing page 32, are 
as follows: 

1539. Margos de Niza, southeastern 
corner of Arizona. 

1540. Coronado in 1540 entered the 
Colorado drainage not far east of the 
head of the Grand Canyon in Arizona. 

1776. Dominguez and Escalante, north- 
eastern Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and 
Colorado. 

1810-12. Hunt-Astor party entered the 
extreme northern drainage of Green River 
in Wyoming, crossing over to Snake River 
by way of Hoback River. 

1826. Smith, Utah and northwestern 
Arizona on Colorado to Needles and 
California. 

1831-1833. Bonneville, Southern Wyo- 
ming, Utah, and down Colorado to Yuma 
and thence to California. 

1843-44. Fremont in Wyoming, Ne- 
vada, Arizonia, Utah and Colorado. 



A TOTAL of 19 carloads of foodstuffs 
were shipped during the month to 
the drought sufferers in Arkansas from the 
North Platte Valley. Included in the 
shipment were potatoes, beans, flour, 
barley, corn, oats, carrots, cornmeal, 
canned goods, sugar, meat, lard, and 
honey. This food gift was in addition to 
the Red Cross drought relief quota and 
was consigned to the Red Cross at 
Wayne, Ark. The railroads transported 
the shipment without charge. 




3920131 



VIEWS Or NEW UNION PACIFIC BRANCH FROM LAS VEGAS, NEV., TO BOULDEE CITY, BOULDEB CANYON PROJECT 

1. Railroad pass looking toward junction. 2 Track laying crew 

2 



58 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



March, 1931 



mil 

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I By H. A BROWN. Director of Reclamation Economics I 




Fourche Project Had Good Season 



By F. C. Youngblull, Superintendent, Belle Fourche Project 



THE Belle Fourche project came 
through the season of 1930 with good 
average crop returns, notwithstanding the 
shrinkage in price of grains and commodi- 
ties and the prolonged dry spell that 
meant extra hours of labor on the farm in 
supplying irrigation to counterbalance the 
fluvial stinginess of the last half of the 
season. Returns of $22.38 per acre were 
slightly above the 5-year average, but 11 
per cent below the previous year. 

PROFIT IN SUGAR BEETS 

Sugar beets averaged 12.3 tons per acre, 
or 2 tons above the 1929 mark. With the 
contract price remaining at $7, this crop 
brought good cash profits to 332 farms. 
Eighty-seven thousand tons were mar- 
keted from September 25 to November 10 
having a gross value of $631,000, or about 
$89.50 per acre, including tops. Indi- 
vidual fields yielded as high as 26 tons per 
acre; but considering the farm as a unit, 
honors go to Oscar Reppen, of Newell, 
who raised 18 tons of beets per acre and 



had an average return of $44 per acre 
from diversified crops on 127 acres of irri- 
gated land. 

In discussing results of the past year, 
Mr. Reppen observed that a good seed 
bed and plenty of manure would fatten 
the beet check sufficiently to make this a 
profitable crop even in poor years when 
other products show red in the ledger. 
"Take off $25 per acre for contract labor 
and $1 per ton for hauling," he said, "and 
the balance of the work is no more bur- 
densome than for other row crops raised on 
the farm." Using these figures, his crop 
returned $83 per acre, and, in addition, 
the tops provided good fall feed for the 
band of sheep that form the basis of oper- 
ations on this farm. Aside from beets 
and cucumbers, Mr. Reppen markets all 
his crops in the form of lambs, dairy 
products, and poultry. 

The sugar factory at Belle Fourche had 
a run of 94 days and sliced beets from 
slightly more than 10,000 acres. Includ- 
ing the beets under private irrigation, the 







Home of J. H. Schipke, Belle Fourche Project. S. Dak 



pay checks to farmers of this section 
amounted to $885,000; and the employees' 
pay roll and operating expense brought 
total payments to the valley of something 
like one and one-half million dollars. 
Stock feeding and better farming prac- 
tices, as well as increased yields of other 
crops, are a part of the sugar factory's 
ramifications that are being felt in the 
development of these irrigated farms. 
Shipments of bulky hay and marketing 
of small grains have almost disappeared 
and in their place have come the cream 
can, mutton and wool, hogs, poultry, and 
eggs. The acreage given to alfalfa has 
decreased 50 per cent in eight years to 
make room for sugar beets, corn, and other 
feed grains, while in the same period sheep 
nearly doubled in number. 

GROWING OF CUCUMBERS ATTRACTIVE 
SIDE LINE 

Growing of cucumbers for pickles con- 
tinues as an attractive side line on many 
project farms. One hundred and eighty- 
three acres distributed over as many farms 
in 1930 produced 33,500 bushels with an 
average return of $150 per acre. Project 
salting stations shipped out 33 carloads 
to be processed and bottled in the Chicago 
plant of the Squire Dingee Pickle Co. 
Small patches of one-half to three acres 
in pickles serve to keep the Mexican help 
employed in picking during the part of 
the season when beets require no attention 
and also bring in neat cash sums for the 
landlords' share. Some of the best returns 
reported were from the Herman Jaskela 
farm, north of Newell $275 from 1 acre 
and Gus Fredlund, who lives southeast of 
Newell, received $445 from 2 acres. 

HONEY PRODUCTION 

The Belle Fourche Valley is noted for 
honey production in both quantity and 
quality. Nearly 3,000 hives dot the land- 
scape of the project, and 100 pounds net 
per colony is considered only fair produc- 
tion where the keeper devotes his time 
and intelligent care to the industry. 
The largest apiaries, including three at 



March, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



59 



Fruitdalc and one at Newell, together 
produced 300,000 pounds of honey last 
year which went out by truck and express 
in all directions and left two carloads for 
rail shipments to more distant points. 
Doctor Clark's apiary at Newell has 
grown to 430 colonies, producing 110,000 
pounds of marketable honey in 1930, 
valued at about $7,000. The principal 
apiaries at Fruitdale produced in the 
neighborhood of 175,000 pounds last year. 

SPECIALIZED CROPS 

Specialized crops and intensive produc- 
tion are suited to practically all portions 
of the project, but limitations on account 
of markets, hauling distance, and soil 
preparation require that considerable 
areas be given to the more conservative 
lines of alfalfa, dairying, and sheep feed- 
ing. These activities are going through a 
temporary slump because of low markets, 
but no doubt will remain the backbone of 
production along with the sugar beet 
industry. 

The project has a number of farms that 
have been developed entirely from live- 
stock profits and well-balanced operations. 
Mr. J. H. Schipke, who lives 7 miles 
northwest of Newell, purchased 80 acres 
of raw land in 1917 and moved under 
irrigation from the dry lands with a small 
bunch of "doggies" and a lean bank ac- 
count. The first year's wheat crop 
equaled the purchase price of the land 



Newlands Holiday Turkeys 
Bring Good Returns 

According to a recent report from the 
Newlands project, Nevada, shipment of 
turkeys by the local unit of the Northwest 
Turkey Growers' Association for the 
Christmas market amounted to 194,967 
pounds, of which approximately 129,967 
pounds were made up from the Newlands 
project. Total returns from these ship- 
ments amounted to $64,781, of which 
approximately two-thirds was paid to 
growers during the week of delivery. Car- 
load shipments were as follows: To Los 
Angeles, 7; to San Francisco, 2; to Pasa- 
dena, 3. The price per pound, which was 
fixed by the growers, was: For prime and 
choice toms and hens, 33 cents; for me- 
dium toms and hens, 30 cents. The price 
of the Christmas crop was set by the 
growers association after actual orders 
had been placed for the entire crop. This 
was the first time that the buyers have 
ordered the turkeys and allowed the grow- 
ers to fix the price, which was the same as 
that paid last year and reported to be the 
highest price obtained by turkey growers 
in the West during 1930. 

In addition to these shipments numer- 
ous turkeys were also marketed locally 
and on the coast by individual growers 
outside of the association. 




Eli Long's Ayreshires, Belle Fourche Project, S. Dak. 



and enabled him to change from cattle to 
sheep. Three hundred to 500 ewes, a 
few milk cow's, and poultry have placed 
improvements on the land valued at 
$10,000, and in addition have provided a 
livelihood for a family of 11, education for 
the children, and a college training for 
those beyond the high-school age. No 
cash crops are sold from the Schipke farm, 



and wheat grown in rotation is fed along 
with other grains unless the market is 
highly favorable. Lambs and wool, to- 
gether with thrift, industry, and good 
management have built this farmstead, 
kept the taxes paid, and cleared the way 
for purchase of an adjoining 80 acres in 
1930 which will double the livestock 
capacity. Hats off to the builders. 



Profit in High- Grade Cattle on Sun River Project 



H. L. Halladay was in Billings, Mont., 
several days during a recent month, 
where he attended the annual stock show 
and sale of the Yellowstone Registered 
Livestock Association and also looked 
after the sale of eight head of Hereford 
bulls belonging to Birch & Halladay. 
He reports that bidding was quite brisk, 
and in the case of some of the animals 
the final bid was twice the opening bid. 
With some exceptions the prices were 
almost equal to those obtained a year ago. 
Somewhat over 200 head of cattle were 
sold, including 25 scrub calves. 

Out of 78 head of Herefords, 26 brought 
from $300 to $600 apiece. The others 
brought from $200 to $300. The Here- 
fords averaged $270 per head and beef- 
strain Shorthorns $90 a head. Mr. 
Halladay's cattle brought an average 
price of $222. The high average reported 
for the Herefords as a whole is due to the 
fact that there were several show herds in 
the sale and there was one bull with an 
International Livestock Show record. 
He was sold for $600 to the proprietor of 
the Boulder Hot Springs Hotel. L. 
Chatterton, of Geyser, sold a bull for $575. 



The bulls in the Halladay bunch were 
all coming 2-year-olds and they brought 
a price that was well up to the average 
and of course several times their value as 
beef. They went to widely separated 
points, some going to the extreme eastern 
part of the State. Of the cattle offered 
at the show, a number also went to 
Wyoming. 

There was also a 4-H club fair in con- 
nection with the stock show, and a Here- 
ford bull took first prize; a Polled Angus, 
second; and a beef-type Shorthorn, third. 

The scrub calves sold for $25 a head 
and under. 



A CONSIDERABLE amount of farm 
./X property changed hands during the 
month on the Minidoka project. One 
40-acre tract southeast of Heyburn sold 
for $3,000 and one of the 80-acre tracts 
near the Minidoka Dam brought $3,500. 
A farm of 25 acres near Acequia brought 
$3,250, and one of 40 acres in the Pioneer 
district was disposed of for $4,500. An 
80-acre tract 5 miles northeast of Rupert 
brought $5,000. 



60 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



March, 1931 



Encouraging Conditions on Minidoka Project 



A recent issue of the Burley Bulletin 
published on the Minidoka project, Idaho, 
gives a glowing account of conditions in 
Burley and vicinity, reporting a normal 
growth, expansion, and development 
during the past year and a consequent 
optimism for the future. 

The Bulletin reviews conditions in other 
parts of the country where business de- 
pression has been sadly felt, and takes a 
pardonable pride in citing Burley, Cassia 
County, and the Minidoka project as a 
whole as a bright spot in a State which 
has been conceded as "sitting on top of 
the world." 

Real estate sales for Cassia County, 
according to the International Mortgage 
Bank, Overland Land & Loan Co., and 
the Burley Realty & Abstract Co., show 
transactions totaling about $210,000. 

EXPANSION OF WATER SYSTEM 

A marked development has been shown 
in Government reclamation extension. 
A 10 per cent increase in available water 
distribution has been assured by the 
laying aside of some $100,000 for expan- 
sion of the water capacity of the South- 
side Pumping Division. Over 60,000 
yards of gravel were excavated in enlarg- 
ing the South Side canals. A steady in- 
crease in the development and sale of 
power was made for the Minidoka project 
during the year. Commercial sales 
showed nearly a half million kilowatt-hours 



Concrete Specialists Meet 

A joint meeting of the Board of Con- 
sultant Specialists on Concrete and 
Messrs. L. C. Hill, D. C. Henny and A. J. 
Wiley of the Hoover Dam Consulting 
Board was held at Las Vegas from Janu- 
ary 12 to 15, and continued at Denver 
from January 17 to 22. The concrete 
board comprised P. H. Bates, chairman, 
of the U. S. Bureau of Standards; Frank- 
lin R. McMillan of the Portland Cement 
Association; Prof. Raymond E. Davis of 
the University of California; Prof. Wil- 
liam K. Hatt of Purdue University; and 
Prof. H. J. Gilkey of the University of 
Colorado. 

The principal object of the meetings 
was to consider the suitability of certain 
concrete materials; to outline a program 
of investigation to determine the proper- 
ties of concrete in large masses as affected 
by the character of the cement; to study 
the transmission of heat in concrete, and 
methods of dissipating setting heat; 
and to advise the bureau which properties 



increase over 1929. The Government 
power lines connected with the Idaho 
Power Co. for the purpose of supplying 
the project with power during shortages 
supplied the power company with a great 
deal more power than was received. 

CROP PRODUCTION AND BUILDING 
OPERATIONS 

Crop production also showed an in- 
crease during the year. The necessity of 
diversification, however, was emphasized 
by the fact that the farmer who diversi- 
fied his crops showed a profit, although 
low prices in some commodities caused an 
actual loss. Local 4-H clubs made re- 
markable progress during the year, and 
dairying advanced with the completion 
of tuberculosis testing and the growth 
and success of the Cassia County herd. 
The Mini-Cassia Dairymen's Association 
during the year paid as high as $30,000 
per month for butterfat. 

A normal moderate growth in building 
in Burley is noted by the Bulletin. The 
erection of two new buildings in the busi- 
ness district, two new farm homes, a 
radio station for air mail, remodeling and 
improvements, and the building of new 
structures for the Cassia County Fair 
demonstrate the progressive spirit of the 
project settlers which knows no defeat 
and forges steadily ahead under all 
conditions. 



of concrete are of most importance in 
connection with the Hoover Dam. 

A preliminary report was prepared at 
adjournment and a further report was 
promised in about a month. It was rec- 
ommended that the Government should 
not undertake the manufacture of cement, 
unless cements having desired properties 
could not be obtained commercially; and 
that high early strength cement would not 
be required. The consultants also rec- 
ommended that various investigations and 
tests be carried out before making final 
decision on concrete problems. These 
were outlined in the preliminary report 
and will be covered in detail in the later 
report. Another recommendation was 
that these tests be carried out at various 
locations depending on particular tests. 
These places include the U. S. Bureau of 
Standards, both at Denver and Washing- 
ton, D. C.; the Portland Cement Associa- 
tion laboratory at Chicago; Purdue Uni- 
versity; the University of California; the 
University of Colorado; and field offices of 
the bureau. 



Yaltfma Firm Exports Fruit 

The following statement shows the 
export shipments in car lots of fruit from 
the Yakima project by Richey & Gilbert 
during the period August 1 to December 
31, 1930: 



Country 



APPLES 

Holland 

England 

Germany 

Greece 

Sweden 

Norway 

Hawaii 

France 

Miscellaneous ports. . 



Sold for cash Yakima for export- 
Domestic shipments--. 



Car 
ship- 
ments 



Total apple shipments - 
PEARS 



Export 

Domestic.. 



Total pear shipments 

PEACHES, PRUNES. ETC .... 

Grand total fruit ship- 
ments from Yakima by 
one company 



Total 
car 
ship- 
ments 



131 
61 

277 



Grand 
total 
car 
ship- 
ments 



55 



613 



A. G. C. Convention 

Addressed by Dr. Mead 

At the annual meeting of the Associated 
General Contractors of America, held in 
San Francisco January 26-30, a spirit 
of optimism prevailed regarding the 
outlook for 1931 in the construction 
industry. 

Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner of 
Reclamation, gave an inspiring talk in 
which he referred to Hoover Dam as the 
present step in a series of future develop- 
ments that will be necessary to keep pace 
with growth in the Western States. 
Doctor Mead mentioned the growing 
necessity of water development and the 
benefits, both direct and indirect, that 
will result. 

In touching upon Hoover Dam con- 
struction work he pictured the work of the 
contractor as great in magnitude but with- 
out complex problems. Room for con- 
construction operations at the site will be 
extremely limited, but careful planning of 
plant layout will reduce the problem to 
one of large-scale concrete production. 
Uncertainties about materials and condi- 
tions at the site are relatively less than on 
other projects, but the welfare of the many 
men and their families who must live near 
the dam during the long construction 
period warrants and has been receiving 
most careful thought. 



March, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



61 



Reclamation Organization Activities and Project Visitors 



Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner of 

Reclamation, returned to Washington on 
February 9 from a trip to the coast, 
where he interviewed members of the 
Hoover- Young Commission with refer- 
ence to the state-wide survey of water 
conservation; attended the annual meet- 
ing of the Associated General Contractors 
of America and spoke on Hoover Dam; 
met with interested parties on All- 
American Canal matters; conferred with 
Superintendent Priest and representatives 
of the Yuma project in Los Angeles rela- 
tive to Yuma project matters; visited 
Las Vegas and Hoover damsite; and re- 
turned to Washington via Salt Lake 
City and Denver. 

On February 10 and 12, respectively, 
Doctor Mead appeared before the Senate 
and House Committees on Irrigation and 
Reclamation witli reference to Senate bill 
6046, which authorizes an advance of 
$5,000,000 from the General Treasury to 
complete work already contracted for on 
present irrigation projects. 



J. L. Savage, chief designing engineer, 
left Denver the latter part of the month 
to serve for the State of California on 
the Pine Canyon Dam consulting board. 



P. A. Kinzie, engineer, left the Denver 
office on January 29 for Washington, 
where he spent several da3 7 s in connec- 
tion with the needle valve patent situa- 
tion, returning to Denver on February 1. 



Val Kuska, colonization agent of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 
was a recent visitor on the Shoshone 
project. 



S. O. Harper, general superintendent of 
construction, left Denver the latter part 
of the month to inspect various features 
of the Boulder Canyon project. From 
Las Vegas Mr. Harper went to Los 
Angeles, where he met Commissioner 
Mead in a conference on All-American 
Canal matters with the Imperial irriga- 
tion district and the Coachella Valley 
County water district. 



Wm. J. Burke, District Counsel at 
Billings, Mont., spent a few days in the 
Washington office the latter part of the 
month in connection with an effort to 
secure railroad facilities for the Riverton 
project. Hearings were held by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 



W. F. Kubach, Chief Accountant, left 
Washington on February 18 for Denver, 
where he will spend several days in con- 
nection with the setting up of the accounts 
for the Boulder Canyon project. From 
Denver he will go to Las Vegas, Nev., to 
supervise the installation of the accounting 
system. 

Reclamation Goes Over Top 
in Community Chest Drive 

In the recent Community Chest Cam- 
paign in Washington the quota for the 
Bureau of Reclamation was fixed at $375, 
but the 55 employees "went over the 
top" with 55 individual pledges, totaling 
$780.50, or an average of $14.19 per person 
Thus the Washington office more than 
doubled its quota and established a 100 
per cent record for its entire personnel. 

The accompanying photograph shows 
Charles N. McCulloch, Chief Clerk, 
holding the honor banner presented to the 
bureau by the campaign managers. 



R. F. Walter, chief engineer, spent 
several days during the month in the 
Washington office in connection with 
Boulder Canyon project and general 
reclamation matters. 



John Harvey, supervisor of classifica- 
tion of the Department of the Interior, 
spent several days recently at the Denver 
office gathering first-hand information 
regarding the staff and its operations on 
the Boulder Canyon project in the Denver 
and Las Vegas offices, after which he left 
for Las Vegas, Nev. 



John W. Haw, director of agricultural 
development, Northern Pacific Railway, 
and D. S. Spencer, general passenger agent, 
Union Pacific System, with offices at St. 
Paul, Minn., and Salt Lake City, Utah, 
respectively, were in Washington during 
the month in connection with legislation 
authorizing an advance of $5,000,000 to the 
reclamation fund. 




C. N. McCulloch, Chief Clerk, holding Community Chest banner 



62 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



March, I'.WI 



NURR. Assistant to the Commissioner ^^= ? :^ r ~ 




Project Boy Wins High Honor at Chicago Livestock Show 

By A. S. Harder, Yakima Project 



AT THE International Livestock Ex- 
position in Chicago, from Novem- 
ber 23 to December 5, Keith Jones, an 
18-year-old Yakima Valley boy, won 
honors as junior-champion husbandman 
of the United States, in competition with 
champions from 32 States, receiving a 
$300 college scholarship at Washington 
State College where he has this year en- 
tered as a freshman in the agricultural 
course. He had previously qualified for 
entry in this contest by being selected the 
section champion of the Western States, 
securing the award of a prize trip to 
the National 4-H Club Congress and 
the International Livestock Exposition. 
Keith was also named the winner in a 
State-wide meat animal livestock project 
and in recognition of this achievement was 
awarded a 19-jewel gold watch by Thomas 
E. Wilson, prominent livestock breeder 
and chairman of the national committee 
on boys' and girls' club work. 

For the past eight years Keith has been 
active in the 4-H club and has been 
engaged in baby beef, sheep, and swine 
club work and during the last three years 
he has added corn and dairy projects. 
On the basis of showmanship, herdsman- 
ship, record book, and his animal, he 
won a $75 lamb awarded this year by the 
Roselawn Farm at the Pacific Interna- 
tional Livestock Exposition at Portland, 
Oreg. His animal won second in the dis- 
play, but his record in the other lines won 
the first prize. He also won first prize on ;i 
calf exhibit. The prize was a purebred 
shorthorn calf valued at $150 and awarded 
by Jack Napier. Both of these exhibits 
were judged on the same basis. He has 
exhibited champion steers at the Portland 
exposition on several other occasions. 

Keith has been a member of the Yakima 
County 4-H judging team and has twice 
competed at the Spokane Interstate Fair, 
the Pacific International Livestock Exposi- 
tion at Portland, and the Washington State 
Fair at Yakima. In this work he has made a 
very creditable record, being on the judg- 
ing team which this year took first place at 
the Spokane fair and at the Washington 




Keith Jones, 18-year-old champion husbandman 

State Fair at Yakima. This is the first time 
in history that a Yakima County judging 
train ha.s taken first prize at both shows. 



His club records show gross returns of 
$6,439 and a net return of $2,909 from his 
livestock projects. This year he won $500 
in prizes by exhibiting his stock in 4-H 
contests. His premium winnings totaled 
$1,083. As a club member Keith has 
completed 21 years of work in baby beef, 
sheep, swine, dairy, and corn club enter- 
prises and lias steadily increased the size 
of his projects. In 1923 he owned two 
head of baby beeves and this year the 
number has been increased to 11 head. 
He started his sheep enterprise in 192& 
with two head and now owns a flock of 
12 purebred Hampshires. His herd of 
swine numbers 10, and has grown from 
four head in 1927. 

Keith's achievements are especially 
noteworthy for the reason that his success 
has been won by hard work in developing 
his livestock, having started his work with 
common stock and not with expensive 
purebred animals. 

Keith is the son of Mr.' and Mrs. R. L. 
Jones, who reside on a farm under the 
Sunnyside division of the Yakima project 
about halfway between Grandview and 
Sunnyside, Wash. They also have two 
other children who are interested in 4-H 
club work. 




Sheep owned by Keith Jones 



March, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



63 



Mrs. Iva M. McFadden has written a very interesting article on the Yuma Mesa, Yuma Federal reclamation project, for the 
Los Angeles Times, which was printed in the magazine section on Sunday, January 11, 1931, as follows: 



Can't Stump Uncle Sam 

The mesa was higher than the water, but 
Government engineering proved equal to 
the task 

The United States plays such a multi- 
tude of roles that the term "government" 
is loosely used to mean any number of 
things. In fact, to each of us it probably 
signifies something different because of our 
contact with it. 

Those projects where the Government 
has gone about the business of helping 
people acquire and develop land have an 
interesting history. One such, which has 
been instrumental in bringing under irri- 
gation 110,000 acres of desert land, lies on 
the border of southern California. It is 
known as the Yuma reclamation project, 
and though the general impression is that 
this is an Arizona affair, 15,000 of these 
acres are in California, while the entire 
intake is also on this side of the Colorado 
River. Of the bulk of the land lying in 
Arizona, 50,000 acres are in Yuma Valley 
proper and the other 45,000 on Yuma 
Mesa. 

Since all these lands are higher than the 
river, it is necessary to lift the water above 
the level of the main stream. 

This is the mission of Laguna Dam, 
which is not a storage reservoir as we are 
apt to interpret the word "dam," but a 
diversion dam of the Indian weir type. 
It is 4,780 feet long and raises the water 
level 19 feet above the old river bed. De- 
silting basins lie between this and the canal 
system, so that at least 25 per cent of the 
sediment is removed there, and these 
basins may be sluiced through gates that 
are electrically controlled. Thirteen and 
one-half miles of canals carry the water 
down to a point nearly opposite Yuma, 
irrigating the California lands of the Bard 
section and the Indian reservation on the 
way, whence the water is taken under the 
Colorado through an inverted syphon and 
reaches the Arizona side to irrigate the 
valley lands by gravity. 

Gravity, however, will not function on 
the mesa since it is 60 to 70 feet above the 
lower lands along the river. To irrigate 
this, the Government has installed electric 
pumps to boost the water from the canals 
in the valley up to this higher level. The 
system now being used will irrigate 38,000 
acres, though, as a matter of fact, only 
about 1,300 are actually developed and 
using water. Outside of the actual Gov- 
ernment project, there are said to be some 
70,000 additional acres which could be 
brought into the project. 

AN INTERESTING AREA 

This Yuma Mesa is easily one of the 
most interesting of our agricultural areas 



awaiting development. It is a part of the 
Yuma district which the casual traveler 
does not see because it lies off from the 
main arteries, and is some distance from 
the city itself. But it is a remarkably 



SAGA OF HOOVER DAM 

(Copyright hy author, "Jane Hilton") ' 

Awake! ye grim Nevada hills! 

Give back the cry to deserts gray! 
Call on the worlds Jar witnessing 

Of high emprise begun this Jay! 
dec tongue! give tongue, ye western winds 

To what Man's daring dream hath wrought 
Through resistless strength of sustaining Faith 

And the building power of Thought. 

'Mid sun-drenched desert and wind-scarred rock 

Whose ramp abuts the stars, 

Where wolf roamed wild when the West was young 
And grinning Death claimed, one by one. 

The bold adventurers 
Who flung courageous challenge 

To the desolate desert Wide, 
Who fought with Fate where their bones lie bleached. 

Where they suffered, starved, and died 
Since Time's far dawn knew trace of life 

In the land of little rain, 
"Water!" has been the cry of Earth, 

The moan of the sun-parched plain. 
"Water, that I may bring to birth 

All that I bear within! 
Water! to keep my sons aline! 

Water! that they may win 
Their Caliant losing battle 

With the bitter, barren soil 
That needs must fail them in damning drought. 

Though the raging torrents boll 
'Twixt two stern steeps of granite grey. 

Sentries full grim, that hold 
The water's life from my dying sons 

Who chanted their challenge bold!" 

The years fled past, and the cliffs still held 

Their silent watch and ward 
Well did they know the treasure's worth 

That they were set to guard. 
But Man dreamed on of a day when he. 

Through the harnessing of force, 
Might master those storming waters 

On their wild and wasteful course. 
And set them to turning turbine wheels 

To generate the might 
That should minister to a thousand needs 

And bring into being light 
To shame the stars and the pitiless sun 

That mocked at the mad Earth's pain. 
And gate for her prayers an answering stone 

In the land of little rain. 

And now shall that dream stand bodied forth, 

For a million years to span 
From cliff to cliff, to impound the flood 

And minister to Man, 
He shall harness the river's wrathful surge, 

He shall tame the sullen stream; 
He shall build a bulwark as w ^de and high 

As the height and depth of his dream. 
He shall caroc the cliffs and turn their strength 

Against the foaming flood 
Until it has worked his will for him. 

Until he shall say '"Tis good!" 
The whir of the wheels of industry 

Shall sing where the wolf howled lone. 
And the children of Man, in a future day. 

Shall know the peace of home 
Where the bones of their grandsires bleached and burned 

In the land of little rain. 
They shall measure the worth of a land's rebirth 

In a mighty labor pctn. 

' Pen name used hy Mrs. Zoe Evalyn Gregory, 
of Reno, Nov. 



large stretch of relatively level land com- 
posed of a sandy or gravelly soil that seems 
to be very well drained. Apparently at 
one time the actual Yuma Valley was the 
bed or overflow land of the Colorado, while 
this was dry and above inundation. That 
elevation to-day gives it a great advantage 
in the matter of temperature, and it is 
declared to have a very mild winter 
climate. 



The development which has taken place- 
on the mesa is largely citrus. In fact it is 
doubtful if anything else will be planted. 
At least only permanent crops would seem 
to be able to afford the expense that is 
necessary to irrigate lands where one must 
go to such pains to bring water. Type of 
soil, drainage, and temperature point to it 
as a natural citrus district, and the trees 
that are already planted seem to prove 
that it is admirably well suited to such 
development. 

Uncle Sam still owns much of the land. 
When Yuma Mesa was first put up for 
auction, the Government opened it at a 
minimum of $225 per acre. After the sale 
it was found that it averaged between $227 
and $229 per acre for the land and con- 
struction charges. The present price is 
$232 per acre, which includes the charge 
for bringing the water to the land. It is 
considered that the flat cost for construc- 
tion of the water system for the mesa is 
$200 per acre, the balance being cost of the 
land. The Government is very lenient in 
the matter of payments, 10 per cent being 
the down payment, the rest being spread 
over nine years. Deferred payments bear 
6 per cent interest. 

The Government, for these considera- 
tions, brings the water to each piece of 
land, as it is developed, in flumes, cement 
ditches, or underground pipes as seems 
advisable. For 3 acre-feet or less of 
water used each year, the charge is $15 
per acre. More than 3 feet is paid for 
at the rate of $3.50 an acre-foot. 

The further development of the mesa 
will come from those who have sufficient 
capital to carry some permanent crop on 
to a self-paying basis. Those who have 
already done this have trees of very fine 
appearance. Grapefruit is the prevailing 
crop, though at present a great deal of 
attention is being paid the Valencia 
orange. Navels were the first type of 
orange to be tried in the earlier days, but 
the mesa, like other desert areas, does not 
seem to be able to set a heavy crop. 
Valencias, however, escape the short- 
coming of the navels, and set a good crop. 
This, and the fact that the desert Valencia 
will ripen about the time the heavy navel 
shipments are over, and before the coast 
Valencias come in, make them seem like a 
"good bet." At least some of the mesa 
landowners are giving them a thorough 
trial. Most of these trees are quite 
young, for Valencias are a new crop, only 
recently undertaken. 

GRAPEFRUIT GROVES DO WELL 

Grapefruit plantings, on the other hand, 

are old enough to prove that they do 

remarkably well. The trees have an 

especially fine color, most noticeable at 

(Continued on p. 68) 



64 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



March, 1931 




Administration of Federal Farm Loan Acts and Methods of 
Amortization Their Benefits to Borrowers 



THE Federal farm loan act, which is ad- 
ministered by the Federal Farm Loan 
Board under the acts of July 17, 1916, and 
March 4, 1923, was designed to provide 
capital for agricultural development, to 
create standard forms of investment based 
upon farm mortgages, to equalize rates of 
interest upon farm loans, to furnish a mar- 
ket for United States bonds, and to create 
Government depositaries and financial 
agents for the United States. 

The principal features set forth in this 
article are to show the advantages of 
amortized farm loans, the protection af- 
forded debtors, how to organize and con- 
duct farm loan associations, to show the 
merits and advantages of farm loan bonds?, 
and the elasticity for expansion and con- 
traction of credits to the farmers, also 
several tabulations and problems from 
which determination can be made to find 
the annual and semiannual payments and 
to find th.e period of time, the rate of 
interest, and the remaining capital due 
after the payment of a number of annuities. 

By the creation of the Federal farm loan 
act, the foundation of really the first exten- 
sive and efficient system of agricultural 
banking in the United States under Fed- 
eral control and direction with unlimited 
resources to meet any requirements that 
may materialize through the growth of the 
plan, has been the institution of the Farm 
Loan Board, Federal farm land banks, 
national farm loan associations, and the 
joint-stock land banks. 

ORGANIZATION AND POWERS OF BOARD 

The Federal Farm Loan Board consists 
of seven members, including the Secretary 
of the Treasury, who is a member and 
chairman ex officio. The other six mem- 
bers are appointed by the President of the 
United States by and with the advice and 
consent of the United States Senate. Of 
the six members appointed not more than 
three are appointed from one political 
party. All are citizens of the United 
States and are required to devote their 
entire time to the business of the board. 



The purpose and powers granted to this 
board under the act are briefly as follows: 

1. To divide the continental United 
States, excluding Alaska, into 12 districts 
and organize, charter, and establish a 
Federal land bank in each district and 
to charter national farm loan associations 
and joint-stock land banks. 

2. To appoint a farm loan register, land 
bank appraisers, and land bank examiners 
in each district. 

3. To receive applications for issue of 
farm loan bonds. 

4. To review and alter the rate of 
interest to be charged by Federal land 
banks. 

5. To make rules and regulations re- 
specting the charges made to borrowers 
on loans for expenses of appraisal, de- 
termination of titles and recording of 
same. 

6. To exercise general supervisory au- 
thority over the Federal land banks, the 
national farm loan associations and the 
joint-stock land banks. 

Before commencement of business every 
Federal land bank must have a subscribed 
capital stock of not less than $750,000, 
which shall be divided into shares of $5 
each and may be subscribed for and held 
by any individual, firm, or corporation 
or by the government of any State or of 
the United States. When a bank is 
designated and selected by the Secretary 
of the Treasury it shall be a depositary of 
public funds, it shall issue and sell farm 
loan bonds, subject to the approval of the 
Federal Farm Loan Board and it shall 
invest the funds in qualified first mortgages 
on farm lands. 

FARM LOAN ASSOCIATIONS 

Corporations, to be known as national 
farm loan associations, may be organized 
by persons desiring to borrow money on 
farm mortgage security. The articles of 
the associations shall specify in general 
terms the object for which they were 
formed, the territories within which oper- 
ations are to be carried on and any other 



conditions, not inconsistent with the law. 
Said articles must be signed by all the 
persons uniting to form the association or 
associations, and copies of the articles are 
required to be filed with the Federal land 
bank for the respective districts. Ten or 
more persons who are the owners or about 
to become owners of farm lands qualified 
as security for a mortgage loan may unite 
to form a national farm loan association, 
with a board of directors of five members 
only and a secretary-treasurer, who need 
not be a shareholder of the association. 
When the articles of the association are 
forwarded to the district Federal land 
bank it shall be accompanied by an affi- 
davit stating that each of the subscribers 
is the owner or about to become the 
owner of farm land; that the loan desired 
by each person is not more than $10,000 
nor less than $100; and that the aggregate 
of the loans is not less than $20,000, to 
which must be attached a subscription to 
stock in the Federal land bank equal to 
5 per cent of the aggregate sum desired on 
mortgage loans. 

HOW TO OBTAIN A LOAN 

Whenever any person desires to secure 
a loan on a first mortgage he shall make 
application for membership to the na- 
tional farm loan association of his district, 
stating the amount of the loan desired and 
subscribing for capital stock to the extent 
of 5 per cent of the loan requested, which 
subscription must be paid in cash upon 
the granting of the loan. Upon receipt of 
the application by the national farm loan 
association it is referred to the loan com- 
mittee who will examine the land offered 
as security and make a detailed written 
report, giving an appraised valuation and 
other appurtenant information as may be 
required. 

A loan may be requested to provide 
funds for the purchase of land for agricul- 
tural uses, farm equipment, fertilizer, live- 
stock, buildings, and improvements of 
farm lands, also to liquidate indebtedness 
of land mortgages. No loan, however, 



March. 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



65 



ANNUAL INSTALLMENTS 



The annuity which will amortize a capital of $1 at a fixed 
rate of compound interest for 1 to 40 years. 



SEMIANNUAL INSTALLMENTS 

The semiannuity which will amortize a capital of $1 at a 
fixed rate of compound interest for 1 to 40 years. 



Year 


3 per cent 


3H per cent 


4 per cent 


4H percent 


5 per cent 


5H per cent 


Install- 
ments 


3 per cent 


3H per cent 


4 per cent 


4H per cent 


5 per cent 


5H Per cent 
















1 


$1.0150000 


$1 0175000 


$1 0200000 


$1 0925000 


$1.0250000 


$1 0275000 




$1 0300000 


$1 0350000 


$1 0400000 


$1 0450000 


$1. 0500000 


$1. 0550000 


2 


. 5112780 


. 5131666 


. 5150495 


. 5169405 


. 5188271 


.5207204 
















3 


.3433856 


3450682 


3467545 


3484499 


. 3501397 


3518346 


2 


. 5226108 


5264011 


.5301960 


5339975 


. 5378048 


. 5416180 


4 


. 2594471 


. 2fllO:i21 


.2626242 


.2642224 


. 2658175 


. 2674211 
















6 


.2090893 


2100226 


2121598 


2137013 


2152471 


2167987 


3 


3535303 


3569367 


3603485 


3637736 


. 3672085 


.3706547 


6 


. 1755273 


. 1770231 


. 1785263 


. 1800354 


. 1815503 


. 1830711 
















7 


. 1516573 


. 1530308 


. 1545134 


.1560003 


. 1574952 


. 1589978 


^ 


2690271 


2722527 


. 2754908 


2787444 


2820121 


. 2852951 


8 


.1335854 


. 1350428 


.1365093 


. 1379853 


. 1394673 


.1409582 
















9 


. 1196112 


. 121(i:.82 


. 1225152 


. 1239816 


.1254569 


. 1269413 


5 


.2183546 


2214827 


2246279 


2277923 


2309751 


. 2341764 


10 .. . 


. 1084352 


. 1098756 


. 1113263 


1127878 


.1142586 


. 1157400 
















11 . 


.09929477 


. 1007303 


. 1021777 


1036367 


. 1051058 


1065866 


g 


. 1845985 


1876691 


1907625 


1938783 


1970177 


.2001788 


12 


.09168084 


.09310410 


09455956 


09601762 


. 09748689 


09896882 
















13 


. 08524082 


. 0866721)6 


08811828 


08957708 


. 09105481 


09253274 


7 


.1605068 


.1635451 


. 1666103 


. 1697014 


. 1728199 


.1759642 


14 


. 07972382 


.08115582 


. 08260172 


. 08406256 


. 08553636 


. 08702472 
















15 


. 07494485 


07637753 


07782537 


07928854 


. 08076622 


08225928 




.1424568 


. 1454773 


. 1485281 


. 1516095 


. 1547219 


.1578639 


16 


. 07076563 


.0721!l%5 


. 07365007 


.07511682 


. 07659884 


. 07809724 
















17 


. 06708008 


06851640 


06996976 


07144058 


. 07292762 


07443192 


9 


.1284342 


. 1314464 


. 1344934 


. 1375745 


. 1406901 


. 1438394 


18 


. 06380620 


.06521493 


. 06670201 


. 06817739 


. 06966998 


.07118075 
















19 


. 06087886 


. 06232077 


. 06378168 


. 06526200 


. 06676050 


.06827815 


10 


. 1172308 


. 1202417 


. 1232912 


. 1263789 


. 1295047 


. 1326677 


20 


. 05824611 


. 05969134 


.06115657 


.06264217 


. 06414696 


.06567186 
















21 


. 05586580 


. 05731479 


. 05878465 


. 06027581 


.06178720 


. 06331950 


11 


. 1080776 


. 1110924 


. 1141493 


. 1172483 


.1203889 


. 1235705 


22 . 


. 05370370 


. 05515650 


. 05663133 


. 05812833 


. 05964648 


.06118648 
















23 . 


.05173112 


. 05318806 


. 05466799 


05617108 


. 05769627 


05924420 


12 


.1004622 


. 1034845 


. 1065524 


. 1096662 


1128254 


. 1160291 


24 


. 04992439 


. 05138577 


.05287101 


05438035 


. 05591268 


05746873 
















25 


. 04826375 


. 04962960 


. 0512033 


05273607 


. 05427583 


05584009 


13 


.09402979 


. 09706190 


1001439 


. 1032753 


1064558 


.1096842 


26 


. 04673225 


.04S18:i29 


. 04969915 


05122144 


. 05276864 


05434126 
















27 


. 04531552 


040790W 


04829299 


04982196 


. 05137678 


05295786 


14 


. 08852656 


.09157104 


.09466916 


. 09782034 


. 1010240 


. 1042790 


28 


.04400131 


.0454S159 


. 04698958 


. 04852536 


. 05008786 


. 05167748 
















29 


. 04277902 


. 04426430 


. 04577828 


. 04732091 


. 04889119 


. 05048945 


15 


. 08376672 


.08682834 


.08994124 


. 09311378 


.09634230 


.09962547 


30 


. 04163943 


. 04312984 


.04464988 


. 04619940 


. 04777755 


. 04938450 
















31 


. 04057449 


. 04207013 


. 04359629 


.04515286 


. 04673890 


. 04835460 


16 


. 07961095 


. 08268510 


. 08582018 


. 08901536 


. 09226992 


. 09558242 


32 


. 03957726 


.04107820 


. 04261052 


. 04417421 


. 04576823 


. 04739272 
















33 


. 03864164 


. 04014786 


. 04168651 


04325728 


. 04485930 


. 04649261 


17 


. 07595263 


. 07904332 


. 08219868 


.08541758 


.08869914 


.09204184 


34 


. 03776207 


. 03927374 


. 04081? 64 


04239662 


. 04400658 


. 04564882 
















35 


. 03693383 


(WN 15090 


.04000212 


04158738 


. 04320549 


. 0448.5652 


18 


. 07270883 


.07581702 


.07899347 


. 08223689 


. 08554620 


. 08891978 


36 


. 03615260 


. 03767513 


03923277 


04082528 


.04245150 


04411138 
















37 


. 03541456 


. 03694253 


. 03850669 


. 04010652 


.04174063 


. 04340959 


19 


.06981408 


. 07294045 


. 07613870 


. 07940734 


. 08274500 


. 08615000 


38 


.03471635 


. 03624996 


. 03782048 


. 03942762 


.04107004 


. 04274771 
















39 


. 03405481 


. 03559405 


. 03717106 


03878549 


.04043608 


. 04212263 


20 


. 06721580 


. 07036125 


. 07358187 


. 07687610 


. 08024255 


. 08367926 


40 


. 03342728 


. 03497216 


. 03655566 


. 03817741 


. 03983616 


.04153159 
















41. 


. 03283123 


.03438177 


. 03597181 


. 03760091 


. 03926781 


. 04097207 


21 


. 06487186 


. 06803674 


. 07128021 


.07460056 


. 07799612 


. 08146470 


42 


. 03226440 


. O338'_062 


. 03541724 


. 03705369 


. 03872869 


.04044181 
















43 


. 03172480 


. 033''S072 


. 03488987 


. 03653369 


. 03821683 


. 03993877 


22 


. 06274751 


. 06593224 


.06919890 


. 07254561 


. 07597052 


. 07947119 


44 . 


. 03121052 


. 03277815 


. 03438787 


.03603906 


. 03773030 


. 03946105 
















45 


. 03071951 


. 03229326 


. 03390955 


. 03556810 


. 03726744 


. 03900*597 


23 


.06081399 


. 06401896 


.06730914 


. 07068246 


. 07413683 


. 07766959 


46 


. 03025140 


.03183048 


. 03345335 


.03511926 


. 03682670 


. 03857498 
















47 


. 02980358 


.03138841 


.03301785 


03469112 


. 03640663 


.03816363 


24 


. 05904751 


. 06227295 


. 06558696 


. 06898703 


. 07247088 


. 07603533 


48 


. 02937514 


. 030%574 


. 03260178 


03428' ) 36 


. 03600595 


. 037771B1 
















49 


. 02896492 


. 03056130 


.03220390 


. 03389184 


. 03562342 


. 03739777 


25 


. 05742796 


. 06067418 


.06401204 


. 06743900 


. 07095248 


. 07454931 


50 


. 0^857183 


.03017397 


. 0318'316 


03351840 


. 03525800 


. 03704098 
















51 


.02819481 


. 02980276 


.03145851 


03316105 


. 03490865 


. 03670019 


26 


.05593841 


. 05920550 


. 06256747 


. 06602133 


. 06956432 


.07319302 


52 


. 02783300 


. 02944668 


.03110903 


. 03^81886 


. 03457442 


. 03637449 
















53 


. 02748550 


. 0^910497 


. 03077386 


03249097 


. 03425444 


. 0360630 


27 


.05456429 


. 05785250 


.06123860 


. 06471946 


. 06829186 


. 07195225 


54 


02715151 


. 02877677 


. 03045222 


. 03217657 


. 03394793 


. 03576496 
















55 


.02683030 


. 02846133 


. 03014333 


. 03187494 


. 03365414 


. 03547958 


28 


. 05329331 


. 05660278 


. 00001304 


. 06352080 


. 06712255 


. 07081433 


56 


.02652118 


. 02815798 


. 02984651 


.03158534 


. 03337238 


. 03520617 
















57... 


. 02622351 


.02786611 


.02956115 


. 03130716 


. 03310198 


. 03494409 


29 


. 05211476 


. 05544553 


.05888003 


.06241461 


06604555 


. 06976853 


58 


02593673 


02758508 


. 02928662 


03103984 


. 03284239 


. 03469275 
















59 


. 02566023 


. 02731434 


. 02902240 


. 03078271 


. 03259303 


. 03445158 


30 


. 05101934 


. 05437144 


. 05783015 


. 06139154 


06505144 


. 06880534 


60 


. 02539354 


02705341 


02876791 


03053536 


. 03235336 


. 03422007 
















61 


. 02513615 


.02680177 


. 02852274 


. 03029726 


. 03212291 


. 03399772 


31 


.04999900 


. 05337249 


.05685540 


.06044346 


.06413211 


. 06791661 


62 


. 024B8761 


. 02655895 


. 02828639 


.03006798 


.03190122 


. 03378407 
















63. 


. 02464751 


. 02632458 


.02805844 


. 02984706 


. 03168786 


. 03357871 


32 


.04904670 


.05244161 


. 05594869 


. 05956318 


. 06328046 


. 06709513 


64 


. 02441544 


. 02609825 


. 02783850 


. 02963413 


. 03148244 


. 03338122 
















65 


.02419104 


. 02587954 


. 02762620 


. 02942881 


.03128460 


. 03319125 


33 


.04815619 


. 05157254 


. 05510364 


.05874450 


. 0624E007 


. 06633465 


66 


. 02397396 


. 02566818 


.02742118 


. 02923072 


. 03109394 


.03300840 


34 


. 04732203 


. 05075976 


.05431482 


. 05798190 


. 06175546 


. 06562955 


67 

68 


.02376384 
. 02356041 


. 02540376 
. 02526600 


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. 02703168 


.02903957 
.02885502 


. 03091019 
. 03073296 


. 03283240 
. 03266289 
















69 


. 02336337 


. 02507462 


. 02684661 


. 02867679 


. 03056202 


. 0324995S 


35 


. 04653934 


.04999843 


. 05357736 


. 05727047 


. 06107173 


. 06497486 


70 


. 02317244 


. <t'4XS933 


. 02666761 


.02850461 


. 03039709 


. 03234221 
















71 


. 02298735 


. 0''470988 


. 02649442 


. 02833819 


. 03023788 


. 03219050 


36 - ... 


. 04580384 


. 04928423 


. 05288694 


. 05660577 


.06043447 


. 06436631 


72 


. 02280787 


. 02453603 


. 02632678 


. 02817731 


.03008414 


. 03204424 
















73 


02263376 


02430752 


. 02616451 


. 02802172 


.02993566 


.03190314 


37. 


.04811166 


. 04861330 


.05223961 


. 05598401 


. 05983980 


.06379988 


74 


. 02246481 


.02420417 


. 02600732 


. 02787121 


. 02979218 


. 03176701 
















75 


02230081 


. 02404573 


. 02585505 


. 02772555 


.02965354 


. 03163563 


38 


. 04445939 


. 04798222 


. 05163200 


.05540168 


. 05928423 


. 06327210 


76 


02214164 


. 02389204 


. 02570748 


. 02758458 


. 02951952 


.03150881 
















77 


. 02198685 


. 02374288 


. 02556443 


. 02744809 


. 02938993 


.03138636 


39 


.04384390 


. 04738780 


. 05106087 


. 05485566 


. 05876563 


. 06277988 


78 


02183653 


. 02359809 


. 02542573 


.02731591 


. 02926461 


.03126809 


40 


. 04326242 


. 04682736 


. 05052353 


.05434315 


. 05827817 


. 06232031 


79 
80 


. 02169044 
02154840 


. 02345750 
0''332096 


. 02529120 
02516067 


. 02718785 
. 02706377 


. 02914335 
. O290'>601 


.03115384 
. 03104345 































may exceed 50 per cent of the value of the 
land mortgaged and 25 per cent of the 
permanent insured improvements thereon, 
which value is ascertained by the apprais- 
ers of Federal land banks. 

Every mortgage contains a stipulation 
for the repayment of the loan on the 
amortization plan, by means of a fixed 
annuity or semiannuity covering first, a 
charge on the loan; second, a charge for 
administration and profits at a rate not 



exceeding 1 per cent, said two rates com- 
bined constituting the interest rate on the 
mortgage; and third, such amounts to be 
applied on the principal as will amortize 
or extinguish the debt within an agreed 
period of not less than 5 years, nor more 
than 40 years. 

Extracts from the Federal farm loan act 
on farm loan bonds, provide that Federal 
or joint-stock farm loan bonds must be 
secured by collateral deposited with a 



farm loan register. When a Federal land 
bank makes application to the Federal 
Farm Loan Board for an issue of farm 
loan bonds, it must tender with the appli- 
cation as collateral security first mort- 
gages on farm lands or United States 
Government bonds, not less in the aggre- 
gate amount than that of the bonds pro- 
posed to be issued. Bonds are issued in 
denominations of $40, $100, $500, and 
$1,000, and shall run for a specified mini- 



NEW RECLAMATION EKA 



March, 1931 



mum and maximum period, subject to 
payment and retirement at the option of 
the land bank. They have interest cou- 
pons attached, payable seinianiiually, and 
shall be issued in series of not less than 
$50,000. They bear a rate of interest not 
in exceed 5 per cent per annum and they 
are not taxable by national, State, munici- 
pal, or local authorities. 

From the foregoing it may be readily 
surmised that the security of the bonds 
issued by the Federal farm loan banks 
having as collateral first mortgages on 
carefully appraised farm lands really 
increases in value each year and as a 
farmer pays his annual or semiannual 
installment covering the interest and the 
amortization quota, he thereby reduces 
his loan and by this reduction of the loan 
automatically increases the value of the 
collateral security of the mortgage. 

ELASTICITY OF CREDIT PROVIDED 

The elasticity for expansion and con- 
traction of credits to farmers is evident 
from the Federal farm loan act that the 
credit capacity of the system has the 
unique advantage of expanding and con- 
tracting credit to the farmers according 
to their need. There are 12 land banks, 
with a capital stock of $750,000 each 
and according to the act each land bank 
may borrow by issuing bonds twenty- 
times its capital secured by first mortgage 
on farm lands and indorsed by the Federal 
farm loan association. Futhermore, each 
association in securing a loan from the 
land bank for one of its members is re- 
quired to subscribe to the capital stock of 
the land bank in an amount equal to 5 
per cent of the secured loan; therefore, 
the automatic credit expansion of the 
land bank is somewhat as follows: 

Capital of a land bank $750, 000 ' 

Bond issued, twenty times 

the capital 15, 000, 000 

New captial subscribed at 5 

per cent of the loans on 

$15,000,000 750,000 

New bonds issued twenty 

times the new capital 15, 000, 000 

Therefore, there is no limit to the 
expansion of credit for the ultimate 
benefit and use of the farmers. The con- 
traction of credit also results automati- 
cally, because the land banks are required 
to pay off the farm loan bonds whenever 
they mature and to purchase them at 
par or below par from the funds of the 
amortization quotas, and other payments 
made on the principal of the first mort- 
gages. 

PROBLEMS 

When the borrowed capital, the rate of 
interest, and the period of time are known. 



the annuity can be determined from the 
accompanying annual and semiannual in- 
stallment tables as follows: 

If a farmer, through the farm loan asso- 
ciation of which he is a member, borrows 
from (lie Federal land bank of his district 
$2,500 at \% per cent interest per annum, 
which is to be redeemed or liquidated in 
15 years in 15 equal annual installments, 
the solution is as follows: 

The table of annual installments shows 
that $1 for 15 years at 4% per cent is 
$0.09311378; therefore the annuity of 
$2,500 will be: 

$0.0931 1378 X 2,500 - $232.78 

Similarly, if the above loan is to be re- 
deemed in 20 years, in 40 semiannual in- 
stallments at 5 per cent interest, by refer- 
ring to the table of semiannual installments 
it will be found that $1 for 20 years, or 
40 installmentsat 5 per cent, is $0.03983616; 
therefore, the semiannuity of $2,500 will 
be: 

$0.03983616 X 2,500 = $99.59 

If a farmer finds he can spare from his 
annual income approximately $200 and 
desires to know the amount he can borrow 
at a given interest rate of 5 per cent for 
20 years, he may refer to table of annual 
installments, which shows that $1 at 5 per 
cent in 20 years is $0.08024255; therefore, 
with an annuity of $200 the capital it will 
amortize will be: 

$200.00 -4-0.08024255 = $2,492.44 

In a case where the farmer knows the 
capital borrowed, the annuity, the period 
of time, and the rate of interest, and desires 
to know the amount of the remaining 
capital due after a payment of a number 
of annuities the procedure is as follows: 
Find what is the remaining capital after 



a payment of six years, for example, of 
$320.97 each, the loan being made for 20 
years at 5 per cent on $4,000. Divide 
the annuity of the loan by the annuity 
of $1 for the remaining length of time as 
follows: The annuity of $1 for the remain- 
ing 14 years is $0.1010240, as found in the 
table, under 5 per cent column, line of 
14 years; therefore 320.97-^0.1010240= 
3177.18 remaining capital due. Herbert 
R. Pasewalk, Assistant Chief Accountant, 
Wnxhingtan Office. 



Bureau of Reclamation 

The annual payments required to be 
made from the reclamation fund to the 
general funds in the Treasury, as reim- 
bursement for advances made in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the act entitled 
"An act to authorize advances to the 
'reclamation fund,' and for the issue and 
disposal of certificates of indebtedness in 
reimbursement therefor, and for other 
purposes," approved June 25, 1910, as 
amended, are hereby suspended for a 
period of two years beginning with the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1931. Extract 
from first deficiency act, fiscal year 1931, 
approved February 6, 1931. 



THE Vale Owyhee Government Proj- 
ects Land Settlement Association 
received by mail during the month 43 
inquiries relative to project lands, in 
addition to personal interviews with 13 
interested prospects who called at the 
office. Twenty requests for information 
regarding the five farm units of public 
land opened to entry on February 9 
had been received by February 1. 




A new home on the Yakima Project, Wash . 



^farch, 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



67 



Wyoming Court Upholds 
Contract 

(Continued from p. 53) 

ran not legally supply water for appel- 
lant's laiuls in excess of 160 acres, and 
therefore such lands will receive no bene- 
fit that can support an assessment for 
construction charges. 

"The State irrigation district laws con- 
tain nothing to prevent the district from 
supplying water for appellant's lands in 
excess of 160 acres. It is contended by 
the district that the prohibition of the 
Federal act has no application after the 
United States has transferred to a State 
irrigation district the care and operation 
of the project works, charging the district 
with construction costs that include 
expenses incurred in providing for irriga- 
tion of tracts exceeding 160 acres held by 
one landowner. That question we need 
not decide, but shall assume for the pur- 
pose of this case that the district is 
bound by the prohibition of the Federal act. 

"Granting then, that the district can 
not legally sell water for irrigation of 
appellant's lands in excess of 160 acres, we 
are of opinion that it does not follow that 
the excess lands are not benefited. The 
history of the Fort Laramie unit, partic- 
ularly the trust deed of May 12, 1915, 
shows that appellant, in order to conform 
to the Federal laws, and induce the 
United States to construct the unit works 
for the benefit of appellant's lands, con- 
sented to dispose of its excess holdings 
pursuant to the plan outlined in the trust 
deed. After the construction of the unit 
works whereby water has been made 
available for irrigation of the lands, the ap- 
pellant can not be heard to say that excess 
lands which it retains are not benefited. 

"Appellant's answer to this is that the 
Secretary of the Interior abandoned the 
plan outlined in the trust deed by failing 
to give public notice. It seems to be 
agreed that no public notice affecting the 
lands in question has been or will be given. 
The trust deed, as shown above, provides 
that, 'after five years from the date of 
the first public notice" excess lands of 
appellant that have not been disposed of 
in accordance with the plan thereinbe- 
fore outlined, shall be sold at public 
auction on the direction of the Secretary 
of the Interior." 

(To be continued in April issue) 

EQUIPMENT consisting of a radio 
directional beacon, teletype receiving 
system, and short and long wave receiv- 
ing and sending radio equipment with a 
wide receiving and transmission radius, is 
in transit for equipping an emergency 
landing field on the southern air mail 
route at Wellton, Ariz., some 40 miles 
east of Yuma. 



Pending Legislation 



H. R. 16422, "A bill authorizing the 
establishment of Boulder City town site, 
and necessary expenditures in connection 
therewith, and for other purposes." 

The bill was introduced January 21, 
1931, by Congressman Aren\z, of Nevada. 

It provides for the establishment and 
operation, under the direction of the Sec- 
retary of the Interior, of a town site in the 
vicinity of construction work on Hoover 
Dam and appurtenant structures for the 
use of the employees of the Government 
and of the contractor. The nearest town 
to the site of the dam is approximately 
30 miles distant, and is too far to be con- 
sidered as a place of residence for those 
to be employed on the work. 

Authority is given by the bill to the 
Secretary of the Interior to expend funds 
from the Colorado River dam fund 
established by the Boulder Canyon proj- 
ect act. 

January 27, 1931, the Secretary of the 
Interior submitted to the chairman of the 
House Committee on the Public Lands a 
memorandum from the acting commis- 
sioner of the bureau recommending favor- 
able consideration of the bill. The 
Secretary concurred in Mr. Dent's recom- 
mendation. 

January 31, 1931, the bill was favorably 
reported out of committee, with recom- 
mendation that it pass without amend- 
ment. 

A similar bill, S. 5797 introduced 
January 21, 1931, by Senator Oddie, was 
favorably reported by the Senate Com- 
mittee on Irrigation and Reclamation 



under date of January 26, 1931, without 
amendment. This bill passed the Senate 
February 10, 1931. 

H. R. 16215, "A bill authorizing the 
sale of surplus power developed under the 
Grand Valley reclamation project, Colo." 

Introduced January 15, 1931, by Con- 
gressman Taylor, of Colorado. 

The purpose of the bill is to authorize 
the Grand Valley Water Users' Associa- 
tion to provide for this development at 
its own expense, or to enter into a contract 
with a private corporation for the develop- 
ment. The bill would also authorize the 
extension of the contract period from 10 
years, the present time limit under the 
law, to 25 years. 

January 24, 1931, the Secretary of the 
Interior transmitted to the chairman of 
the House Committee on Irrigation and 
Reclamation a memorandum submitted 
by Commissioner Mead, recommending 
favorable consideration of the bill, if 
amended to eliminate as inapplicable the 
clause providing that the money derived 
from the sale or development of power be 
credited in accordance with subsection I 
of section 4, act of December 5, 1924. 
The Secretary expressed agreement with 
Commissioner Mead. 

January 30, 1931, the bill was reported 
by the committee with recommendation 
for passage, with amendment suggested 
by the Bureau of Reclamation. 

February 2, 1931, a bill, S. 5981, similar 
to amended H. R. 16215, was introduced 
in the Senate by Hon. L. C. Phipps, of 
Colorado. 





Grain elevators at Meridian, Boise Project, Idaho 



68 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



March, 1931 



Can't Stump Uncle Sam 

(Continued from p. 63) 

this time of year when so many grapefruit 
trees in the various desert districts have a 
tendency to look yellow. Whether this 
fresh 'green which the mesa trees are able 
to maintain is because of the general 
suitability of the soil and climate, or more 
specifically is due to drainage, has not been 
determined. Certainly all well-kept groves 
may be freely watered and still hold a 
remarkably fine color. 

Seven-year-old grapefruit trees are 
yielding five and six boxes to the tree, and 
the fruit has both wonderful size and 
texture. For the most part it is being 
sold through the California Fruit Growers' 
Exchange, and is packed in Yuma by the 
Desert Grapefruit Co., a concern which 
handles packing on a fixed charge basis. A 
new house belonging to this packing com- 
pany is now located at Yuma, the fruit 
itself going out under the Sunkist label. 

Water was first brought to the Yuma 
Mesa in 1922, so that the whole project is 
rather young, but a number of groves were 
set out in the spring of 1923, and are now 
giving their owners very nice returns. 
They have been judiciously watered, well 
fertilized from the very beginning and 
carefully cultivated. Many people inter- 
ested in the mesa development are busily 
at work elsewhere putting their surplus 
into these groves. Such men are living in 
various parts of Arizona and in California 
as well. Though there are several syndi- 
cates with comparatively large holdings, 
the majority of the groves are individually 
owned and are cared for by a few resident 
owners, who make a business of under- 
taking the farming of a number of groves 
for outside people. 

Many groves are using underground 
pipe lines, which give good results even 
though the water has not lost all its silt 
before arriving on the mesa. In this way 
there is no loss of land and orchards-have 
a trim and well-kept appearance. 

These very fine-looking groves will be 
found on the most intimate terms with the 
raw desert. One travels over quite a 
stretch of virgin soil, comes to a few splen- 
did groves, and passes on again to grease- 
wood and untouched land. All the soil has 
the appearance of being loose and free. 
The University of Arizona has established 
an experiment station which is making a 
special study of citrus problems on the 
mesa, and the project is being given every 
consideration. Uncle Sam certainly has 
builded substantially, and those who have 
made profits from their groves have acted 
in like manner. Certainly for those who 
can finance the development of permanent 
crops and who believe in the future of 
desert citrus, Yuma Mesa is a most 
interesting district. 



Boulder Canyon Project Notes 



The run-off of the Colorado River at 
Yuma, Arizona, for the month of Janu- 
ary was 171,000 acre-feet, which is the 
lowest in 29 years of record, and 33 per 
cent of the January average of 521,000 
acre-feet. Maximum run-off occurred in 
1916, with 2,637,000 acre-feet. Similar 
river conditions prevailed at the Hoover 
dam site, where the formation of sand 
bars was very marked and navigation 
with the larger boats was impossible. 



Dr. F. L. Ransome, geologist, and a 
member of the Hoover Dam Consulting 
Board, completed a preliminary field 
examination of diamond drill cores and 
geology of the Arizona and Nevada spill- 
way sites on January 31. 



The Western Union is paralleling the 
Union Pacific branch railroad to Boulder 
City with a telegraph line. 

The Union Pacific branch railroad ex- 
tending from the Los Angeles and Salt 
Lake main line to Boulder City was com- 
pleted and opened to traffic on February 
5. The first commercial freight shipment 
was received at the interchange yard near 
Boulder City on January 31, and con- 
sisted of a carload of lumber for camp con- 
struction for R. G. LeTourneau (Inc.), 
subcontractors on the highway. 



The General Construction Co., of 
Seattle, Wash., awarded the contract for 
the Boulder City-Hoover Dam highway, 
has sublet the work to R. G. LeTourneau 
(Inc.), Stockton, Calif., which concern was 
the second low bidder. 



Milwaukee Railroad Fosters 
Sun River Settlement 

The colonization department of the 
Milwaukee Railroad, under the direction 
of R. W. Reynolds, with headquarters in 
Chicago, has taken a most important step 
looking to the settlement of the Sun River 
project. The railroad has engaged a full- 
time immigration agent who will devote 
his whole time to securing settlers for this 
project. He is working on a salary instead 
of commission, and this fact gives assur- 
ance that such settlers as he brings to 
the project will be of a high type and the 
kind that both the railroad and the local 
residents desire. Mr. Reynolds has spe- 
cifically instructed the immigration agent 
to carefully select all settlers. 

o 



The Southern Sierras Power Co. is 
making excellent-progress on the construc- 
tion of the power transmission line from 
Victorville, Calif., to the Hoover Dam site, 
and a survey party is locating a telephone 
line over the same route. A substation 
will also be built by the company in the 
vicinity of the dam site. 



The Washington office has available for 
free distribution the following Boulder 
Canyon project circulars: General Infor- 
mation, Questions and Answers, Employ- 
ment, Contracts, Townsite General, and 
Townsite Leases and Concessions. 



On February 15 bids were opened at 
Carson City, Nev., by the State highway 
engineer for constructing 10.2 miles of the 
Las Vegas-Boulder City highway, to ex- 
tend from Las Vegas in a southeasterly 
direction toward the new town. 



A preliminary report covering con- 
struction of the All-American and Co- 
achella Branch canals, and including 
diversion dam and desilting works, has 
been completed by H. J. Gault in the 
Denver office. The report is now being 
studied by bureau and Imperial Irriga- 
tion District officials. 



An appraisal board recently appointed 
to set valuations on lands in the Muddy 
River Valley, Nev., to be included in the 
reservoir, met at Las Vegas on February 
3. Members of the board are Harry E. 
Grain, of Cheyenne, Wyo., Cecil W. Creel, 
of Reno, Nev., and Levi Syphus, of St. 
Thomas, Nev. 



SIX families, totaling 52 persons arrived 
on the Lower Yellowstone project dur- 
ing the month and located on farms they 
had previously arranged to purchase. 
During the recent settlement campaign 
about 180 persons, including women and 
children, have moved to the project. 



PROSPECTS for construction work in 
various lines are better than usual on 
the Boise project, and as a result con- 
struction equipment houses are establish- 
ing or enlarging important branches in 
Boise. 

While on a recent trip to Washington 
on project matters D. W. Aupperle, of 
Grand Junction, Colo., Grand Valley 
project, called several times at the Wash 
ington office. 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION FOR THE BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR, SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Jos. M. Dixon, First Assistart Secretary; John Edwards, Assistant Secretary; E. C. Finney, Solicitor of the Interior Department; 

E. H. Burlew, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary and Budget Officer; 

Northcutt Ely and Charles A. Dobbel, Executive Assistants 

Washington, D. C. 
Elwood Mead, Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



Miss M. A. Schnurr, Assistant to the Commissioner 
W. F. Kubach, Chief Accountant 



P. W. Dent, Assistant Commissioner 

C. A. Bissell, Chief of Engineering Division 

C. N. McCulloch, Chief Clerk 



Hugh A. Brown, Director of Reclamation Economics 
George O. Sanford, Assistant Director of Reclamation 
Economics 



Denver, Colo., Wilda Building 

R F. Walter, Chief Eng.; S. 0. Harper, Gen. Supt. of Construction; J. L. Savage, Chief Designing Eng.; E. B. Debler, Hydrographic Eng.; L. N. McClellan, Electrical 
Eng.; C. M. Day, Mechanical Eng.; Armand Gffutt, District Counsel; L. R. Smith, Chief Clerk; Harry Caden, Fiscal Agent; C. A. Lyman, Field Representative 

Projects under construction or operated in whole or in part by the Bureau of Reclamation 



Project 


Office 


Offlcial in charge 


Chief clerk 


Fiscal agent 


District counsel 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 




Yuma, Ariz 


R. M. Priest 


Superintendent . 
Constr. engr 


J. C. Thrailkill . 


E. M. Philebaum. 
Charles F. Wein- 
kiiuf. 
C. H. Lillingston.. 
E. A. Peek 


R. J. Coffey 


LosAngeles,Calif. 
Do. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
LosAngeles,Calif. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
El Paso, Tex. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 






Walker R Young 


E. R. Mills 


/ do 


Orland 


Orland, Calif 


R C E. Weber 


Superintendent . 
do 


C. H. Lillingston 
E. A. Peek 


IJ. R. Alexander..- 
R. J. Coffey 
J. R. Alexander... 
. do 




Grand Junction, Colo. 


W J. Chiesman 




L J Foster 


do 


G. H. Bolt 


F. D. Helm- 


Boise i 

Boise, Deadwood Dam_. 


Boise, Idaho. ._. 


R. J. Newell... 
do 


...do-, 
do 


W. L. Vernon . 


Denver office 


B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 


C R FllTllr 


dn 




E. B. Darlington.. 


do 


G. C. Patterson Miss A J. Larson do 


Milk River 3 


Malta Mont 


dr> 


E. E Chabot E F. Chahot. 


Wm. J. Burke 


Sun River, Greenfields.. 


Fairfield, Mont 


A. \V. Walkei do 


H. W.Johnson 


II. W. Johnson... 
Denver office 
A. T. Stimpfig 
W. C. Berger 
H. H. Berryhill 


...do.... 
do 
do 

H. J. S. Deviies-.. 
.. do-. 




H A Parker dn 


North Platte 4 




C. F. Gleason 


Supt. of power.. 
Superintendent . 
do 


A. T. Stimpfigs 
W. C. Berger 
H. H. Berrvhill .. 




Carlsbad, N Mex 


L. E. Foster 




El Paso Tex 


L. R. Fiock 


Umatilla, McKay Dam.. 
Vale 




C L Tice 




Denver office ' B. E. Stoutemyer. 
C. M. Voyen - do . 




Chas.C.Ketchum. 
B. E. Hayden 


Superintendent . 
do . 


C. M. Voyen 


Klamath 8 


Klamath Falls, Oreg 


N. G. Wheeler... 
H. N. Bickel 
J . P. Siebeneicher. . . 
C. F. Williams 
R. K. Cunningham. 
Ronald E. Rudolph. 
R. B. Smith 


J. C. Avery 
F. P. Greene 


do. 

do . 






F. A. Banks 


Constr. engr 
Superintendent . 
Constr. engr 
Acting supt 
Constr. engr 
Superintendent . 
...do 




Newell, S. Dak 


F. C. Youngblutt. 
F. F Smith 


J. P. Siebeneicher. 
Denver office 


Wm. J. Burke 
J. R. Alexander... 
B. E. Stoutemyer . 
. do . 




Coalville, Utah 
Yakima, Wash 


Yakima ' 


John S. Moore... 
R. B. Williams. 
H. D. Comstock. 
L. H. Mitchell... 


C. J. Ralston 




Ellensburg, Wash 
Riverton Wyo 


. do 




Denver office 


Wm. J. Burke .. 


Shoshone 


Powell, Wyo..- 


W. F. Sha... . ...do... 


do... 



1 Arrowrock Reservoir, Boise diversion dam, and Black Canyoa power plant. 

2 Jackson Lake and American Falls Reservoirs, power system and Gooding division. 

3 Malta, Glasgow, and Storage divisions. 

1 Pathfinder and Guernsey Reservoirs, and power systems. 
> Acting. 



Storage, main, and Tule Lake divisions. 

7 Echo Reservoir. 

s Storage, Tieton, and Sunnyside divisions. 

' Reservoir, power plant, and Willwood division. 



Completed projects or divisions constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation and operated by water-users' organizations 



Project 


Organization 


Office 


Operating official 


Secretary 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 


Salt River . _ .. 


Salt River Valley, W. U. A... 


Phoenix, Ariz. 
Grand Junction . 
Boise, Idaho 


C. C. Cragin... 


Gen. supt. and chief engr. 


F. C. Henshaw 


Phoenix, Ariz. 
Grand Junction. 
Boise, Idaho. 
Glenns Ferry. 
Rupert, Idaho. 
Burley, Idaho. 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
Do. 
Harlem, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont. 
Do. 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr. 

Gering, Nebr. 
Torrington.Wyo. 
Bridgeport, 
Nebr. 
Fallen, Nev. 

Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg. 
Bonanza, Oreg. 
Do. 
Payson, Utah. 
Okanogan, 
Wash. 
Powell, Wyo. 
Deaver, Wyo. 


Grand Valley, Orchard Mesa 


Orchard Mesa irrig. district 


C. W. Tharpe 
Wm. II. Tuller 


H O Lambeth 


Project manager . 


F. J. Hanagan 


King Hill 


King Hill irrigation district. . . 
Minidoka irrigation district. .- 
Burley irrigation district 
Huntley irrigation district 

Alfalfa Valley irrig. district 
Fort Belknap irrig district 


KingHill, Idaho 
Rupert, Idaho.-. 
Burley, Idaho... 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont- 
do 


F. L. Kinkade... 
R. L. Willis 
Hugh L. Crawford 
E. E. Lewis 


Manager . ... 


Chas. Stout ... 




.do... 
do 


W. C. Trathen... . 




Geo. W. Lyle. . 




Superintendent 


U.S. Elliott -.- 


Milk River, Chinook division.. 
Do 


A. L. Benton . 


President 


R. II. Clarkson.. 


H. B. Bonebright. 
Thos. M. Everett 


do . 


L. V. Bogy 


Do 


Harlem irrigation distiict 
Paiadise Valley irrig. district-- 
Zurich irrigation district __ 
Fort Shaw irrigation district. - 

Pathfinder irrigation district.. 

Gering-Fort Larainie irrig. dist . 
Goshen iirigation district 
Northport irrigation district.. . 

Truckee-Caisoninig. district. - 

Hermiston irrigation district . . 
West Extension irrig. district- 




do. 


Geo. H. Tout 


Do 


Chinook, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont. . . 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr 


R. E. Musgrove 


do "i. 


J. F. Sharpless 
H. M. Montgomery . 
II. W. Genger 


Do 


John W. Archer 


. do 


Sun River, Fort Shaw division . 
North Platte: 


H. W. Genger 

T. W. Parry 
W. O. Fleenor 


Superintendent 


Manager 


Mary McKay Kin- 
ney. 
C. G. Klingman 
Mrs. Nelle Armitage. 
Mrs. M. J. Thomp- 
son. 
L. V. Finger 






...do. 


Do 


Toi rington, Wyo. 
Northport,Nebr- 

Fallon, Nev 


B. L. Adams 


.. do 




D. R. Dean 


do . 




D. S. Stuver 
E. D. Martin 


Project manager 
...do "... 


Umatilla: 


Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg 
Bonanza, Oreg.. 
do 


W. J. Warner... 


West division ._ 


A. C. Houghton... 
R. S. Hopkins 


Secretary and manager. . 
Manager 


A. C. Houghton 
R. S. Hopkins.... 




Do 






Wm. F. B. Chase . 




Strawberry W. U \ 


Provo, Utah 
Okanogan, 
Wash. 
Powell, Wyo 
Deaver Wyo 


Lee R. Taylor 
J. C. Iddings 

Frank Roach 
SydJey I. Hooker. 


President and manager.. 
Superintendent- 


E. G. Breeze 
Nelson D. Thorp... 

Geo. W. Atkins... 
Edw T Hill 






Shoshone: 




Irrigation superintendent 
do 
















' Boise, Kuna, Nampa Meridian, Wilder, New York, Big Bend, and Black Canyon irrigation districts. 

Important investigations in progress 



Project 



Office 



In charge of 



Cooperative agency 



All-American Canal : 

Central California water resources' 

Salt Lake Basin 

Columbia Basin 



Denver, Colo ' H. J. Gault 

Sacramento, Calif. i W. R. Young and C. A. Bissell 

Salt Lake City, Utah... E. O. Larson 

Spokane, Wash.... H. W. Bashore 



Imperial and Coachella districts. 
State of California. 
State of Utah. 




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NEW 

RECLAMATION ERA 



VOL. 22, NO. 4 




APRIL, 1931 




Courtesy of Associated Press. 



APPROVING AWARD OF CONTRACT FOR CONSTRUCTION OF HOOVER DAM 



On March 1 1 , at 10 o'clock a. m., in the presence of a number of Government officials, press correspondents, and photographers, Hon. Ray Lyman Wilbur, 
Secretary of the Interior, signed the award of contract to the Six Companies Incorporated, 760 Market Street, San Franscico, Calif., the low bidder, for the 
construction of Hoover Dam, power plant, and appurtenant works at the bid price of $48,890,995. 

Left to right: Hon. Phil D. Swing, U. S. Representative from California; Secretary Wilbur; Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation. 



APPROVAL OF PROJECT 



Before a project may be approved for construction a finding 
must be made by the Secretary of the Interior as to its feasibility, 
and the project must also be approved by the President of the 
United States. 

The original reclamation act of June 17 , 1902, provides " that 
upon the determination by the Secretary of the Interior that any 
irrigation project is practicable, he may cause to be let contracts 
for the construction of the same in such portions or sections as 
it may be practicable to construct and complete as parts of the 
whole project." 

This provision was materially strengthened by the act of 
December 5, 1924, which prodded that "no new project or 
new division of a project shall be approved for construction, 
or estimate submitted therefor, by the Secretary until informa- 
tion in detail shall be secured by him concerning the water 
supply, the engineering features, the costs of construction, land 
prices, and the probable cost of development, and he shall have 
made a finding in writing that it is feasible, that it is adaptable 
for actual settlement and farm homes, and that it will probably 
return the cost thereof to the United States." 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 

Issued monthly by the DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C. 

Price 75 cents a year 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR 
Secretary of the Interior 



Vol. 22, No. 4 




ELWOOD MEAD 
Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



APRIL, 1931 



Interesting High Lights on the Federal Reclamation Projects 



APPROXIMATELY 450 acres of 
2\ carrots were planted on the Yuma 
project, and the marketing of the crop 
started during February to continue until 
May. Yields vary from 190 to 250 crates 
per acre, with quality reported as good. 
The price quoted at the close of the month 
was $1.25 per crate. 



STUDENTS from the Orland High 
School took high honors at a recent 
livestock judging contest held at Gridley, 
Calif., in which 9 Sacramento Valley 
high schools with 60 contestants were 
entered. Orland, with 6 entries, was 
awarded first place with a total of 1,992 
points. Wilmar Maey, an Orland stu- 
dent, had the highest individual score, 
making 352.5 points. Orland entries were 
also awarded third, fourth, fifth, and 
seventh places in the contest. 



THE Chamber of Commerce on the 
Orland project, cooperating with the 
Achean Club of Willows, collected a 
carload of food supplies which was shipped 
the latter part of the month to the 
drought-stricken area in Arkansas. 



DURING the month two different 
flights of Army cadet flyers from 
Marsh Field, Calif., landed at Fly Field, 
the local airport on the Yuma project. 
The flights consisted of 25 to 28 planes 
each. These cross-country flights are a 
part of the training course for the student 
Army flyers. Fly Field was used as the 
terminus of these flights. 



PICKING of grapefruit on the Aux- 
iliary division of the Yuma project 
continued all month with good quality 
and normal yield reports. Picking will 
probably be completed by the latter part 
of April. Fifteen cars were packed and 
shipped through the local packing shed 
during February. 

4609231 1 



NINE carloads of onions and potatoes 
were shipped from the Uncom- 
pahgre project to the drought sufferers in 
Arkansas during the month. These ship- 
ments were donated and the cars were 
hauled free of charge by the railroads. 



ANEW branch factory for the manu- 
facture of sheet-metal products is in 
process of construction in Boise, Boise 
project, Idaho. 

ABOARD appointed to appraise or 
reappraise all unsold town lots or 
acreage tracts in the town site of Acequia, 
Minidoka project, has completed the work, 
and April 15 has been set as a tentative 
date for the sale of these lands. More 
than 160 tracts were appraised. 



AT ORGANIZATION on the Huntley 
project known as the Huntley Trac- 
tor Owners' Association has been formed 
with the object of reducing the cost of 
crop production through the cooperative 
purchasing of motor fuels and lubricants. 
They have contracted with the Yale Oil 
Corporation of Billings, through its 
agent at Nibbe, Mont., for the purchase 
of these products at prices which will 
mean a saving to its members. 



ON the Vale project 153 inquiries were 
received during the month by mail 
by the Vale-Owyhee Government Projects 
Land Settlement Association, and 17 inter- 
ested persons called at the office relative 
to project lands, 400 acres of land avail- 
able for sale were disposed of by the asso- 
ciation, and a number of inquiries were 
received by the project office. There are 
now about 24 families on the Bully Creek 
West Bench unit, who are busily erecting 
houses and making other improvements 
in preparation for crops in advance of the 
first delivery of water to be made this 
spring. 



' I ^HE new plant of the Dairymen's 
JL Cooperative Creamery on the Boise 
project was put into operation during the 
month. 



HAVEN LEIGH, of the South Side 
pumping division, Minidoka proj- 
ect, was awarded a trophy by the Dairy 
Tribune of Moorestown, 111., as the Idaho 
State winner of the high butterfat-pro- 
ducing herd in cow-testing associations. 
Mr. Leigh's cows averaged 508 pounds of 
butterfat each during the year. 



SINCE settlement work was started on 
the Lower Yellowstone project in 
1927 by the Lower Yellowstone Develop- 
ment Association 40 families, comprising 
266 persons, have moved to the project 
through the direct efforts of the associa- 
tion. 



TWO sales of project property in the 
Malta district of the Milk River 
project were completed during the month, 
and negotiations are pending in three 
other cases. In addition two dry-land 
farmers leased project farms for the 1931 
season with options to buy. On several 
tracts recently transferred new buildings 
are being erected and old buildings 
repaired. 

PREPARATIONS are being completed 
in the Bureau of Reclamation for 
openings this spring of 35 public-land 
farm units on the Willwood division of 
the Shoshone project, Wyoming; 50 units 
on the Pilot division of the Riverton 
project, Wyoming; and 87 units on the 
Greenfields division of the Sun River 
project, Montana. Public notices, appli- 
cation blanks, and descriptive literature 
will be available later, and requests for 
information should be addressed to the 
Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation, 
Washington, D. C., or the superintendent, 
Bureau of Reclamation, Powell, Wyo.; 
Riverton, Wyo.; or Fairfield, Mont. 

69 



70 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



Committee on the Conservation and Administration of the Public Domain 

Indorses Federal Reclamation 



THE report to the President of the 
Committee on the Conservation and 
Administration of the Public Domain was 
released by him and made public on 
March 9, 1931. 

It will be recalled that the committee 
was appointed to make a study of and 
report on the disposition of the remain- 
ing public domain under authority of 
the act of April 10, 1930, which au- 
thorized an appropriation of $50,000 for 
this purpose. Funds were made avail- 
able in the Interior Department appro- 
priation act, approved on May 14, 1930. 
The committee comprised 13 members 
from the 11 public land States and 7 
members from Eastern States. James R. 
Gfarfield, former Secretary of the Interior, 
was chairman. Dr. ElwoodMead, Com- 
missioner of Reclamation, represented 
California on the committee. Hugh A. 
Brown, director of reclamation economics, 
Bureau of Reclamation, was designated 
executive secretary. 

Among the public-land problems con- 
sidered by the committee, safeguarding 
the reclamation fund was deemed of the 
utmost importance to the future develop- 
ment of the West and the Nation. It 
was felt that no action should be taken 
which would result in curtailing or threat- 
ening this important work. The general 
statement in the report concerning rec- 
lamation and the specific recommenda- 
tions thereon are as follows: 

RECLAMATION 

The public-land States include that 
vast arid portion of our country where 
farming is not possible without irriga- 
tion. Congress early recognized this es- 
sential difference from the rest of the 
country where settlement under the 
homestead laws brought about full agri- 
cultural development, and enacted the 
desert land and Carey Acts to supple- 
ment the homestead law. Under these 
laws, by private and community effort, 
the essential agricultural development of 
the West received its first impetus. The 
limit of development by private enter- 
prise was reached when the low-water 
flow of the streams was all appropriated 
and it became necessary to provide stor- 
age of the floods to be held for use dur- 
ing the dry season. The high cost and 
long development period of these larger 
project made them prohibitive from the 
standpoint of comparatively short-term 
investments, and many well-intentioned 
efforts in this direction resulted in total 
loss of investment not only by the pro- 
moters but by thousands of settlers as 
well. 



This led to the enactment of the recla- 
mation act, designed to make possible in 
the arid States the building up of farm 
population and production in fair pro- 
portion to the steadily increasing urban 
population of those States based upon 
mining, lumbering, and, along the coast, 
shipping and industrial pursuits. 

The reservation of certain vast resources 
within the Western States for future 
national needs is one of the major factors 
making it impossible for these States at 
the present time to finance their own rec- 
lamation requirements. 

The reclamation act was originally con- 
cieved to supplement private enterprise 
by the construction or completion of 
projects beyond the resources of private 
promotions and individual or collective 
means. That conception rapidly grew 
and expanded until the theory of the right 
of the United States as the proprietor of 
public lands to improve them by reclama- 
tion and irrigation was fully recognized 
and took form in the construction by the 
Federal Government of great reclama- 
tion projects devoted primarily to that 
purpose. 

Although the development of Federal 
reclamation is of tremendous importance 
to the West, the value of crops grown on 
irrigated lands in these projects is only 
three-fourths of 1 per cent of the total crop 
value of the Nation. 

It is not within the scope of this report 
to detail the benefits to the public-land 
States and to the Nation which have 
flowed in ever-increasing measure from the 
adoption of that policy. Fundamentally 
it may be said that reclamation has sur- 
mounted the barriers of aridity, controlled 
and converted for useful purposes the 
menace of the flood, pushed back the 
frontiers of the desert, and subordinated 
them all to the service of the purposes of 
our forefathers in their efforts to establish 
permanent homes and prosperous com- 
munities on the public domain. 

In the formulation of the policy of rec- 
lamation it was decided that the salable 
resources represented by the public 
domain should be drawn upon for the 
capital necessary for the program. Thus 
proceeds from the sale of public lands and 
52K per cent of the royalties derived under 
the mineral leasing act of February 25, 
1920, are covered annually into the revolv- 
ing fund for reclamation. From the 
former source, since the passage of the act 
of June 17, 1902, to June 30, 1930, 
$1 10,332,537.76, and from the latter source 
since February 25, 1920, to June 30, 1930, 
$38,285,947.38 have been paid into that 
fund. In addition, $59,360.35 has been 



received from the proceeds of Federal 
water-power licenses and $68,296.51 from 
royalties and rentals from potassium de- 
posits. 

The additions to the fund from the sale 
of public lands in recent years have shown 
a trend to decline steadily, until in the fis- 
cal year ending June 30, 1930, this accre- 
tion amounted to only $690,563.36, 
whereas the proceeds from the mineral 
leasing act for that year were three and 
one-third times and project collections 
almost nine times that amount. This is 
material, in that it demonstrates clearly 
the comparatively insignificant part which 
the diminishing returns from the sale of 
public lands are destined to play in the 
future of reclamation. 

The reclamation of the arid and semi- 
arid West is assuming proportions of 
increasing significance as knowledge and 
experience enlarge the useful field of our 
first endeavors and reveal the multiplicity 
of problems involved in the development 
and protection of every project. Drain- 
age, colonization, flood control, erosion, 
power, and kindred subjects have in fact 
or should become major pieces in the 
mosaic which is now the Reclamation 
Service. 

In order that no part which is important 
to the whole shall be omitted, the integrity 
of the reclamation fund must be guarded 
carefully. Approximately 67 per cent of 
the annual income to the fund is from 
project collections, about 26 per cent from 
royalties under the mineral leasing act, 
leaving but 7 per cent from all other 
sources. The primary factor, then, is the 
safeguarding of project payments, and the 
secondary is the insurance of the future 
maintenance of accretions from the royal- 
ties received under the mineral leasing act 
in a percentage at least substantially as at 
present. The administrative policies of 
the Reclamation Service, if undisturbed, 
will assure the first, and nature has appar- 
ently undertaken to underwrite the sec- 
ond. Comparatively recent discoveries of 
great oil and gas fields in California and 
New Mexico, where a portion of the public 
domain participates in their riches, should 
supply for years to come from permits and 
leases now in good standing the desired 
percentage. The public domain in Wyo- 
ming has been by far the greatest contrib- 
uting area in the past and is at present 
giving promise of continuing that aid. 
The public domain in Montana, Utah, and 
Colorado has been and continues to be a 
hopeful prospect for the future. The 
immense deposits of coal in the public 
lands of the Western States, ranging in 
character from lignite to anthracite, and 



April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



71 



the deposits of phosphate, sodium, and 
potash constitute a resource from which 
future supplies of fuel and fertilizer mate- 
rials may be derived for national use and 
will produce an increasingly large revenue. 
Thus any disposition of the unreserved, 
unappropriated public domain which does 
not disturb that desirable condition will 
withstand attack upon any theory of 
injury to reclamation. 

Moreover, such disposition should be 
made with such reservations to the United 
States as may certainly provide for future 
projects when and as economic conditions 
justify the undertakings. 

FLOOD CONTROL 

Mention has been made of flood control 
in connection with reclamation. Much 
has been accomplished by projects already 
constructed primarily for irrigation, and 
the Boulder Canyon project will reach the 
apex of achievement for the arid West in 
that respect. But the far-reaching bene- 
fits of each successful project in the pro- 
tection of lands below the impounding 
works serve only to intensify recognition 
of the immensity of the field still unoccu- 
pied. None of the public-land States is 
free from the danger and devastations of 
floods, but the flood which wipes out a 
prosperous community or destroys an 
area in an agricultural district is a na- 
tional and regional as well as a State 
calamity, varying in importance only to 
the extent of the property destroyed and 
the number of lives wasted. Whether it 
be the Mississippi at flood with its dread- 
ful potentialities, or the Rio Grande above 
the Elephant Butte, or the Colorado above 
Boulder Canyon after that project has 
been completed, or any stream in the 
West subject to the same destructive 
forces in flood time as are these great 
river systems, the principle that the 
problem of control is national and re- 
gional as well as State remains the same 
and should be recognized. It varies only 
in terms of solution, the difficulties, and 
the costs. It calls for cooperative meas- 
ures between the Nation and the State, 
or States, if more than one is benefited, 
and a just division of costs based upon an 
appraisal of the benefits received. As an 
incident to flood-control projects, the 
generation of power and the development 
of water for irrigation can be made to pay 
their part, but the frequent practice of the 
past of loading all the costs upon the 
shoulders of the landowner is inequitable 
and should be discontinued. Recognition 
of that principle appears in the Boulder 
Canyon project act. 

The policy should be enlarged to include 
all projects now under way or hereafter 
undertaken until a definite plan of Federal 



participation has been evolved. Reser- 
voir sites on the public domain have 
already been located and reserved, and 
others should be, with a view to future 
requirements. On interstate streams such 
sites should be reserved in the United 
States until the States, by compact ratified 
by Congress, shall determine their position 
in the set-up agreed upon by that means. 

Constitutional support for Federal par- 
ticipation in projects primarily for flood 
control might be found (1) in the interstate 
commerce clause for the improvement of 
navigation where the watershed is on a 
navigable stream; (2) in the treaty-making 
power where the watershed is on an inter- 
national stream in connection with which 
the United States has undertaken to fulfill 
a treaty obligation; (3) in the authority 
reserved to the States to enter into com- 
pacts subject to approval by Congress 
where the watershed is on an interstate 
stream, the use of which has been made the 
subject of such compact approved by 
Congress and necessarily involves a pro- 
gram of flood control for the protection of 
that use, or uses, especially where the 
Federal Government owns reservoir sites 
and rights of ways, instrumentalities essen- 
tial to the prosecution of such a program; 
and (4) in the authority of the United 
States as a proprietor to construct irriga- 
tion projects for the improvement of its 
public lands where the watershed is above 
a project already built and flood- control 
measures would protect that project from 
silting or other damage from uncontrolled 
floods. 

The arid States of the West have 
adopted a system of water law peculiar to 
their necessities. The right to water 
depends upon appropriation for and ap- 
plication to a beneficial use, and the first 
in time is the first in right. All water not 
applied to a beneficial use belongs to the 
public, and no right to water may be 
initiated unless by authority of the agen- 
cies provided by the laws of the respective 
States for the administration of water 
resources. On interstate streams, as be- 
tween States having that system of water 
ownership and public control, the Supreme 
Court of the United States has held that 
the same principles shall apply in the 
determination of priorities between users 
in different States. Vast property rights 
and the flourishing cities and towns of the 
arid States owe their existence to and 
have been built upon these cardinal prin- 
ciples which have been recognized by 
Congress. The use by the United States 
of water has been subjected to the laws of 
these States, in the reclamation act, the 
Federal water power act, and the Boulder 
Canyon project act. Flood-control meas- 
ures should conform to the same policies 
and principles. 



SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS 

The present conservative policy of rec- 
lamation development should be con- 
tinued. Under it construction expendi- 
tures each year are restricted to the pay- 
ments from settlers and the income from 
other sources provided for in the law. If 
payments are not made, works will not 
be built. This makes of reclamation a 
sound business policy and is a strong 
influence toward maintaining the integrity 
of the contracts. 

Where projects require a larger invest- 
ment than can be met from the reclama- 
tion fund they should be dealt with by 
Congress in special acts similar in char- 
acter to the Boulder Canyon project act. 

We recommend that in the undertaking 
of any project there should be no inter- 
ference with the laws of the State relating 
to the appropriation, control, or distribu- 
tion of the water or with vested rights 
secured thereunder. 

Past experience, coupled with the urgent 
need of additional funds for accelerating 
and continuing construction work on irri- 
gation projects, points conclusively to the 
desirability of adopting a definite policy 
relative to hydroelectric development, 
under which the power receipts should be 
used, first, to repay the cost of the power 
plant and appurtenant works; second, the 
cost of the reservoir and dam which 
regulates the delivery of water to the 
plant; and after that, all net revenues 
should be credited to the reclamation 
revolving fund. 

The policy should be continued of hav- 
ing a central organization to design and 
build works, but to transfer these works 
to the control and management of the 
water users as soon as the projects are 
settled and developed. 

We approve and adopt from the report 
of committee of the irrigation division of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers, 
made October 4, 1928, the following: 

"The conservation of the water in the 
rivers and lakes of the country should be 
under public control and in order to lay 
a proper foundation for the making of 
comprehensive plans the Federal and 
State Governments should gather data, 
compile statistics, and conduct studies 
necessary to determine the feasibility of 
projects. 

"The regulation of the flow of streams 
for the prevention of floods and for the 
best possible utilization of the waters 
should be undertaken by the States, or 
jointly by the United States and the 
States under such suitable forms of 
cpoperation as may be appropriate under 
the constitutional authority now dele- 
gated to each. They should prepare and 
adopt comprehensive plans for such regu- 



72 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



lation and should bear an equitable por- 
tion of the cost of water-storage and flood- 
control work when the economic aspects 
after full investigations are found to be 
favorable, and the remainder of the cost 
should be allocated to flood-control, irri- 
gation, power-development, municipal 
water-supply, and other purposes. 

"Where protection against flood waters 
results from the regulation of stream flow 
by means of reservoirs or otherwise, the 
proportion of the cost of the flood-control 
work not assumed by the Federal or 
State Governments should be assessed 
against the lands and other properties 
which receive benefit therefrom." 

DR. MEAD'S COMMENTS 

In commenting on the report, Doctor 
Mead said: 

"The Bureau of Reclamation is espe- 
cially gratified at the attitude of the Com- 
mittee on the Conservation and Adminis- 
tration of the Public Domain toward Fed- 
eral reclamation as reflected in the report. 
During the course of the many discussions 
of public-land problems there was general 
unanimity among the members that, irre- 
spective of the action finally determined 
upon as to the disposition of the public 
land, the reclamation fund should be safe- 



guarded in every way with a view to the 
continuation of the present conservative 
policy of construction. It was recognized 
by the members that the future develop- 
ment of the West is dependent in large 
measure on the complete utilization of its 
water supply and that only through such 
complete utilization in an orderly manner 
can the greatest benefits flow to this sec- 
tion of the country and to the Nation. 
They also recognized that project repay- 
ments constitute the chief source of revenue 
at present and that only a small propor- 
tion of the revenues to the reclamation 
fund comes from sales of public land. It 
was the belief therefore that the primary 
factor is to provide for prompt repayment 
of charges by the water users and the rec- 
ognition on their part of the sanctity of 
their contract obligations to the Govern- 
ment. A secondary factor is the definite as- 
surance of the future maintenance of accre- 
tions to the reclamation fund from royalties 
received under the mineral leasing act. 

"Among the specific recommendations 
of the committee is one that deals with the 
disposition of power revenues, under which 
the power receipts would be used, first, to 
repay the cost of the power plant and 
appurtenant works; second, the cost of the 
reservoir and dam which regulates the 



delivery of water to the plant; and after 
that all net revenues should be credited 
to the reclamation revolving fund. This 
policy is in effect on several projects and 
should be made uniform for future power 
development. 

"The project power plants not only 
lower construction costs but are a source of 
income and social betterment afterwards. 
Cheap power enables farmers to light 
their homes and operate small farm ma- 
chinery and home appliances. On some 
projects the income from hydroelectro 
power is nearly equal to the payments 
from irrigation. 

"The policy as to commercial power 
development incorporated in this recom- 
mendation of the committee does not work 
any injustice on the water users of the 
various projects. In such cases the costs 
of the plants would not be charged to the 
water users of the project and they would 
not be obligated to repay any part of jihe 
cost incurred by the United States in their 
construction. On the other hand the 
water users benefited by cheaper con- 
struction. They are benefited by having 
cheap power to light their homes and 
operate farm machinery. They will bene- 
fit by its influence in promoting local 
industrial development." 




BOULDER CANYON PROJECT 

1. END OF U. P. RY.. LAS VEGAS TO BOULDER CITY 
RECLAMATION SURVEY CAMP IN BACKGROUND. 

2. CONSTRUCTION CAMP. HOOVER DAM HIGHWAY. 

3. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION. 



April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



73 



By P. W. DENT, Asst. Commissioner 




Supreme Court of Wyoming Upholds Irrigation District Contract 

With United States 



WE do not think the secretary's fail- 
ure to give public notice ought to 
have the effect of frustrating the plan for 
disposal of appellant's excess lands. We 
do not understand that appellant contends 
that the cost of construction is any higher 
or the terms of payment any harsher be- 
cause not declared by public notice. It is 
probably true that when the trust deed 
was made both appellant and the reclama- 
tion officers understood that construction 
charges would be fixed by public notice. 
It was determined that five years there- 
after should be the limit of time appellant 
should have for disposing of its excess 
lands. After the expiration of that time, 
the secretary was given the right to compel 
sales at public auction. If there had been 
no additional Federal legislation, public 
notice would no doubt have been given, 
and construction charges have become due 
pursuant to the reclamation extension 
act. Before the completion of construc- 
tion work on the Fort Laramie unit addi- 
tional legislation (act of Congress of May 
15, 1922, supra) permitted the Secretary 
of the Interior to enter into contracts 
fixing the dates of payment of construc- 
tion charges by irrigation districts not- 
withstanding the provisions of the re- 
clamation extension act. (See 50 L. D. 
142, 223.) Other legislation (fact finders' 
act, supra) provided for repayment of 
such charges in annual installments based 
on the productive power of the land. 
When, in taking advantage of this new 
legislation, the amount and terms of 
payment of construction costs were fixed 
by the contract of November 24, 1926, 
between the United States and the irriga- 
tion district, there was no purpose to be 
served by the public notice provided for in 
section 4, supra, of the reclamation act. 

We do not think the trust deed contains 
anything to show that the giving of public 
notice was a condition qualifying the 
arrangement by which appellant, by agree- 
ing to dispose of its excess lands, obtained 
the benefit of the construction of the con- 



(Continued from March issue) 

templated works. The public notice was 
mentioned as a step in the administration 
of the Federal law whereby it was sup- 
posed the cost of construction would be 
announced and assessed. There was no 
express stipulation that it would be given. 
It was merely assumed that it would be 
given. Nothing was said as to what would 
happen if it were not given, although the 
deed provided for reconveyance of the 
trust lands if other conditions were not 
fulfilled. If we concede that there was 
an implied condition that public notice 
should be given, we see no reason for 
holding that it was of the essence of the 
transaction. The condition qualified the 
Secretary's right to require disposition of 
the lands. It would seem that it was 
substantially performed when construction 
costs were made known and assessed by 
other legal means. [See Hebert v. Dewey, 
191 Mass. 403, 411, 77 N. E., 822; Joseph 
v. Catron, 13 N. M. 202, 81 P. 439, 1 
L. R. A. (N. S.) 1120.] 

It seems that the Rock Ranch lands 
were not included in the trust deed, but 
the contention that the district can not 
legally furnish water for more than 160 
acres of those lands is not pressed. The 
evidence shows some 500 acres of the 
Rock Ranch lands are now being irrigated 
from the district works. 

The State irrigation district law (sec. 
964, supra) provides for assessment of cost 
of construction against the several bene- 
fited tracts "in proportion to the benefits," 
without specifying any rule to be followed 
by the commissioners in ascertaining the 
benefits. In the case at bar the commis- 
sioners determined that each irrigable 
acre would be benefited the same amount. 
Appellant contends that such an assess- 
ment does not represent the judgment of 
the commissioners as to benefits, but is an 
arbitrary exaction, regardless of benefits, 
pursuant to the contract of the district 
with the United States. The actual burden 
imposed on landowners by the assessment 
pursuant to the contract of November 24, 



1926, can not be understood without 
consideration of the terms of payment. 
In the report of 1924 of the committee of 
special advisers on irrigation (S. Doc. 92, 
68th Cong., 1st sess., p. 54) it was said: 

"In considering the acre cost of water 
right under the Federal irrigation projects 
it must be remembered that the cost under 
public notice is, after all, an apparent cost. 
The real cost is considerably less. This re- 
sults from the fact that the repayment 
period covers many years (under the ex- 
tension act 20 years) and that during the 
period of repayment there are no interest 
charges except against overdue payments. 
The use of Government money without 
interest for a relatively long period of time 
has a direct cash value to the farmer. 

" At 4 per cent the interest on the money 
advanced by the Government under the 
repayment period would amount to more 
than one-third of the capital invested. 
The acre charge is therefore really only 
two-thirds of what it appears to be. 
* * *. It is altogether too common to 
consider the acre costs on the Federal 
reclamation projects without reference to 
the advantage resulting from use of Fed- 
eral money without an interest charge, 
when in fact the water user is requested 
to pay annually an amount equal to 5 per 
cent on the acre cost and then at the end 
of the 20-year period is forgiven the capital 
charge." 

In the same report (pp. 4, 147) the com- 
mittee recommended the plan of repay- 
ment adopted by the fact finders' act, 
supra. It is that plan as outlined in the 
contract of November 24, 1926, that the 
commissioners followed in making the 
assessment of cost of construction in the 
case at bar. 

There were introduced in evidence the 
departmental regulations that were fol- 
lowed in classifying the district lands. 
These regulations provided that land 
classifiers should consider in their exam- 
inations " (a.) the natural productive 
power of the soil under good agricultural 



74 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



practice; (6) other conditions that in- 
fluence productivity, such as uneven 
topography, making irrigation difficult 
and expensive, alkali, gravel subsoil, 
hardpan, water-logging, forest covering, 
etc.; and (c) the distance of the land from 
railroad and other carriers and from 
markets." The combination of these 
factors determined the class to which a 
given farm unit belonged. The inherent 
fertility of the soil and the topography 
of the land were the two chief factors of 
consideration. Pursuant to these and 
other more detailed instructions, the lands 
were required to be classified according 
to productive power. This was done. 
There are six classes, of which only the 
first four are assessed with construction 
charges. Lands of the fifth class are 
those not at present susceptible of agricul- 
tural use, and lands of the sixth class are 
those that appear to be permanently non- 
agricultural under practices of irrigation 
farming. 

After the classification of the lands, it 
was necessary to ascertain the average 
annual gross acre income from lands of 
the four classes to be charged with costs 
of construction. This income, omitting 
fractions, was $38 for lands of class 1, 
$33 for class 2, $24 for class 3, and $16 
for class 4. On that basis the annual 
construction charges would be $1.90, 
$1.65, $1.20, and 80 cents, respectively. 
If payments are continued at the same 
rates until the total charges of $95 per 
acre are paid, the payments reduced to 
present value, considering money worth 
5 per cent, would amount to about $36 for 
first-class lands and $15 for fourth-class 
lands. 

We are of opinion that the district 
commissioners in assessing costs of con- 
struction in accordance with the above 
plan, in cooperation with the Federal 
authorities, did not violate the State 
statutes. The Federal reclamation act, 
section 4 (43 U. S. C. A., sec. 461), pro- 
vides that construction charges "shall be 
apportioned equitably," and so far as we 
are informed it has always been deemed 
equitable in the administration of that 
act to determine the acre cost by dividing 
the total cost by the number of irrigable 
acres in the project. 

Special assessments are levied on the 
theory of special benefits, and apportion- 
ment of the total cost among the benefited 
tracts according to area, frontage, or 
value does not disprove the consideration 
of benefits if it does not result in manifest 
injustice and inequality. (McGarvey v. 
Swan, 17 Wyo. 120, 96 P. 697.) In the 
case just cited, the rule of apportionment 
was fixed by the legislature. When that 
has not been done we do not think it 
necessarily follows that the tribunal ap- 
pointed by the legislature to make the 
assessments must attempt to assess the 



benefits one by one without some rule or 
principle of general application that will 
make the assessments reasonable and 
proportional according to benefits. (See 
Sears v. Board of Aldermen, 173 Mass. 
71, 53 N. E. 138, 43 L. R. A. 834; Rogers 
v. City of Salem, 61 Or. 321, 122 P. 308; 
Jones v. City of Sheldon, 172 Iowa, 406, 
154 N. W. 592; Worth v. Town of West- 
field, 81 N. J. Law, 301, 80 A. 104; 
O'Reilley v. City of Kingston, 114 N. Y. 
439, 21 N. E. 1004; City of Springfield . 
Sale, 127 111. 359, 20 N. E. 86; Chicago & 
N. W. R. Co. v. City of Albion, 109 Nebr. 
739, 192 N. W. 233.) 

We assume that the commissioners of 
the district had no right to assess the cost 
of construction pursuant to a rule or prin- 
ciple that would disregard proportionate 
benefits, but we do not believe they have 
done that. The record warrants the 
belief that it was their honest judgment 
that each irrigable acre would be bene- 
fited equally, especially in view of the 
plan of repayment of which landowners 
and entrymen were permitted to take ad- 
vantage by cooperation with the United 
States. The fact that the assessment on 
that basis was approved by the author- 
ities who acted on behalf of the Tjnited 
States was entitled to some consideration 
by the commissioners and the court in 
determining whether the charges were 
assessed equitably. The district was 
organized for the purpose of cooperating 
with the Tjnited States, and the commis- 
sioners were granted broad powers in the 
making of contracts to further that pur- 
pose. There is no reason to suppose that 
the United States would have agreed to 
the terms of the contract of November 24, 
1926, if the commissioners had insisted on 
fixing the acre-construction charge on a 
different basis. We do not believe the 
court would be justified in holding that the 
assessments have been made on a plan 
that was unjust or inequitable. 

The appellant contended that the assess- 
ments complained of were substantially in 
excess of the actual benefits, but the evi- 
dence on that issue was conflicting, and 
the finding of the trial judge can not be 
disturbed. The principal ground for 
continuing to press the contention in this 
court is that it was shown without dispute 
that the market value of the lands has not 
been increased by an amount equal to the 
assessments. But this evidence as to the 
market value of the lands was not at all 
conclusive. Evidence on behalf of the 
district justified the finding that after 
water was made available for irrigation of 
the lands their market value, subject to 
the assessed charges, was substantially 
more than their value as arid lands. 
Often the benefit contemplated by the 
statute does not result in an immediate 
increase in the value of the land, and in 
(Continued on p. 84) 



Recently Enacted 
Legislation 

Portions of Town Sites 

[Public No. 655 71st Congress] 

An act to amend the act approved March 2, 1929, 
entitled "An act to authorize the disposition of 
unplatted portions of Government town sites on 
irrigation projects under the Reclamation Act of 
June 17, 1902, and for other purposes." 

That section 1 of the act of March 2, 
1929, entitled "An act to authorize the 
disposition of unplatted portions of 
Government town sites on irrigation 
projects under the reclamation act of 
June 17, 1902, and for other purposes" 
(45 Stat. L. 1522; U. S. C., Supp. Ill, 
title 43, sec. 571), be amended to read: 

"That the Secretary of the Interior is 
hereby authorized, in his discretion, to 
appraise, and sell, at public auction, to the 
highest bidder, from time to time, under 
such terms as to time of payment as he 
may require, but in no event for any 
longer period than five years, any or all 
of the unplatted portions of Government 
town sites created under the act of April 
16, 1906 (34 Stat. 116), on any irrigation 
project constructed under the act of 
June 17, 1902 (32 Stat. 388), or acts 
amendatory thereof or supplementary 
thereto: Provided, That any land so 
offered for sale and not disposed of may 
afterwards be sold, at not less than the 
appraised value, at private sale, under 
such regulations as the Secretary of the 
Interior may prescribe. Patents made 
in pursuance of such sale shall convey all 
the right, title, and interest of the United 
States in or to the land so sold." 

Approved, February 14, 1931. 



Motor-Vehicle Tratel 

[Public No. 644 71st Congress] 

An act to permit payments for the operation of motor 
cycles and automobiles used for necessary travel on 
official business on a mileage basis in lieu of actual 
operating expenses. 

That a civilian officer or employee 
engaged in necessary travel on official 
business away from his designated post 
of duty may be paid, in lieu of actual 
expenses of transportation, under regula- 
tions to be prescribed by the President, 
not to exceed 3 cents per mile for the use 
of his own motor cycle or 7 cents per mile 
for the use of his own automobile for such 
transportation, whenever such mode of 
travel has been previously authorized 
and payment on such mileage basis is 
more economical and advantageous to 
the United States. This act shall take 
effect July 1, 1931, and all laws or parts 
of laws are hereby modified or repealed 
to the extent same may be in conflict 
herewith. 

Approved, February 14, 1931. 



April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



75 



By C. A. BISSELL, Chief.Engineenng Division 




Madden Dam Panama Canal Zone 

By R. F. Walter, Chief Engineer, and J. L. Savage, Chief Designing Engineer, United States Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. 



UPON request of the Governor of the 
Panama Canal Zone to the Secretary 
of the Interior, the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion has had occasion during the past year 
and a half to make studies relative to 
the construction of the proposed Madden 
Dam, one of the important features of the 
Panama Canal development. This work 
began on November 14, 1929, when the 
writers were detailed by the Secretary to 
act in a consulting capacity on the loca- 
tion and design of this dam. 

A visit was made to the site of the work 
during the early part of January, 1930, 
during which the main dam site and the 
two adjacent ridges were carefully ex- 
amined, and also, foundation drill cores 
and construction material available in the 
vicinity. Opportunity was taken at this 
time to discuss and consider the various 
problems involved in the proposed con- 
struction with the canal officials and 
engineers. Under date of March 1, 1930, 
a report was submitted to the Governor 
of the Canal Zone. This report took up 
several possible designs with estimates of 
cost, for each of the main features, such 
as the main dam, auxiliary dams, spillway, 
outlet works and power plant; suggested 
a definite location at the general site for 
the main dam; and included descriptions, 
data and drawings of works completed by 
the Bureau which might be of use in 
studies for determining the most practical 
and economic construction. 

After this report had been studied by 
the canal personnel and additional data 
furnished, the canal designing engineer 
spent some time during the summer of 
1930 in the Denver office of the bureau 
and in visiting a number of the dams 
completed or under construction by the 
bureau. More definite ideas of the re- 
quirements having thus been crystallized, 
a further report under date of December 
15, 1930, was prepared. Briefly, this 
included a written and graphical descrip- 
tion of four different types of main dam, 
three different plans for spillways, and 
four plans for outlet works, the locations 
and plans for spillways and outlet 
works being partly dependent on the type 
of dam. It also covered a description of 
the power plant with three different 



penstock layouts, likewise dependent on 
the type of dam. The various designs 
were supported by detailed estimates of 
costs, the summary sheet of which em- 
braced 21 combinations of distinct 
features. 

This report, as well as other data made 
available by the Canal Zone, served as a 
basis for the deliberations of another 
board meeting at the site of the work 
during the last week of the year just 
closed. This board, consisting of Geolo- 
gist F. L. Ransome, Consulting Engineer 
A. J. Wiley, and the writers, completed 
its report upon arrival at New Orleans on 
January 8, 1931. Definite recommenda- 
tions were made relative to final designs 
for the several parts of the proposed con- 
struction. On January 19 of this year 
the Bureau of Reclamation was requested 
to prepare these designs and also the 
construction specifications, and this work 
is now in progress in the Denver office. 

HISTORICAL 

A reservoir in the upper Chagres River 
Valley has been contemplated for about 
35 years. When the second French canal 
company, which began operations in 
October, 1894, adopted a lock rather than 
a sea level canal it was foreseen that, 
sooner or later, storage additional to that 
available in the upper few feet of Gatun 
Lake would be required. The French 
engineers selected a site near the village 
of Alhajuela. The American Isthmian 
Canal Commission, upon the occupation 
of the Canal Zone by this country in May, 
1904, also realized the eventual need of 
more storage and after investigations 
agreed that the site selected by the French 
was the most suitable. The present site 
of the main dam, determined after a study 
of recent topographical surveys, diamond 
drilling, and geological examination, is 
at approximately the same location. 

REASONS FOR CONSTRUCTION 

The prime reason for the construction 
of the Madden Reservoir, and that which 
has been foremost in mind since its con- 
ception, is to provide for the anticipated 
increase in water demand due to normal 
growth in traffic through the canal. The 



available storage supply in Gatun Lake 
i. e., the capacity between elevation 80 1 
and 87 is only adequate during a long 
dry season to operate the present two 
sets of locks under full requirements with- 
out providing for the necessary electric 
power generation at Gatun Dam. During 
an extremely long dry season a reserve 
Diesel electric power plant located at 
Miraflores may be used to conserve the 
lake storage entirely for lockages. In a 
report of April 29, 1929, on the Traffic 
Capacity of the Panama Canal, the 
Governor of the Canal Zone estimated 
that the additional lockage capacity 
would not be needed for traffic until I960, 
but suggested construction should be 
commenced 10 years prior to the demand 
for it. 

The immediate urgencies for the com- 
pletion of the Madden Reservoir and 
power plant are stated below in the rela- 
tive order of their importance: 

(1) To increase the storage water 
supply for the dry seasons so that it will 
not be necessary to lower the surface of 
Gatun Lake below elevation 80. If the 
surface falls below this elevation, the 
water depth in Gaillard Cut is insufficient 
to insure the safe passage of deep-draft 
vessels. 

(2) To provide flood control, thus pre- 
venting probable damage at some time to 
existing works, and reducing cross cur- 
rents in the canal at the present mouth of 
the upper Chagres River at Gatun Lake, 
these currents being a serious menace 
to navigation during periods of heavy 
run-off. 

(3) To eliminate the necessity of run- 
ning the Diesel electric power plant during 
the dry seasons by the generation of power 
at the Madden hydroelectric plant, this to 
result in a considerable reduction of 
operating expenses. 

GEOLOGY 

In general, the geologic stratifications, 
which underlie the reservoir and the main 
dam site, particularly their shape, are 
excellent. The valley is formed in a 
moderately folded syncline, the axis of 
which runs approximately north and 
south. The dips of the strata to the axis 



76 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



Apii), 1931 



seldom exceed 5, except in the ridge on 
the west side of the reservoir between the 
Chagres River and the Quebrada Madro- 
nal, a small stream on the east, where the 
dips are as sharp as 40 in a few places. 

The main dam site is located at the 
lowest part of the geologic basin, and, due 
to the thickness of the highest stratum of 
the synclinc, the foundation will be en- 
tirely in this material. The lower strata 
of the syncline outcrop at varying dis- 
tances from the dam site and by reason 
of the relatively inferior quality of these 
lower strata are of particular interest in 
the proposed construction where they 
outcrop on the rim of the reservoir. The 
term "rim" is used in connection with the 
reservoir, as saddles of the Madronal 
ridge on the right and the Azote Caballo 
ridge on the left of the main dam site are 
below the contemplated high-water surface. 
Several required saddle dams or dikes will 
thus be founded on the lower outcrops. 

Sinkholes and caverns occurring below 
the flow line of the reservoir in the lime- 
stone of the rather narrow Madronal 
ridge have been the object of much geolog- 
ical investigation. The recent board 
recommended clay filling through angle 
drill holes for parts of these and for open 
crevices where there is danger of leakage 
from the reservoir. 

The top stratum of the syncline, which 
will form the entire base of the main dam, 
is a massive fine-grained calcareous sand- 
stone practically impermeable and gray 
in color. The granules of which it is 
composed originated from various igneous 
rocks and show considerable diversity in 
mineral character and degree of decom- 
position. While this sandstone is com- 
paratively soft, it has been tested and 
found to have a bearing strength greatly 
in excess of the stresses which it will be 
required to stand by superimposition of 
the massive concrete dam. The photo- 
graphic illustration shows this material at 
the right abutment of the main dam, the 
axis of which runs into the tunnel which 
was driven to study the formation. The 
stratum immediately below this is also a 
sandstone, and the demarcation between 
the two is not pronounced. This latter 
formation is coarser grained than the 
former, contains more shell fragments, 
and is more calcareous. However, it has 
sufficient bearing strength and is also 
practically impermeable. Some of the 
grout holes under the dam will be drilled 
a short distance into this stratum. The 
descending four successive formations are 
limestone, clay, grits, and igneous rock, 
the hist consisting of various basaltic and 
porphyritic lava flows and breccias. 

DESIGNS 

The main features of the Madden 
Reservoir construction consist of the 
main dam across the Chagres River, the 







April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



77 



power plant, the left ridge dam, Saddle 
Dam No. 8, Saddle Dam No. 5, and 11 
other saddle dams. The descriptions 
which follow cover the designs recom- 
mended by the board in its report of 
January 8, 1931. Studies in connection 
with the preparation of these at the pres- 
ent time in the. Denver office may result 
in some changes in minor features, but it is 
contemplated they will be essentially 
unchanged. 

The main dam will be of the massive 
concrete straight-gravity type consisting of 
the overflow spillway section across the 
river and the right and left abutment sec- 
tions. These three sections will be similar 
in design except for the special require- 
ments of the spillway section. The down- 
stream faces of all sections will be con- 
structed on a % : 1 slope. The toe of the 
spillway section will be extended approxi- 
mately 120 feet as a concrete apron, on the 
downstream end of which a dentated sill 
will be provided to reduce the velocity of 
the falling sheet of water and to prevent 
undercutting. This apron will be securely 
anchored into bedrock by steel anchor bolts 
grouted into the foundation and by a 
rectangular cut-off trench below the toe. 

All sections of the dam will be built in 
panels about 56 feet in length, formed at 
the ends so that they will be keyed to- 
gether. The resulting joints, which, 
after the setting heat of the concrete has 
been dissipated, will open by cooling 
under natural conditions, are to be pro- 
vided with systems of pipes for later 
pressure grouting. Excavation for the 
base of the dam will be carried well into 
solid rock, and a cut-off trench will be 
excavated beneath the upstream heel. 
Grout holes spaced not less than 5 feet 
apart will be drilled in the bottom of this 
trench to depths of about 20 feet, and 
after concrete has been placed in the 



trench and to a depth of at least 8 feet 
over the adjacent foundation of the dam 
grout will be applied under pressure, thus 
sealing any openings between the con- 
crete and the foundation and closing 
seams in the rock. The section of the 
dam is designed for stability with full 
uplift pressure at the heel, decreasing to 
tail-water uplift at the toe, both for the 
maximum estimated flow during a thou- 
sand-year period, the resulting pressure 
being applied upon two-thirds of the base 
area. It is estimated that the height of 
the dam at maximum section from the 
lowest point of the foundation to the top 
of the roadway at elevation 270 will be 
about 220 feet. In order to increase the 
percolation distance under the base of the 
dam and to reduce the uplift pressure, a 
sluiced clay blanket, for almost the full 
width of the spillway section and extend- 
ing about 150 feet upstream, will be laid 
on the stripped bed rock. Likewise, 
concrete blankets will be placed on the 
bedrock upstream from the abutment 
sections, these varying in length from 
150 feet where they join the clay .blanket 
to 20 feet at the ends of the abutments. 

The spillway will be divided into four 
100-foot openings by three piers, and drum 
gates 18 feet high will be mounted on the 
crest in these openings. These gates, 
manufactured from structural steel plates 
and shapes, will be automatically con- 
trolled and will have a remote manual 
control so that they can be operated from 
the switchboard in the power house. A 
recording position indicator will be in- 
stalled for each gate. The crest of the 
drum gates when fully raised will be at 
elevation 250, which will control the nor- 
mal high water surface in the reservoir. 
The capacity of the reservoir at this ele- 
vation will be about 622,000 acre-feet. 
With the drum gates down, all outlet works 




4609231- 



Right abutment of Madden Dam 



open, and the reservoir surface at elevation 
263, a flow of 280,000 second-feet will pass 
the dam, this being the estimated 1,000- 
: year flood. The bridge over the spillway 
I will consist of flat concrete arches span- 
ning the gate openings. To keep the 
same architectural effect, the tops of the 
abutment sections will be formed to simu- 
late these arches and the supporting piers. 
Outlets through the dam will be pro- 
vided by six openings formed in the base 
of the spillway section and by two plate- 
steel discharge pipes embedded in the 
abutment section at the power plant loca- 
tion, these latter being located between 
and alternating with the three power pen- 
stocks. Each of the openings through the 
spillway section will be controlled by two 
5 foot 8 inch by 10 foot hydraulically op- 
erated slide gates arranged in tandem, 
and the flow through each of the two dis- 
charge pipes will be regulated by an 84- 
inch needle valve installed at the outlet 
end. The inlet ends of all outlets includ- 
ing power penstokes will be protected by 
concrete and structural steel trash racks. 
The hydroelectric power plant will be 
located immediately downstream from the 
river end of the left abutment section, and 
the substructure will be monolithic with 
the concrete of the dam. The power plant 
will be designed for three units, each of 
about 7,500 kilowatts capacity. It is prob- 
able that only one, or possibly two, of the 
generator units will be installed at the time 
of the construction of the dam. The power 
penstocks will be 12 feet in diameter. The 
power house will be 44 feet in width by 143 
feet in length, and this building will also 
house the needle valves regulating the out- 
let discharge pipes. Transformer, switch- 
ing station, and protective apparatus will 
be of the outdoor type. 

The left-ridge dam, which is practically 
a continuation of the main dam on the 
south, and located for almost its entire 
length on the same tangent, will be an 
earth and gravel and rock-fill embankment 
with a concrete-paved upstream slope. 
It will have a crown width of 20 feet, an 
upstream slope of 1% : 1 and a down- 
stream slope of iy-i : 1. The top of em- 
bankment or roadway will be at elevation 
270, and as a further protection against 
wave action the freeboard will be aug- 
mented by a concrete parapet wall 3 feet 
in height. The fill at the right end of this 
dam will be supported by a counterforted 
concrete retaining wall. 

Saddle Dam No. 8, located about 800 
feet west of the right abutment of the 
main dam, will also be an earth and 
gravel and rock fill, and the downstream 
| slope on the rock fill will be 2^ : 1. The 
j upstream slope will be 4 : 1 and the earth 
and gravel fill on this slope will be pro- 
tected by a 12-inch layer of gravel and a 
2-foot thickness of dumped igneous rock 
riprap. A concrete core wall will extend 



78 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



from an anchorage in the impervious rock, 
several feet below the base of the dam, 
to an elevation of 273, the top 3 feet serv- 
ing as a parapet wall. The axis of this 
dam forms a reversed curve. 

Saddle Dam No. 5 will be similar in 
design to Saddle Dam No. 8, except that 
the top of the core wall will terminate 
at elevation 260 and no parapet wall will 
be constructed, though the crown of the 
embankment will be constructed to eleva- 
tion 273. 

Eleven other smaller saddle dams will 
be built, all of the earth and gravel and 
rock-fill type, and varying in height from 
30 to 14 feet. The crown width of these 
dams will be 20 feet, the upstream slopes 
4:1 and the downstream slopes 2^:1. 
Due to their protected locations and the 
heavy growths of timber which will 
remain standing above elevation 240, 
none of these dams will be subject to 
destructive wave action. The upstream 
slopes will therefore not be reinforced with 
riprap. Trenches filled with an earth core 
will be extended down to impervious 
material below the bases of these dams. 
No parapet walls will be constructed, but 
the crowns of these dams will all be at 
elevation 273. 

CONSTRUCTION PLANS 

Aggregates for concrete will be obtained 
from the river channel near the main dam, 
and it is believed that much of the 
material removed in excavation for the 
foundation of the dam will be satisfactory, 
after screening and grading, for use in 
concrete. Materials suitable for the 
required embankment construction are 
generally available in the near vicinity, 
though a moderale length of haul may be 
necessary for igneous rock riprap. It is 
anticipated that the designs for the work 
described will be completed so that final 
specifications may be issued during June 
of this year. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The writers are indebted to various 
officials of the Canal Zone not only for an 
abundance of pertinent data, consisting 
of reports and drawings, but also for 
many courtesies extended during the two 
trips to the site of the work. Col. Harry 
Burgess is Governor of the Panama Canal 
Zone with full authority under the Presi- 
dent in all Canal Zone affairs. Col. J. L. 
Schley, engineer of maintenance for the 
Panama Canal, is in general charge of 
the Madden Dam project. Mr. E. S. 
Randolph, designing engineer for the 
Madden Dam project for the Panama 
Canal, and three assistants will be tem- 
porarily located in the Denver office until 
the designs and specifications are com- 
pleted. 



Notes for Contractors 



Boulder Canyon project. Bids for con- 
struction of the Hoover Dam, power plant, 
and appurtenant works were opened at 
Denver, Colo., on March 4, with three bids 
received, as follows: Six Companies (Inc.), 
526 Phelan Building, San Francisco, Calif., 
$48,890,995.50; the Arundel Corporation, 
Pire 2, Pratt Street, Baltimore, Md., 
$53,893,878.70; Woods Bros. Corporation, 
Lincoln, Nebr., $58,653,107.50. 

Work is being continued on detailed 
designs, for the administration building, 
clubhouse, city hall, which will include 
the post office and jail, garage which will 
include quarters for the fire department, 
and several of the larger residences. It is 
expected that advertisement for bids for 
the construction of the next group of 
buildings will be issued about April 10. 
Plans and specifications are being prepared 
for street grading, paving, sidewalks and 
curbs, water and sewer systems. 

Bids were opened at Denver on Feb- 
ruary 19, under invitation No. 3100-A, 
for 20,000 barrels of cement. Ten pro- 
posals were received and the low bid made 
by the Monolith Portland Cement Co., of 



Efficient Irrigation Practice 

By R. F. Waller, Chief Engineer, Bureau of 
Reclamation 

On most of our projects there is, at 
least in the earlier years of operation, con- 
siderably more water available for use 
than needed by the limited areas then 
developed, with the result that irrigation 
practices are adopted with a view only to 
making irrigation as easy as possible for 
the settler. When the project area grows 
and the need for the adoption of more 
efficient irrigation methods becomes ad- 
visable, there is more or less opposition by 
the irrigator to such changes. 

It is becoming more apparent that the 
time to adopt the proper irrigation prac- 
tices or methods is from the start of irri- 
gation. To this end, and especially in view 
of the limited water supply that will pre- 
vail on the Vale project, constant atten- 
tion should be given to the proper educa- 
tion of the irrigators and of the district 
board in the matter of efficient irrigation 
practice. Among the matters that should 
receive special attention is the necessity 
for careful leveling before perennial crops, 
such as alfalfa, are planted; the avoidance 
of long runs in the irrigation of fields; the 
use of the largest practicable irrigating 
heads by the irrigators; the full attention 
to the distribution of water while it is 
being received by the irrigator; and rota- 



Los Angeles, Calif., was $1.50 per barrel 
f. o. b. Monolith, less $0.40 per barrel for 
sacks returned at contractor's expense. 

Owyhee project. Under specifications 
No. 499-D, bids opened January 16, 1931, 
for furnishing one 60 by 12 foot structural 
steel ring gate for installation in the spill- 
way structure at Owyhee Dam, award has 
been made to John W. Beam, of Denver, 
Colo., whose bid was $25,600, discount 
0.5 per cent, f. o. b., Peotone, 111. The 
ring gate will be manufactured by the 
Continental Bridge Co., of Peotone, 111., 
and the shafting, gears, racks, etc., for the 
equalizing device by the Foote Bros. 
Gear & Machine Co., of Chicago, 111. 
The estimated weight of the ring gate and 
appurtenances is 370,000 pounds. 

Yakima project. It is expected to 
advertise for bids for construction of the 
Cle Elum Dam, on the Cle Elum River, 
about May 15, and to open bids about 
June 15. Plans call for an earth-gravel 
structure about 125 feet in height and 
containing 450,000 cubic yards. The 
estimated cost of the Cle Elum Dam and 
Reservoir is $3,500,000. 



Kennewicfy Highlands 
Project Approved 

On the recommendation of Secretary 
Wilbur, the President on March 7, 1931, 
approved for construction the Kennewick 
Highlands unit on the Yakima project, 
Washington. 

The Kennewick Highlands is a tract of 
about 4,000 acres adjacent to the town 
of Kennewick, of which 2,500 acres are 
now irrigated. Replacements in the 
pumping plant and pipe lines are necessary 
and the settlers have been unable to 
effect needed improvements because of 
excessive maintenance charges. 

It is proposed to replace the present 
worn out 24-inch pipe line with a 34-inch 
wood-stave pipe line, and to replace the 
pumps now in use with modern pumps. 
The distribution system will also be im- 
proved. To provide cheaper power, it is 
planned to build a canal of 1,000 second- 
feet capacity, 1% miles long, paralleling 
the Yakima River at Prosser, to develop 
40 feet of head and produce 3,200 horse- 
power of electrical energy. 

A satisfactory contract has been made 
with the irrigation district. An appropri- 
ation of $640,000 is available for con- 
struction of the project. 

tion in deliveries, both as to individuals 
and as to laterals. 



April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



79 



Hoover Dam Bids Opened 



Six Companies (Inc.), of San Francisco, 
Calif., 526 Phelan Building, 760 Market 
Street, submitted the low bid of $48,890,- 
995.50 for construction of the Hoover 
Dam, power plant, and appurtenant 
works. The bids were opened at 10 
o'clock a. m. on March 4 at the Denver, 
Colo., office of the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion; three regular and two irregular bids 
were received. 

The six companies combining to make 
the low bid were the Utah Construction 
Co., of Ogden, Utah; Henry J. Kaiser and 
W. A. Bechtel (of Oakland and San 
Francisco, Calif., respectively); Mac- 
Donald & Kahn, of Los Angeles, Calif.; 
Morrison-Knudson Co., of Boise, Idaho; 
J. F. Shea & Co., of Portland, Oreg.; and 
the Pacific Bridge Co., of Portland, Oreg. 

The second low bid of $53,893,878.70 
was submitted by the Arundel Corpora- 
tion, of Baltimore, Md., with whom was 
associated Lynn H. Atkinson, of Los 
Angeles. Woods Bros. Construction Co., 
of Lincoln. Nebr., with a bid of $58,653,- 
107.50 was third low bidder. Associated 
with the Nebraska company in its bid was 
A. Guthrie & Co., of Portland, Oreg. 

All of the companies combining to make 
the low bid are well and favorably known 
in general construction work in the 
Western States. The Utah Construction 
Co. has successfully completed several 
large contracts for this bureau, including 
the 160-foot Deadwood Dam in Idaho, 
the 195-foot Gibson Dam on the Sun River 
in Montana, the Guernsey Dam in eastern 
Wyoming, and the American Falls Dam 
on the Snake River in Idaho. The 
Kaiser Paving Co., of Oakland, and W. A. 
Bechtel, of San Francisco, are well known 
on the west coast. MacDonald & Kahn 
(associated with Fisher & Ross) were the 
low bidders on the San Gabriel Dam in 
California in November, 1928, their bid 
being $11,250,040; however, because of 
foundation conditions which developed, 
this project was not completed. Morrison- 
Knudson Co., of Boise, has done consider- 
able work for this bureau; and J. F. Shea 
& Co., are now engaged on tunnel work on 
the Ovvyhee project in Oregon. All six 
companies are members of the Associated 
General Contractors of America. 

Francis T. Crowe, manager of Six 
Companies (Inc.), will be in charge of 
construction of the dam. Mr. Crowe has 
been associated with the Utah Construc- 
tion Co. for the past few years as superin- 
tendent of construction and built the 
Gibson and Deadwood Dams. He was 
for many years with the Bureau of Recla- 
mation, starting in 1904 as an engineering 



aide, and was filling the position of gen- 
eral superintendent of construction when 
he resigned in 1925. Mr. Crowe was 
engineer in charge of construction of the 
Jackson Lake Dam in Wyoming, and also 
built the Tieton Dam on the Yakima 
project in Washington, an earth and rock- 
fill structure 222 feet in height. He was 
also for a short time first assistant to the 
construction engineer on the 349-foot 
Arrowrock Dam in Idaho, and at one 
time was project manager of the Flathead 
(Indian) project in Montana. 

Mr. Crowe is 48 years of age and a grad- 
uate of the University of Maine. He is 
generally considered to be one of the most 
competent construction engineers in the 
country, and the Government is fortunate 
in having such a capable man in charge 
of building this important project. 

W. H. Wattis, president of the Utah 
Construction Co., is president of the Six 
Companies (Inc.). These companies at 
the present time have $30,000,000 worth 
of unfinished contracts now on hand, and 
in their lifetime have completed an 
aggregate of $400,000,000 in contract 
work. 

On March 11 Secretary Wilbur ap- 
proved award of contract to the Six Com- 
panies (Inc.). The contractors will im- 
mediately begin moving in their plant 
and equipment and start to build their 
construction camp. 



Aerial Service 
Salt River Project 

Phoenix has daily air mail and pas- 
senger service on the Western Air Express 
lines operating both ways through Los 
Angeles, Phoenix, Tucson, Douglas, El 
Paso, Big Springs, Fort Worth, Dallas, 
Shreveport, Jackson, and Atlanta, known 
as the "Fair Weather Route." 

The planes are 8-passenger, trimotor 
Fokkers, equipped with 2-way radio- 
phones. 

There are 4 airports on the project, 
3 in Phoenix and 1 at Chandler, where 
planes are available for hire, but no 
regularly scheduled passenger service is 
maintained other than the mail service. 



\ SERIES of sugar-beet meetings were 
J~\_ recently held on the Belle Fourche 
project to emphasize the importance of 
proper culture. Soil preparation, use of 
fertilizer, most efficient irrigation meth- 
ods, and value of by-products in feeding 
were discussed. 



Sale of Government 
Town Sites 

On the Klamath project, Oregon-Cali- 
fornia, 178 town lots in Tule Lake town 
site, Modoc County, Calif., will be offered 
for sale at public auction at the town site 
beginning at 10 a. m., April 15, 1931. 
Payment for lots may be made in cash at 
the time of purchase or one-fifth cash and 
the balance in four equal annual install- 
ments with 6 per cent interest on deferred 
payments. 

On the Huntley project, Montana, nine 
tracts ranging in size from 25 to 120 acres 
in unplatted portions of Anita, Ballantine, 
and Huntley town sites, will be placed on 
sale at public auction on April 18 at the 
United States land office at Billings, 
Mont., at 10 o'clock a. m. Payment for 
lots to be made in cash at time of sale or 
one-fifth cash and the balance in four 
equal annual installments with 6 per cent 
interest on deferred payments. 



On the Minidoka project, Idaho, 191 
town lots and 10 acreage tracts, averaging 
1% acres each, will be offered for sale at 
public auction on April 15 at 10 o'clock 
a. m. Payment to be made in cash at 
time of sale or one-fifth cash and the 
balance in four equal annual installments 
with interest at 6 per cent on deferred 
payments. 

On the Shoshone project, Wyoming, 66 
lots in Powell town site will be offered for 
sale at public auction at the project office 
in Powell, Wyo., on April 5 at 10 o'clock 
a. m. Nine of the lots have substantial 
improvements. Payment for lots may be 
made in cash or one-fifth cash and the 
balance in four equal annual installments 
with interest at 6 per cent on deferred 
payments. 



Owyhee Dam 
Construction Resumed 

The General Construction Co., con- 
tractors on the Owyhee Dam, Owyhee 
project, in eastern Oregon, resumed work 
on February 23, starting with a small 
force of about 50 men, stripping forms and 
preparing for concreting operations, which 
began on February 27, with the pouring of 
piers under sluice-gate conduits. The 
force was increased to about 300 by the 
end of March. During the 53-day lay- 
off all the plant and equipment was over- 
hauled. At the close of February the 
contract was 51 per cent completed and 
the time 57 per cent elapsed. 



80 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



Boulder Canyon Project Notes 



The Towner Rating Bureau, of New 
York City, under date of February 6, 
1931, advised that the premium rate on 
the performance bond of $5,000,000 for 
the Hoover Dam work is to be $16. 87^ per 
thousand on the contract price. This is 
a 25 per cent reduction on the rate charged 
for the San Gabriel Dam in California, 
where the construction period called for 
was six-years, as compared to seven years 
on the Colorado work. The low bid on 
the San Gabriel Dam was $11,250,040, 
total estimated cost $25,000,000, and 
concrete yardage 3,800,000. On the 
Hoover Dam and power house job the low 
bid was $48,890,995, total estimated cost 
is about $90,000,000, and concrete yard- 
age 4,500,000. 

The reservoir formed by the Hoover 
Dam will be about 115 miles long, but this 
exceptional length is to be exceeded by the 
reservoir on the Osage power project at 
Bagnell, Mo., which will be 129 miles long, 
according to press reports. However, the 
Boulder Canyon Reservoir will be much 
larger, having an area of 145,000 acres, 
as compared with 61,000 acres for the 
Osage Reservoir. 



It is interesting to note that the differ- 
ence of $5,000,000 between the two lowest 
bids was in item 54, placing 3,400,000 
cubic yards of concrete in the dam. 
The Six Companies bid was $2.70 and 
the Arundel Corporation $4.15 per cubic 
yard. On the 1,563,000 cubic yards of 
tunnel excavation both concerns bid 
$8.50 per cubic yard. 



Six hundred and seventy-three written 
inquiries as to employment in connection 
with the Boulder Canyon project were 
received and answered by the Denver 
office during the month of February. 



The surety companies furnishing the 
$2,000,000 bid bond for the Six Compa- 
nies (Inc.) were the Fidelity & Deposit 
Co., of Maryland, Hartford Accident & 
Indemnity Co., National Surety Co., and 
the United States Fidelity & Guaranty 
Co. 



A newspaper report from San Francisco 
states that the Six Companies (Inc.) will 
soon open an employment office in that 
city to hire workmen for the big job. It 
is also stated that 1,000 men will be taken 
to the dam site and Boulder City to 
commence operations, and that there will 
be 3,500 to 4,000 men employed by Jan- 
uary 1, 1932. 



The Southern Nevada Telephone Co., 
which owns and operates the telephone 
system at Las Vegas, Nev., has extended 
its system to Boulder City and is now 
supplying local and toll service at the 
latter point. 



A carload of aggregates has been 
shipped from the Arizona gravel deposits 
to Denver. This is to be used in making 
compressive strength and other tests at 
the new testing laboratory at the local 
office of the United States Bureau of 
Standards, where a 4,000,000-pound test- 
ing machine is being installed. 



R. G. LeTourneau (Inc.), subcontractor 
for the General Construction Co. on the 
Boulder City-Hoover Dam highway, 
began operations on February 2, which 
was 14 days in advance of receipt of 
notice to proceed. On March 2 this firm 
was awarded the contract for building the 
Santiago Canyon Dam in California, a 
private project, with a bid of $507,721.50. 



Articles on Irrigation and Related Subjects 



Mead, Elwood: 

Advances to reclamation fund, bill S. 

6046. Cong. Record, March 3, 1931, 

v. 74, pp. 6984-6989. 
Reclamation work is to be expedited by 

use of emergency fund. U. S. Daily, 

March 5, 1931, v. 6, p. 1. 
Hoover Dam: 

Hoover dam specifications (long article 

with inset drawings) illus. Western 

Construction News, January 10, 1931, 

v. 6, pp. 2-11. (Editorial, p. 1.) 
Hoover Dam unprecedented in history. 

Illus. National Magazine, February, 

1931, v. 59, p. 213-215. 



Hoover Dam Continued. 

Development of Boulder City includes 
modern health resort. U. S. Daily, 
March 10, 1931, v. 6, pp. 1-2. 

$48,890.995 low bid for construction of 
Boulder Canyon (Hoover) Dam. Eng. 
News-Record, March 5, 1931, v. 106, 
p. 409. 
Ashurst, Hon. H. F.: 

Colorado River case (orig. No. 19, U. S. 
Supreme Court). Bill of complaint 
by K. Berry Peterson, Atty. Gen., 
Arizona, briefs by States and Dept. of 
Interior. Congressional Record, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1931, v. 74, pp. 4722-4741. 



The Lewis Construction Co. has built a 
pioneer road to the dam site for the use of 
the Southern Sierras Power Co. in trans- 
porting equipment for the substation. 
This will enable the power company to 
install the equipment ahead of the required 
date, June 25, 1931. 



The agent for the Union Pacific at 
Boulder City announces that during the 
month of February 3,238,870 pounds of 
carload freight and 68,646 pounds of less- 
than-carload shipments were received at 
Boulder City. 



The construction of the presedimenta- 
tion tank and river intake of the water- 
supply system will probably be handled 
by Government forces, in order to expedite 
this construction and make water avail- 
able at Boulder City at the earliest possible 
date. 



F. F. Smith, post-office inspector for the 
San Francisco division, is discussing pos- 
sible arrangements for a post office at 
Boulder City with the Denver and Las 
Vegas offices. 



Garfield, James R., chairman: 

Grant to States of public lands is recom- 
mended (Public Domain Commission 
Report). U. S. Daily, March 9, 1931, 
v. 6, pp. 1, 5, and 8 (pp. 53, 57, and 
60). 

Brown, Hugh A.: 

Studies are conducted on results of Fed- 
eral irrigation activities. U. S. Daily, 
March 10, 1931, v. 6, p. 12 (p. 76). 

Index, New York Trust Co.: 

Making the American desert bloom. 
Increasing importance of Federal 
reclamation. The Index, N. Y. Trust 
Co., October, 1930, v. 10, No. 10, 
pp. 199-204. 

Darlington, Thomas D.t 

Conquering the Colorado. Profusely 
illus. Explosives Engineer, January, 
1931. (Reprinted as 8-page separate 
for general distribution.) 

Lippincott, J. B., chairman: 

Report of the committee of the irriga- 
tion division of the Am. Soc., C. E., 
on A National Reclamation Policy. 
Proc. A. S. C. E., January, 1931, v. 
57, pp. 129-133. 

Cle Elum Dam: 

Construction of Cle Elum Dam ap- 
proved by President. Western Con- 
traction News, January 25, 1931, b. 6, 
p. 49. 



April, 1931 



NEW EECLAMATION ERA 



81 



I By H. A BROWN, Director of Reclamation Economics I 




Crops in Yakima Valley Mal^e Fine Showing 



According to a recent issue of the Ya- 
kima Herald, Yakima Valley produced in 
1930 one of the largest crops in its his- 
tory, the returns piling up the imposing 
total of $40,280,000. This favorable 
result has demonstrated the stability of 
agriculture under irrigation and again 
ranked this valley among the foremost 
agricultural districts of the United States, 
both growers and shippers declared. 

The production was heavy in nearly all 
crops, and this excellent showing, together 
with the continued activity in various 
manufactures and the increase in building 
construction with attending pay rolls, 
accounts for the comparative financial 
security that this region has enjoyed. 

FRUIT INCOME LARGE 

Toward the impressive total of $40,280,- 
000 in aggregate returns fruit furnished 
$19,621,000, or nearly half of the total and 
approximately as much as in any season 
in recent years. 

The two major commodities, apples and 
pears, gave the growers the largest crops 
they have ever harvested. The apple 
tonnage aggregated 17,260 cars, compared 
with 12,717 in 1929 and the former peak 
of production of 16,031 cars in 1928. 
Compared with 1929, an increase in pro- 
duction was shown, not only in apples and 
pears, but in potatoes, tomatoes, hay, 
wheat, hops, lambs, wool, eggs, and dairy 
products. 

SHIPMENTS GREATER 

The commodities produced will fill 
53,976 cars, as compared with 43,700 in 
1929. The fruit movement from the 
valley will reach the big total of 26,345 
cars, while only 19,837 cars were required 
to handle the production in 1929. 

In addition to the tonnage shipped out 
of the valley, close to a million dollars 
worth of grain, hay, and other farm crops 
were used in the production of $7,000,000 
worth of livestock and livestock products. 
The value of such feeds is not included in 
the accompanying statistical table, but is 
accounted for in the figures for livestock, 
poultry, meats, eggs, and dairy products. 



TRUCKS MOVE PRODUCTS 

All values are given in terms of the 
receipts by the shippers, and are not the 
returns to the growers, that is, the prices 



WATER SUPPLY CONDITIONS 

The mild weather, characteristic of 
the present winter, continued through- 
out February except in southern Cali- 
fornia, Arizona, and parts of New 
Mexico, where heavy rains and some 
snow were experienced. 

For reservoirs with concurrent data 
available the storage contents on Feb- 
ruary S8 were 4,700,000 acre-feet, com- 
pared with 5, WO, 000 acre-feet for the 
same date in 1930. 

The storage for the Salt River project 
was materially increased owing to 
heavy rains on the watershed, now 
larger than for several years. 

Early demands on storage are ex- 
pected, and on some projects shortages 
are likely to occur. Grouting opera- 
tions at Deadwood Dam are being 
expedited in order that the reservoir 
may store water this year and augment 
the power at the Black Canyon power 
plant. 

Temperatures for the month were 
above normal and in some cases the 
highest of record. While precipita- 
tion, mainly in the form of light snows, 
improved the water-supply outlook 
somewhat, the snow cover at the end of 
the month was only about half of nor- 
mal and deficient run-off for the cur- 
rent year now appears practically 
inevitable. 



are those on board of cars and not those 
received by the producers. 

Among the striking things revealed in 
the crop survey was the large volume of 
fruits and vegetables moving by motor 
truck out of the valley. This traffic 
amounted to the surprising equivalent of 
700 railroad carloads. This class of ship- 
ping was chiefly to the coast, although 



some loads went to Spokane and other 
points in eastern Washington. Fruits 
valued at $350,000 were hauled by trucks 
out of the valley, this movement being of 
comparatively recent development. 

INCREASED PAY ROLLS 

The canning of pears in Yakima and 
Sunnyside this season was on an exceed- 
ingly large scale. All the fruit was de- 
livered to the plants in motor trucks, and 
not a single railroad car containing pears 
was unloaded at the canneries. 

More persons were employed by the 
fruit industry in 1930 than during the 
preceding season, and this was due to the 
greatly increased production. The wages 
with few exceptions were maintained on 
the level of 1929, making an exceedingly 
large pay roll for the valley. Processing 
of fruits and vegetables was on a larger 
scale than ever known here before, and 
that further augmented the turnover of 
funds in this district. 

SHIPMENTS OF PRODUCE FOR YEAR 1930 
SET RECORD 



Crop 


Number 
of cars 


Value of 
shipment 


Fresh fruits and melons 


26,345 


$19, 621, 492 


Vegetables 


8,395 


2, 856, 339 


Preserved fruits and vegetables- 
Grain 


1,030 
1 575 


3, 329, 620 
1, 159 200 


Grain products 


580 


561 250 


Hay, straw, and hay products . 
Hops 


7,458 
135 


1, 429, 145 
637,000 


Miscellaneous crops 


132 


424,435 


Livestock . 


1,168 


1, 905, 300 


Livestock products 


667 


2, 148, 700 


Dairy products 


550 


1 903 200 


Poultry and eggs 


185 


792, 350 


Miscellaneous products _ 


5,756 


3, 511, 969 








Grand total.. 


53,976 


40, 280, 000 









AMBING was practically completed 
on the Minidoka project at the close 
of the month, with unusually large per- 
centages of increase in nearly all flocks. 
Losses were small and the lambs were 
doing well. Many early lambs had been 
sent to market. The Minidoka County 
wool pool signed contracts with some 200 
growers for more than 17,000 fleeces, to 
be delivered during 1931. 



82 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



Agricultural Demonstration Work on the Reclamation Projects 



A YEAR or so ago representatives of the 
Bureau of Reclamation and of the 
Extension Service of the Department of 
Agriculture held a conference to work 
out a program of cooperation in extension 
work on irrigation projects, with a view 
to promoting better agriculture on the 
projects. 

As a result of this conference the Bu- 
reau of Reclamation receives copies of 
monthly reports by county agents and 
demonstrators on many of the projects, 
and project superintendents are enabled 
to keep informed on the yearly programs 
of extension work bearing more or less 
directly on reclamation problems. 

It is the desire of the bureau that every 
effort be made to further this coopera- 
tion. In this connection it is gratifying 
to note that in a recent letter Dr. C. W. 
Warburton, director of extension work, 
refers to "the very fine spirit of co- 
operation shown generally by the proj- 
ect superintendents and other Bureau 
of Reclamation .employees." 



The Department of Agriculture has an 
appropriation of $39,255 for the employ- 

RECLAMATION DEMONSTRATIONS 



Project 



Supervision, field 

Yuma, Ariz 

Uncompahgre, Colo 

Grand Valley, Colo 

Minidoka, Idaho 

Flat head, Mont 

1 1 tin tley i Mont 

Milk River, Mont 

Sun River, Mont 

North Platte, Nebr 

North Platte, Wyo 

Newlands, Nev 

Umatilla, Oreg 

Klamath, Oreg 

Belle Fourche, S. Dak 

Strawberry, Utah 

Shoshone, Wyo 



Unexpended 

Unallotted 



Allotted to office of reclamation 
demonstrations 



Expendi- 
ture fiscal 
year 
ended 
June 30, 
1SI30 



$3, 748. 82 



:i. MI. M 

300.00 

2. 700. 00 

2, 090. 00 

2, 499. 96 

600.00 



4, 738. 74 



3, 326. 25 
2, 400. 00 
2, 400. 00 
2, 400. 00 
2, 200. 00 
2. 400. 00 



35, 003. 69 
4, 251. 31 



Allot- 
ment 
fiscal 
year end- 
ing June 
30, 1!L 



$2. 075. 00 

3. 200. 00 
1, 146. 67 
2, 700. 00 

1, 800. 00 

2, 600. 00 
2, 400. 00 
2, 400. 00 

4, 800. 00 
276.67 

3,001.73 
2, 400. 00 
2, 400. 00 
2, 400. 00 
2, 400. 00 

jyoo.oo 

38, 300. 07 
"""954." 93 



39, 255. 00 39, 255. 00 



ment of extension workers. The actual 
expenditures, by projects, in the fiscal 



year 1 930, and the allotments for 1931 are 
shown in the accompanying tabulation. 

The allotments to the projects are all 
used in direct payments on salaries of 
extension agents who are employed co- 
operatively with the States and coun- 
ties in which they are working. In some 
cases the entire amount of salary is paid 
from the Federal appropriation, and in 
others only a part of the salary is so 
paid. In all cases, expenses of the work- 
ers are paid from State or county funds. 
The proportion of salary paid from the 
Federal appropriation varies with the dif- 
ferent projects. 

No specific part of the agent's time is 
devoted to irrigation project demonstra- 
tions, though in most instances the ir- 
rigation project constitutes the major 
part of the agriculture of the county, 
and as a consequence the project takes 
the major part of the agent's time. In 
some cases, as in the Yuma and Huntley 
projects, the demonstrator is an assist- 
ant county agent, giving his entire time 
to project farmers. 



Milk River Project Enjoys Open Winter 



The Milk River project, Montana, at 
an elevation of 2,200 feet, has a normal 
temperature range of 40 to 100 F., 
an average irrigation season extending 
from April 16 to September 30, and pro- 
duces alfalfa, grains, vegetables, sugar 
beets, potatoes, and livestock. The gen- 
eral impression prevails that Milk River, 
lying as it does in the extreme north of 
Montana, has winters which are too rigor- 
ous for comfort or pleasure and that it is 
a place to be avoided except during the 
milder seasons. 

There is always a variety of climate, 
including plenty of sunshine and fresh air, 
which afford pleasant healthful weather 
and make northern Montana hard to beat, 
even during the months of October to 
April. The month of February this year, 
which was exceptionally pleasant, was 
characterized by many outdoor sports 
among which were golfing, tennis playing, 
skating, and, strangest of all, swimming. 
Knowing the superintendent's reputation 
for veracity the statement regarding out- 
door sports in general may be accepted 
without question, but swimming in mid- 
winter on the Milk River project demands 
an explanation, which he gives as follows: 
The "burning well" in the vicinity of 
Nelson Reservoir, with its pool of warm 
water immediately below a perpetually 



burning gas fire, has provided a popular 
resort for bathers, especially those who 



seek the beneficial results of open-air bath- 
ing in water of alleged medicinal value. 

Fishing on a commercial basis has also 
been carried on, over two carloads of fish 
having been taken from under the ice of 
Bowdoin Lake and shipped to eastern 
markets. 




Sugar beets raised on Milk River project, Montana 



April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



83 



The value of Federal irrigation, which 
has never been questioned by those who 
have been closely associated with the 
work at different periods since its incep- 
tion, has been demonstrated during the 
past season of almost unprecedented 
drought to the satisfaction of many 
former doubters, when numerous farmers 
from the surrounding dry-land areas 
whose crops had been a total failure took 
advantage of the opportunities offered in 
the irrigated sections and purchased 
available properties from owners of large 
holdings who were willing to subdivide and 
sell at reasonable prices. Milk River has 
had a goodly share of the nearby drought- 
stricken farmers and there are still a few 
opportunities to purchase privately owned 
farms on this favored project. The super- 
intendent, Mr. H. H. Johnson, at Malta, 
Mont., is ready to answer all inquiries from 
prospective settlers regarding the Milk 
River project. 

Project Histories 

The Kittitas Division of the Yakima 
project has the honor of sending in the 
first project history for the year 1030. 
This report consists of 143 pages, index, 
49 photographs of special interest showing 
construction work on siphons, dams, etc., 
3 maps, 15 blue prints of project organiza- 
tion, abstracts of bids, progress charts, 
and capacity and discharge curves. 

A/L livestock on the Uncompahgre 
project are in good condition. The 
sheep-feeding program increased some- 
what this year over that in effect during 
the past winter owing to the low price of 
lambs and the generally favorable terms 
offered by owners of large flocks. 



Irrigated Area of the United States Census of 1930 



The preliminary announcement of the 
results of the 1930 census of irrigation 
shows that the area actually irrigated in 
1929, including rice irrigation in Arkansas, 
Louisiana, and Texas, was 19,578,441 acres, 
compared with 19,191,716 acres in 1919, 
an increase of 386,725 acres, or 2 per cent. 

Excluding the area irrigated for rice 
production, and confining the data to the 
irrigation of arid land in the 17 arid and 
semiarid States west of the one hundredth 
meridian, the area irrigated in 1929 was 
18,759,885 acres, compared with 18,329,- 
424 acres in 1919, an increase of 430,461 
acres, or 2.3 per cent. 

The largest percentage of increase was 
found in Texas, where 582,695 acres were 
irrigated in 1929, exclusive of rice irriga- 
tion, compared with 322,656 acres in 1919, 
an increase of 80.7 per cent, followed by 
Kansas, 47.6 per cent; Arizona, 23.5 per 
cent; and Nebraska, 19.4 per cent. Nine 
of the 17 States showed decreases ranging 
from 35.4 per cent in South Dakota to 3.5 
per cent in Utah. 

Evidently there is little, if any, basis for 
the claim heard from time to time that the 
development of these irrigated areas has 
had any material effect on overproduction 
during the past decade, and, of course, 
the effect of Federal reclamation under the 
conservative policy of construction in 
force, is even less evident. 



The accompanying table gives the 
figures, by States, for 1919 and 1929: 

ACREAGE IRRIGATED, 1919 AND 1929 



States 


1919 


1929 (pre- 
liminary 
estimate) 


Percent 
increase 
or de- 
crease 


Arid irrigation 
Arizona 


467,665 


577,263 


23 5 




4, 219, 040 


4, 731, 632 


12 1 


Colorado 


3, 348, 385 


3, 426, 022 


2.3 


Idaho _ 


2,488,806 


2,152,176 


-13.5 


Kansas 


47,312 


69, 841 


47.6 


Montana 


1,681,729 


1,580.321 


-6.0 


Nebraska 


442, 690 


528.680 


19.4 


Nevada 


561, 447 


487 241 


13 2 


New Mexico 


538 377 


551, 420 


2 4 


North Dakota- 


12, 072 


8,851 


-28.7 


Oklahoma - - . . 


2,969 


890 


70.0 


Oregon - 


986, 162 


937, 068 


5.0 


South Dakota 


100,682 


65,020 


-35.4 


Texas 


322, 656 


' 582, 695 


80.7 


Utah 


1,371,651 


1, 323, 703 


3.5 




529, 899 


503,458 


-5.0 


Wyoming 


1, 207, 982 


1, 233. 604 


2.1 










Total arid irriga- 
tion 


18, 329, 424 


18, 759. 885 


2.3 










Rice irrigation 
Arkansas 


143, 946 


151,305 


5.1 


Louisiana 


454, 882 


452, 251 


-0.6 


Texas 


263,464 


'215,000 


18.4 










Total rice irriga- 
tion 


862,292 


818,556 


-5.1 










Grand total 


19, 191, 71 


19, 578, 441 


2% 



1 Total area irrigated in Texas, including rice, 797,695 
acres. 

! Rice irrigation based on data in Yearbook Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 



OWNERS of the Otato factory at 
Burley, Minidoka project, began op- 
erations on March 1. A large quantity 
of potatoes was bought preparatory to 
operation. 




1931 Educational Directory 

The Department of the Interior an- 
nounces that the office of education has 
completed two parts of the 1931 Educa- 
tional Directory listing nearly 12,000 
school officials of the United States. 
Part I includes elementary and secondary 
school systems and Part II the institu- 
tions of higher education. 

These documents are now available 
from the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C., Part I at 15 cents a copy 
and Part II at 10 cents a copy. 

Part III, listing educational associa- 
tions, boards, and foundations and edu- 
cational periodicals, will be ready for 
distribution later. 



A CARLOAD of provisions for the 
2~\. drought-stricken area was sent from 
the Belle Fourche Valley on the 16th of 
the month. This shipment comprised 
flour, canned goods, honey, sugar, cured 
meats, and beans, totaling 40,000 pounds. 
The shipment was consigned to the 
American Red Cross at Dardanelle, Ark. 



84 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



Belle Fourche Project Produces Prize 
Winning Cattle 




ILLS DAIRY 





Holstein winner of sweepsteakes, Belle Fourche project, South Dakota 



Holstein cows owned by Belle Fourche 
project dairymen won the sweepstakes 
and also the cellar championship in the 
annual dairy show held at Vale during 
January. Seventeen entries of various 
breeds competed for prizes on the basis of 
production, under tests that extended 
over a period of one week. Premiums 
aggregating $200 were offered by the 
sponsors of the show as a means of stimu- 
lating dairying and encouraging better 
breeding in the grade herds. 

The Belle Fourche Valley Dairy De- 
velopment Committee had the support of 
all the commercial clubs and other business 
organizations in promoting this annual 
demonstration of production from good 
cows in comparison with the boarders and 
duds. The latter class in some cases 
were a revelation, even to their owners, 
when tests indicated a balance on the 
wrong side of the ledger. At the time 
of the show butterfat was valued at 22 
cents per pound, a mark that requires the 
very best practice in dairying and leaves 
no margin for dallying with a scrub cow. 

A banquet on the last day of the show 
was attended by about 300 people, and a 
speaking program emphasized the lessons 
to be learned from the results of the tests, 
which were tabulated and exhibited on a 
large chart. Speakers representing the 
dairy department of the State College, the 
Chicago & North Western Railway, and 
the Utah-Idaho Sugar Co., and others ad- 
vanced many valuable suggestions con- 
cerning the factors that make for success- 
ful dairying. It was pointed out that a 
good cow constitutes only one-third of the 



Water Improvement District 
Makes Prompt Payments 

On March 2, El Paso County water im- 
provement district No. 1, Rio Grande 
project, transmitted to the Bureau of 
Reclamation two checks in the sums of 
$211,860 and $105,000.30, or a total of 
$316,860.30. The larger check is in full 
payment of construction charges accru- 
ing to date, less the balance of $39,075 
remaining on the $350,000 Riverside 
Canal fund, all of which balance has not 
yet been collected, but which when col- 
lected will be retained by the district in 
accordance with past practice and notices 
of repayment for construction charges, 
for possible expenditure on the Riverside 
Canal pending its completion. 

The smaller check of $105,000.30 repre- 
sents the total collected by the district to 
date on the operation and maintenance 
and storage charges for 1930. The balance 
remaining unpaid of the 1930 operation 
and maintenance charges amounts to 
$61,200, on which the district is still 
making collections. 

In making prompt payment of its 
charges, thus ignoring the three months' 
grace allowed by the notices of repayment 



prescription, and that a dairy-minded 


of operation and maintenance charges at 


farmer and the right kind of feed are 


provided by the extension act, the districs 


necessary for a profit-making dairy unit. 


greatly assisted in the relief of the tem- 


One speaker called attention to the real 


porary shortage in the reclamation fund. 


"farm relief" that walks around on the 




four legs of a dairy cow, stating that a good 
herd properly cared for will bring larger 
returns than any other investment. 


Irrigation District Contract 
Upheld 


The dairy committee also sponsored an 


(Continued from p. 74) 


essay contest, open to all grade school 


many cases of actual benefit it is not 


pupils, on Value of Dairying to Farmers. 


possible to prove a corresponding increase 


Doris Maass, of the Horse Creek com- 


in market value. (Nampa, etc., Irr. 


munity, won the first prize of $10, and 


Dist. v. Petrie, 37 Idaho, 45, 57, 223 P. 


second prize went to Gladys Dolphin, of 


531, 534; Central Pac. R. Co. v. Truckee 


Vale. The following tabulation shows pro- 


Carson Irr. Dist., 49 Nev. 278, 298, 245 


duction and profits from the various cows 


P. 285, 291.) 


and the standing of each cow entered in 


The judgment appealed from will be 


the show. 


affirmed. 
















Value 




Plac- 
ing 


Owner and breed 


Cost of 
feed 


Milk pro- 
duced 
(pounds) 


Aver- 
age test 


Butter- 
fat pro- 
duced 


Price of 
fat 


of fat 

and 
skim 


Profit 














milk 




1 


Harve Cooper. Holstein 


$2 31 


404. 4 3. 6 


14.56 


$0.22 


$3.93 


$1.62 


2 


H. W. Roswell, Holstein 


2 31 


357.1 ! 4.0 


14.28 


.22 


3.78 


1.47 


3 


C. C. Miller, Holsteiu 


2 22 


328. 1 3-4 


11.16 


.22 


3.05 


.83 


4 


H. G. Milne, Holstein 


2.03 


237.3 


4.0 


9.49 


.22 


2.52 


.49 


5 


John Killinen, Holstein 


2.04 


239.7 


3.5 


8.39 


.22 


2.28 


.24 


6 


C. A. Wood, Holstein 


2.03 


193 3 


2.8 


5.41 


.22 


1.54 


-.49 


















1 


Charles Thomas, Guernsey 


2.03 


177.5 


5.0 


8.88 


.22 


2.26 


.23 


2 


Lee Semmons, Guernsey 


2.00 


131.3 


5.5 


7.22 


.22 


1.82 


. 18 


1 


William Polly, Jersey 


2.02 


138.2 


4.9 


6.77 


.22 


1.74 


.28 


2 


Charles Huffback, Jersey,. .. ..- 


1.71 


127.0 


4.8 


6.10 


.22 


1.57 


-.14 


1 


Wilbur Long, Ayrshire 


2 11 


337 9 


3.7 


12.50 


.22 


3.36 


1.25 


2 


Julius Viken, Ayrshire 


2.03 


221.3 


3 6 


7.97 


.22 


2.14 


.11 


3 


J. R Mock, Ayrshire 


2.03 


147.2 


3.8 


5.59 


.22 


1.49 


.54 


1 


C I. Parks, Shorthorn 


2.03 


186.8 


4.2 


7.85 


.22 


2.06 


.ai 


1 


J. F. Heetland, Brown Swiss 


2.14 


277.9 


4.2 


11.67 


.22 


3.07 i .93 


2 


Milo Thurlow, grade 


1.91 


260.7 


4 3 


11 21 


.22 


2.94 1.03 


3 


W. F. Long, grade 


1.90 


271.6 


4.1 


11.14 


.22 


2.94 


1.04 




















Feed prices Alfalfa, $8 per ton; grain mixture, $1 per hundredweight; silage, $4 per ton; pulp, $2.50 per ton, 



-April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



85 



AE A. SCHNURR, Assistant to the Commissioner - 




Mal^e Blue Monday Disappear for the Home MaJ^er 



I HAVE been asked to present some- 
thing on home laundry, equipment, 
arrangement, and supplies. In doing this 
I have thought of the various types of 
homes on our projects to be considered. 
The bungalow type with all rooms on one 
floor presents the idea that a separate 
room for laundry should be provided if 
possible. 

EQUIPPING A HOME LAUNDRY 

It is very desirable to keep the handling 
of soiled clothing and the odors and steam 
of laundry work from the kitchen, where 
food is prepared. 

The size of such a laundry depends on 
the number and size of the articles with 
which it is equipped. A completely 
equipped home laundry with articles of 
regulation size requires about 200 square 
feet. There should be a convenient 
arrangement of the standard pieces of 
equipment that have been found useful 
in the average-sized family, having in 
mind the convenience, comfort, and 
safety of the worker. A large table so 
placed that it can be used for sorting the 
soiled clothes will be found helpful and a 
folding rack above the table furnishes a 
convenient place for the finished gar- 
ments after they are ironed either on the 
board or on the ironer. This arrange- 
ment also conserves space. The stove 
should be placed near the washer, so 
that the clothes can be transferred easily 
if they are to be boiled. 

Attention should be given to the light- 
ing and ventilation of the laundry. Nat- 
ural lighting should strike it from the side. 
The common practice of locating sta- 
tionary tubs or trays under a basement 
window brings them so close to the wall 
that the light from a relatively high win- 
dow does not strike them. If the window 
arrangement is poor, a good source of 
properly directed artificial light should be 
placed over each large piece of equipment. 
All electric wiring and devices should be 
properly insulated. 

Doors and windows should be so placed 
as to give thorough ventilation. The 
walls should be painted or otherwise 
treated so that they are not affected by 



steam and are washable. They should 
be light in color. The floor should be of 
material that wears well, is not too hard 
for the feet, does not soak water, or get 
slippery when wet, and is easily cleaned. 
Wood and concrete are most practical. 
Concrete has the advantage that it is not 
affected by water, can be fitted with a 
drain, and is not slippery. It is, however, 
fatiguing to stand on, but this may be 
overcome somewhat by the use of rubber 
mats or low wooden platforms. These 
have the additional advantage of being 
safety precautions if electrical devices are 
being used. Linoleum, particularly when 
cemented down so that water can not get 
under it, is in some ways a satisfactory 
covering for a laundry floor of either wood 
or concrete. 

Some helpful washing devices are on 
the market in addition to various types 
of washing machines. When for any 
reason it is not possible to install a ma- 
chine, considerable assistance may be ob- 
tained from some of these devices. One 
is a perforated funnel made to fit in a 
wash boiler. This works on the same 
principle as a coffee percolator and in- 
creases the circulation of water through 
the clothes. The funnel-on-a-stick type 
of washer, which was the forerunner of 
the vacuum-cup washing machine, makes 
it possible to wash very soiled or infected 
clothing without immersing the hands. 
The stick can also be used to lift the wet 
clothes from the boiler to the tub, al- 
though a smooth broom stick is equally 
satisfactory. What might be termed 
"portable washers" are also available. 
One such type is a pump operated by an 
electric motor which maintains the circu- 
lation of water in the tub and keeps the 
clothes in motion. Another consists of a 
set of inverted cones which act on the 
vacuum principle mentioned above. This 
can be fastened to the tub and operated 
by hand or motor. All of these devices 
are improvements over the washboard 
method. 

PICKING OUT A WASHING MACHINE 

Most women realize the convenience of 
a washing machine, especially if it can be 



run by electricity, but they are often 
puzzled when it comes to making a selec- 
tion from among the many different 
makes. All of the makes on the market 
can be classified into four types, accord- 
ing to the principle on which they operate. 

Selection becomes a matter of personal 
preference for a particular operating 
principle. Each type has its advantages. 
In all, the washing is done by some device 
that forces soapy water through the 
clothes until they are clean. 

The cylinder type of washer has a 
perforated cylinder of metal or wood in 
which the clothes are placed. This re- 
volves in an outer container holding soap 
and water. The cylinder has blunt pro- 
jections on the inside, which carry the 
clothes along as it revolves. It reverses 
its direction automatically from time to 
time. The water gushes through the 
perforations and cleanses the clothes. 
There is a second type of cylinder machine 
in which the cylinder is in the form of a 
flattened perforated box which moves 
back and forth so that the clothes tumble 
from one end to the other. 

The "dolly" principle consists of a 
revolving device suspended in the center 
of the tub, fastened either to the lid or to 
the bottom. This carries the clothes 
first in one direction and then in the other. 
The corrugation of the sides and bottom 
of the tub help to cleanse the clothes 
partly by friction. 

In the oscillating type of machine, the 
tub itself rocks and tilts back and forth, 
tossing the clothes from one end to the 
other, and the water moves in a curving 
path. 

The vacuum-cup type of machine is a 
development of the funnel on a stick 
device in vogue 20 or more years ago. 
The soapy water is forced through the 
clothes by the pressure and suction pro- 
duced by the cups. 

When buying an electric machine 
specify the voltage of the local current 
and whether it is direct or alternating and, 
if alternating, the cycle. Consider the 
shape and size of the machine in relation 
to the room where you expect to use it. 
Be sure it is not too large. Choose a flat 



86 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



top if you are likely to want it for a work- 
ing surface between wash days. Buy a 
machine of the right capacity for your 
average washing, and of the right height 
for you to operate. Find out whether 
the manufacturer's repair service is easily 
available. Simple construction is advis- 
able. The frame should be strong and 
rigid, but it should be possible to roll the 
machine about on casters. The mecha- 
nism and gearing must be properly covered 
for safety and cleanliness, and the motor 
should be located where it will not get 
wet. Ask how often the machine must be 
oiled and whether that can be done easily. 
Any movable parts, such as a cylinder, 
should be light in weight and easy to 
handle. The water outlet should be prac- 
tical for easy drainage. See whether the 
wringer can be used when the machine is 
washing. Consider the possible advan- 
tages of a centrifugal drier. 

Above all, when you have bought your 
machine give it good care. Follow the 
directions that come with it, especially in 
regard to the weight of clothes to be put 
in at one time. Oil it regularly and dry 
it after each use. 




Power Development 
in Austria 

The Austrian Government has recently 
decided to construct a large hydroelectric 
power plant in northern Tyrol, according 
to a consular report. Two banking con- 
cerns in Vienna will finance the project. 
Waters of the Inn River and tributaries 
will be used to develop power with reser- 
voirs at the Plan and Heiterwung Lakes. 

For the completion of the project, it is 
contemplated that 14 years of continous 
work will be required, and the total cost 
of the undertaking will amount to 
$143,000,000. The power station at 
Silz, in the Inn Valley, will be built 
immediately. This particular plant will 
require three years to complete and its 
output will be 400,000,000 kilowatt-hours 
per year. The entire project will have a 
capacity of 1,000,000 horsepower and 
produce 2,300,000,000 kilowatt-hours 
yearly. This corresponds approximately 
to the total electric energy consumed in 
Austria at the present time. 

Unemployment conditions will be re- 
lieved by the proposed construction, 
which will keep 7,000 workmen busy for 
14 years, resulting in a saving of 122,000,- 
000 in unemployment dole. Allied in- 
dustries manufacturing materials and 
machinery will also benefit. Among the 
principal material requirements are 1,000,- 
000 barrels of cement, 77,000,000 pounds 
of piping material, 95,000,000 pounds of 
iron equipment, and 51,000,000 pounds of 
machinery. 



Sugar factory, Lovell, Shoshone project, Wyoming 



Series of Addresses on Engineering-Economic Problems 



The department of civil engineering and 
the institute of arts and sciences of Colum- 
bia University, in cooperation with the 
New York section of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers, has arranged a series 
of addresses on the Major Engineering- 
Economic Problems of the Day, to be given 
at Columbia University, New York City. 

The foreword of the program is as follows : 

"There has probably never been a 
period in American history when the 
United States was faced with the neces- 
sity of making more far-reaching and 
important decisions in regard to govern- 
mental and economic policies than at the 
present day. Many of these problems 
are primarily engineering in their origin. 

"Their solution is so intimately con- 
nected with engineering activities that 
participation and cooperation of the engi- 
neering profession is essential in the 
formulation of policies of development and 
control. 

"Recognizing the need among the 
members of the profession for a broader 
understanding of the social and economic 
relationships of engineering and on the 
part of the public for a wider appreciation 
of the necessity of engineering advice in 
connection with Government policies 
relating to public works and utilities, 
Columbia University has arranged this 
series of addresses by the foremost authori- 
ties in their respective fields." 

The program follows: 



f I A HE preliminary announcement of 
JL the Bureau of the Census gives the 
irrigated area of the United States as 
19,578,441 acres for 1929. 



March 2. The Boulder Canyon Project, 
by Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner of 
Reclamation : 

The Bureau of Reclamation was estab- 
lished under the administration of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt in 1 902. Its engineers have 
built many famous dams for irrigation and 
are now engaged in constructing the larg- 1 
est dam in the world for both irrigation 
and power. The Federal Government 
has thus entered the power field. Doctor 
Mead will describe this great project and 
discuss the principles and policies involved 
in the distribution of costs and benefits. 

March 16. The Power Problem, by 
Col. William Kelly, vice president of the 
Buffalo, Niagara & Eastern Power Co. 

March 23. The Economics of the High- 
way Era (speaker to be announced). 

March 30. Our Inland Waterways, by 
Maj. Gen. T. Q. Ashburn, chairman of the 
Inland Waterways Corporation. 

April 13. The Railroad Situation, by 
Charles F. Speare, financial editor, the 
Consolidated Press. 

April 20. The Transportation Problem 
A Survey and Review, by William Z. 
Ripley, professor of political economy, 
Harvard University. 

April 27. The Mississippi Problem, by 
Gen. Lytle Brown, Chief of Engineers of 
the United States Army. 

May 4. The St. Lawrence Project, by 
Maj. Gen. Edgar Jadwin, Chief of Engi- 
neers, United States Army, retired. 



A GOOD farm garden will not only let 
the farmer live better, but it has 
been shown to add several hundred dollars 
worth of living to his farm. 



April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



87 




Appropriations for the Bureau of Reclamation for the Next Fiscal Year 

An act making appropriations for the Department of the Interior for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, and for other purposes 

(Act February 14, 1931, Pub. No. 666, 71st Cong., 3d sess.) 



The following sums are appropriated out 
of the special fund in the Treasury of the 
United States created by the act of June 
17, 1902, and therein designated "the recla- 
mation f und,"to be available immediately : 

Commissioner of Reclamation, $10,000; 
and other personal services in the District 
of Columbia, $145,000; for office expenses 
in the District of Columbia, $23,000; in 
all, $178,000; 

For all expenditures authorized by the 
act of June 17, 1902 (32 Stat., p. 388), 
and acts amendatory thereof or supple- 
mentary thereto, known as the reclama- 
tion law, and all other acts under which 
expenditures from said fund are author- 
ized, including not to exceed $178,000 for 
personal services and $27,000 for other 
expenses in the office of the chief engi- 
neer, $25,000 for telegraph, telephone, 
and other communication service, $7,000 
for photographing and making photo- 
graphic prints, $54,000 for personal serv- 
ices, and $12,000 for other expenses in 
the field legal offices; examination of esti- 
mates for appropriations in the field; 
refunds of overcollections and deposits 
for other purposes; not to exceed $20,000 
for lithographing, engraving, printing, 
and binding; purchase of ice; purchase of 
rubber boots for official use by employees; 
maintenance and operation of horse- 
drawn and motor-propelled passenger- 
carrying vehicles; not to exceed $40,000 
for purchase and exchange of horse- 
drawn and motor-propelled passenger- 
carrying vehicles; packing, crating, and 
transportation (including drayage) of per- 
sonal effects of employees upon permanent 
change of station, under regulations to be 
prescribed by the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior; payment of damages caused to the 
owners of lands or other private property 
of any kind by reason of the operations of 
the United States, its officers or employ- 
ees, in the survey, construction, operation, 
or maintenance of irrigation works, and 
which may be compromised by agree- 
ment between the claimant and the 



Secretary of the Interior, or such officers as 
he may designate; payment for official 
telephone service in the field hereafter 
incurred in case of official telephones 
installed in private houses when author- 
ized under regulations established by the 
Secretary of the Interior; not to exceed 
$1,000 for expenses, except membership 
fees, of attendance, when authorized by 
the Secretary, upon meetings of technical 
and professional societies required in con- 
nection with official work of the bureau; 
payment of rewards, when specifically 
authorized by the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior, for information leading to the appre- 
hension and conviction of persons found 
guilty of the theft, damage, or destruc- 
tion of public property: Provided, That no 
part of said appropriations may be used 
for maintenance of headquarters for the 
Bureau of Reclamation outside the Dis- 
trict of Columbia except for an office for 
the chief engineer and staff and for cer- 
tain field officers of the division of recla- 
mation economics: Provided further, That 
the Secretary of the Interior in his admin- 
istration of the Bureau of Reclamation is 
authorized to contract for medical atten- 
tion and service for employees and to 
make necessary pay-roll deductions agreed 
to by the employees therefor: Provided 
further, That no part of any sum provided 
for in this act for operation and main- 
tenance of any project or division of a 
project by the Bureau of Reclamation 
shall be used for the irrigation of any 
lands within the boundaries of an irriga- 
tion district which has contracted with 
the Bureau of Reclamation and which is 
in arrears for more than 12 months 
in the payment of any charges due the 
United States, and no part of any sum 
provided for in this act for such purpose 
shall be used for the irrigation of any 
lands which have contracted with the 
Bureau of Reclamation and which are in 
arrears for more than 12 months in 
the payment of any charges due from 
said lands to the United States; 



Examination and inspection of projects: 
For examination of accounts and inspec- 
tion of the works of various projects and 
divisions of projects operated and main- 
tained by irrigation districts or water 
users' associations, and bookkeeping, 
accounting, clerical, legal, and other ex- 
penses incurred in accordance with con- 
tract provisions for the repayment of such 
expenses by the districts or associations, 
the unexpended balance of the appropria- 
tion for this purpose for the fiscal year 
1931 is continued available for the same- 
purpose for the fiscal year 1932; 

For operation and maintenance of the 
reserved works of a project or division of a 
project when irrigation districts, water 
users' associations, or Warren Act con- 
tractors have contracted to pay in advance 
but have failed to pay their proportionate 
shure of the cost of such operation and 
maintenance, to be expended under regu- 
lations to be prescribed by the Secretary 
of the Interior, the unexpended balance 
of the appropriation for this purpose for 
the fiscal year 1931 is continued available 
for the same purpose for the fiscal year 
1932; 

Yuma project, Arizona-California: For 
operation and maintenance, $265,000; for 
continuation of construction of drainage, 
$20,000; in all, $285,000: Provided, That 
not to exceed $25,000 from the power rev- 
enues shall be available during the fiscal 
year 1932 for the operation and mainte- 
nance of the commercial system; 

Orland project, California: For opera- 
tion and maintenance, $39,000; 

Grand Valley project, Colorado: For 
continuation of construction, $15,000; 

Boise project, Idaho: For continuation 
of construction, Arrowrock division, $40,- 
000; for operation and maintenance, Pay- 
ette division, $25,000; in all, $65,000: 
Provided, That the unexpended balances 
of the appropriation of $60,000 for con- 
tinuation of construction, Arrowrock divi- 
sion, fiscal year 1930, and of the appro- 
priation of $280,600 for continuation of 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



construction, Arrowrock division, fiscal 
year 1931, shall remain available for the 
same purposes during the fiscal year 1932; 

Minidoka project, Idaho: For opera- 
tion niul maintenance, reserved works, 
$29,000; continuation of construction 
gravity fxtiMision unit, $250,000, together 
with the unexpended balance of the 
appropriation for this purpose for the 
fiscal year 1931; for cleaning up Jackson 
Lake Reservoir in Wyoming, in coopera- 
tion with the National Park Service, 
$50,000, either by direct expenditure or by 
transfer to the National Park Service to 
be available until expended: Provided, 
That the expenditure from the reclama- 
tion fund for such clean-up shall not be 
charged as a part of the construction or 
operation and maintenance cost payable 
by the water users under the project, but 
shall be offset and recouped from revenues 
from the rentals of storage from the reser- 
voir: Provided further, That not to exceed 
$50,000 from the power revenues shall be 
available during the fiscal year 1932, for 
the operation of the commercial system; 
and not to exceed $125,000 from power 
revenues shall be available during the 
fiscal year 1932 for continuation of con- 
struction, south side division; in all, 
$329,000; 

Bitter Root project, Montana: For 
liquidating all bonded and other indebted- 
ness of the Bitter Root irrigation district, 
$500,000; for loaning to said irrigation 
district for necessary construction, better- 
ment, and repair work, $50,000; in all, 
$550,000, as authorized by the act 
entitled "An act for the rehabilitation 
of the Bitter Root irrigation project, 
Montana," approved July 3, 1930 (46 
Stat., pp. 852, 853); 

Milk River project, Montana: For 
operation and maintenance, Chinook 
division, $7,500; continuation of con- 
struction, $16,500; in all, $24,000; 

Sun River project, Montana: The un- 
expended balance of the appropriation for 
continuation of construction for the fiscal 
year 1931 shall remain available for the 
fiscal year 1932, for the purposes for which 
originally appropriated and for drainage 
construction. 

North Platte project, Nebraska- Wyom- 
ing: Not to exceed $60,000 from the 
power revenues shall be available during 
the fiscal year 1932 for the operation and 
maintenance of the commercial system; 

Carlsbad project, New Mexico: For op- 
eration and maintenance, $70,000; 

Rio Grande project, New Mexico- 
Texas: For operation and maintenance, 
$375,000; for continuation of construc- 
tion, $100,000; in all, $475,000: Provided, 
That the unexpended balance of the 
appropriation for continuation of con- 
struction for the fiscal year 1931 shall 
remain available for the same purposes for 
the fiscal year 1932; 



Owyhce project, Oregon: For continu- 
ation of construction, $3,000,000; 

Baker project, Oregon: Of the unex- 
pended balance of the appropriation for 
this project for the fiscal year 1931, $250,- 
000 is rcappropriated and made available 
for the fiscal year 1932, for the construc- 
tion of Thief Valley Reservoir, of which 
amount not to exceed $41,069 shall be 
available for the purchase of rights of way 
therefor: Provided, That contracts for the 
sale of such rights of way to the Govern- 
ment are executed prior to September 1, 
1931; 

Vale project, Oregon: For operation 
and maintenance, $15,000; for continu- 
ation of construction, $150,000; in all, 
$165,000; 

Klamath project, Oregon-California: 
For operation and maintenance, $41,000; 
continuation of construction, $315,000; 
for refunds to lessees of marginal lands, 
Tule Lake, $6,000, plus the unexpended 
balance of the appropriation for this pur- 
pose for the fiscal year 1931; in all, 
$362,000; 

Belle Fourche project, South Dakota: 
For continuation of construction, $150,- 
000; 

Salt Lake Basin project, Utah, first 
division: The unexpended balance of the 
appropriation for construction of Echo 
Reservoir and Weber-Provo Canal, for the 
fiscal year 1931, shall remain available for 
the same purposes for the fiscal year 
1932; 

Salt Lake Basin project, Utah, second 
division: The unexpended balance of the 
appropriation for the fiscal year 1931 shall 
remain available for the same purposes for 
the fiscal year 1932; 

Yakima project, Washington: For oper- 
ation and maintenance, $325,000: Pro- 
vided, That the unexpended balances of 
the appropriations for continuation of 
construction for the fiscal years 1929 and 
1930 continued available for the same pur- 
pose for the fiscal year 1931 shall be avail- 
able during the fiscal year 1932; 

Yakima project (Kittitas division), 
Washington: For operation and mainte- 
nance, $35,000; for continuation of con- 
struction, $796,000: Provided, That the 
unexpended balance of the appropriation 
for continuation of construction for the 
fiscal year 1931 shall remain available dur- 
ing the fiscal year 1932; in all, $831,000; 

Yakima project (Kennewick Highlands 
unit), Washington: The unexpended bal- 
ance of the appropriation of $640,000 for 
construction for the fiscal year 1931 shall 
remain available for the same purpose for 
the fiscal year 1932; 

Riverton project, Wyoming: For opera- 
tion and maintenance, $30,000 of the un- 
expended balances of the appropriations 
for this purpose for the fiscal years 1930 
and 1931 shall continue available for this 
purpose for the fiscal year 1932: Provided, 



That not to exceed $20,000 from the 
power revenues shall be available during 
the fiscal year 1932 for the operation and 
maintenance of the commercial system; 

Shoshone project, Wyoming: For con- 
tinuation of construction, Willwood divi- 
sion, $17,000; for operation and mainte- 
nance, Willwood division, $16,000; in all, 
$33,000: Provided, That the unexpended 
balance of the appropriation for construc- 
tion, Willwood division, for the fiscal year 
1931, shall remain available for the same 
purposes for the fiscal year 1932: Provided 
further, That not to exceed $20,000 from 
power revenues shall be available during 
the fiscal year 1932, for the operation and 
maintenance of the commercial system; 

Secondary projects: For cooperative and 
general investigations, the unexpended 
balance of the appropriation for this pur- 
pose for the fiscal years 1930 and 1931, 
contained in the First Deficiency Act, 
fiscal year 1930, is continued available for 
this purpose for the fiscal year 1932; 

For investigations necessary to deter- 
mine the economic conditions and finan- 
cial feasibility of new projects and for in- 
vestigations and other activities relating 
to the reorganization, settlement of lands, 
and financial adjustments of existing proj- 
ects, including examination of soils, classi- 
fication of land, land-settlement activities, 
including advertising in newspapers and 
other publications, and obtaining general 
economic and settlement data, $50,000: 
Provided, That the expenditures from this 
appropriation for any reclamation project 
shall be considered as supplementary to 
the appropriation for that project and 
shall be accounted for and returned to the 
reclamation fund as other expenditures 
under the Reclamation Act; 

Giving information to settlers: For the 
purpose of giving information and advice 
to settlers on reclamation projects in the 
selection of lands, equipment, and live- 
stock, the preparation of land for irriga- 
tion, the selection of crops, methods of irri- 
gation and agricultural practice, and gen- 
eral farm management, $25,000, which 
shall be charged to the general reclama- 
tion fund and shall not be charged as a 
part of the construction or operation and 
maintenance cost payable by the water 
users under the projects; 

Refunds of construction charges: The 
unexpended balance of the appropriation 
of $100,000 contained in the first defi- 
ciency act, fiscal year 1928, for refunds of 
construction charges theretofore paid on 
permanently unproductive lands excluded 
from the Federal reclamation projects 
specified in the act approved May 25, 1926 
(U. S. C., Supp. Ill, title 43, sec. 423a), 
in accordance with section 42 of said act, 
is hereby made available for the same pur- 
poses for the fiscal year 1932; 

Under the provisions of this act no 
greater sum shall be expended, nor shall 



April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



89 



the United States be obligated to expend 
during the fiscal year 1932, on any recla- 
mation project appropriated for herein, 
an amount in excess of the sum herein ap- 
propriated therefor, nor shall the whole 
expenditures or obligations incurred for all 
of such projects for the fiscal year 1932 ex- 
ceed the whole amount in the "reclama- 
tion fund" for the fiscal year; 

Ten per cent of the foregoing amounts 
shall be available interchangeably for ex- 
penditures on the reclamation projects 
named; but not more than 10 per cent 
shall be added to the amount appropriated 
for any one of said projects, except that 
should existing works or the water supply 
for lands under cultivation be endangered 
by floods or other unusual conditions an 
amount sufficient to make necessary emer- 
gency repairs shall become available for 
expenditure by further transfer of appro- 
priation from any of said projects upon 
approval of the Secretary of the Interior; 

Whenever, during the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1932, the Commissioner of the 
Bureau of Reclamation shall find that the 
expenses of travel, including the local 
transportation of employees to and from 
their homes to the places where they are 
engaged on construction or operation and 
maintenance work, can be reduced there- 
by, he may authorize the payment of not 
to exceed 3 cents per mile for a motor 
cycle or 7 cents per mile for an automobile 
used for necessary official business; 

Total, from reclamation fund, 
$6,971,000. 

To defray the cost of operating and 
maintaining the Colorado River front 
work and levee system adjacent to the 
Yuma Federal irrigation project in Ari- 
zona and California, subject only to section 
4 of the act entitled "An act authorizing the 
construction, repair, and preservation of 
certain public works on rivers and harbors, 
and for other purposes," approved Janu- 
ary 21, 1927 (44 Stat., p. 1010), $100,000, 
to be immediately available. 

Boulder Canyon project: For the con- 
tinuation of construction of the Hoover 
Dam and incidental works in the main 
stream of the Colorado River at Black 
Canyon, to create a storage reservoir, and 
of a complete plant and incidental struc- 
tures suitable for the fullest economic 
development of electrical energy from the 
water discharged from such reservoir; to 
acquire by proceedings in eminent domain, 
or otherwise, all lands, rights of way and 
other property necessary for such pur- 
poses; and for incidental operations; as 
authorized by the Boulder Canyon project 
act, approved December 21, 1928 (U.S.C., 
Supp. Ill, title 33, ch. 15A); $15,000,000 
to be immediately available and to remain 
available until advanced to the Colorado 
River Dam fund, which amount shall be 
available for personal services in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and for all other objects 
of expenditure that are specified for proj- 
ects included in this act under the caption 
"Bureau of Reclamation" without regard 
to the limitations of amounts therein set 
forth: Provided, That of the amount here- 
by appropriated, not to exceed $50,000, 
reimbursable, shall be available for inves- 
tigation and reports as authorized by sec- 
tion 15 of the Boulder Canyon project act. 



Extracts from Second Deficiency Act 
Fiscal Year 1931 



Advances to the reclamation fund: To 
carry out the provisions of the act entitled 
"An act to authorize advances to the 
reclamation fund, and for other purposes," 
approved March 3, 1931, $5,000,000. 

Milk River project, Montana: For 
continuation of construction, fiscal years 
1931 and 1932, $11,000. 

Secondary projects: For continuation 
of investigations of the Seminoe Dam and 
Reservoir and other possible storage sites 
and power development in connection with 
proposed and existing reservoirs on the 
North Platte River and its tributaries in 
Wyoming, fiscal years 1931 and 1932, 
$75,000: Provided, That nothing done in 
pursuance hereof or under the authority 
hereof, shall be construed to initiate or 
enlarge or constitute any water right or 



Mr. Cramton to Appraise 
Boulder City Lots 

The Secretary of the Interior an- 
nounced on March 23 that he had ap- 
pointed Hon. Louis C. Cramton, of 
Michigan, former Member of Congress, as 
Special Attorney to the Secretary to have 
charge of the appraisement of lands and 
the making of lease concessions for resi- 



appropriation of water, or any priority of 
appropriation of water whatever. 

North Platte project, Nebraska-Wyo- 
ming: For the purpose of enabling the 
Secretary of the Interior to construct rural 
trunk transmission lines, including neces- 
sary transformers, into farm settlements, 
communities, and municipalities, within 
the North Platte irrigation project, the 
inhabitants of which are able to finance 
feeder or distribution systems and to 
guarantee to the power system a fair 
measure of profit, not to exceed $30,000 
shall be available from the power revenues 
of the Lingle and Guernsey power plants, 
North Platte irrigation project. Ap- 
proved March 4, 1931. (Public, No. 869, 
71st Cong.) 



dential and business property at Boulder 
City, Nevada, the new town which is to 
be the place of abode of the workers who 
will build Hoover Dam. Mr. Cramton's 
headquarters will be at Washington, D. C., 
but much of his time will be spent at 
the townsite. The land at Boulder City 
will be owned by the Government and 
leased by those who wish to live on or 
conduct business establishments on it. 
Mr. Cramton will pass on these leases. 




ME. CEAMTON TAKING THE OATH OF OFFICE 

Left to right: E. K. Burlew, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior; Dr. Elwood Mead, 
Commissioner of Reclamation; Mr. Cramton; Miss Mae A. Schnurr, Assistant to the Commissioner. 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 







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April, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



91 



Fly Control Method at St. Elizabeths Hospital Proves Successful 

By D. A. Brodie, Farm Superintendent 



K SCENT experience has demonstrated 
the value of an entirely new principle 
In fly control that originated at St. Eliza- 
beths Hospital, United States Department 
of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 

This principle, which accomplishes the 
double purpose of effectively suppressing 
flies without impairing the fertilizing value 
of farm manures, is based on the fact that 
fly larvae migrate from their breeding 
places, usually in great numbers, and go 
into pupation in the adjacent soil, and 
from an economic standpoint the period 
of this migration is the most vulnerable 
part in the whole life cycle of the fly. To 
destroy the fly at this stage of his develop- 
ment and by the method here described is 
believed to be the most simple, logical, 
And effective means yet devised for main- 
taining control of the fly problem on a 
large scale. 

THE FLY'S HABITS 

It is well known that the fly lays its eggs 
in farm manure or other suitable material 
where its natural food is abundant. Ac- 
cording to authorities, each female is 
capable of laying 150 or more eggs at a 
time and may deposit several such batches 
during her active period, which accounts 
for the myriads of larvae to be found in 
each day's accumulation of manure. It 
is also pretty well known that in a few 
days these larva; are all gone, and it is 
right here that most of us lose sight of the 
fly. To the careful observer, however, 
it is known that the larvtc, when fully 
grown, leave the manure pile, or wherever 
they have been feeding, and pupate in the 
soil immediately adjacent, seldom travel- 
ing more than 10 to 20 feet before finding 



a suitable place to dig in. By stirring up 
the ground within this radius the pupae 
can readily be found imbedded in the soil, 
and usually only an inch or two below the 
surface. Here also is revealed the com- 
plete metamorphosis of the fly from the 
larval to the adult. Larva;, active and 
fresh from the manure pile, may be found 
in the same pocket with larvae, that appear 
distorted to the naked eye taking on the 
pupa form, live pupa easily distinguished 
by their bright reddish-brown oblong cas- 
ing, like an elongated bead from a lady's 
necklace, and empty dark-brown, almost 
black pupa shells, each with a large hole in 
one end, where the winged fly escaped; hun- 
dreds of them in each exposed pocket. 
No stretch of the imagination is required 
to picture the continuous procession of 
flies coming in as larvae, resting a while as 
pupa?, finally breaking out of their casings, 
shaking the dust from their wings, and 
flying away. Is it any wonder that we 
have flies? How futile seem our puny, 
efforts to control this menace by trapping, 
poisoning, and spraying the adult fly when 
we realize this continuous reinforcement 
of on-coming swarms. 

These observations soon made it plain 
that the most vulnerable period in the life 
cycle of the fly is during the few minutes 
that it takes him to travel from the manure 
pile to the pupation grounds. From time 
immemorial man has been fighting the 
fly in the winged stage with indifferent 
results. In the manure pile he is safe 
unless measures destructive to the manure 
are applied. But during this migration 
period he must come out into the open, a 
helpless, creeping, wingless creature, fully 
exposed and defenseless. Here is where 
he may be trapped in the path that the 



processes of nature demand that he must 
go. Theoretically at least every maggot 
in the pile might be destroyed at one fell 
swoop. Here the problem of fly control 
without injury to the precious farm ma- 
nure is simmered down to one definite 
course of action. All we need now is the 
trap, and that is simple. 

TRAPPING THE FLY 

Concentrate all the manure into one 
compact pile, dig a small trench com- 
pletely around it, use an effective larvicide 
to destroy the larvas as they fall in, and 
as far as the larvae in that pile are con- 
cerned they are doomed. 

After a few preliminary tests, in which 
spent crankcase oil from the garage was 
found to be an excellent larvicide, the first 
rick was begun. Immediately, a trench, 
about 15 inches wide and a foot deep, was 
dug across the far end and along the sides 
and enough crankcase oil to cover the 
bottom to a depth of about 2 inches was 
poured into it. With each day's hauling 
the trench was extended on both sides so 
that when the rick was finished all that 
remained to be done was to connect the 
two ends of the trench across the open end, 
thus surrounding the whole pile with the 
oil moat. 

It was observed that during the hot 
days that followed the larvae began drop- 
ping into the oil in less than 12 hours after 
the trench was dug. See Figure 1 , showing 
a trench just completed with the surface 
of the oil on the side already covered with 
larvae. 

In the next illustration a close-up view 
of the trench affords some idea of the 
destruction of fly larvae. 

(Continued on p. 92) 




GETTING BID OF FLIES 

1. Manure pile completely surrounded by oil trench. Surface of oil is white with floating dead and dying larvae. 2. A close-up view of oil trench showing how 

dead and dying larvae may be lifted out by the shovelful 



92 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



April, 1931 



Reclamation Organization Activities and Project Visitors 



Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner 01 
Reclamation, gave an address on Marcl 
2 before the Department of Civil Engi- 
neering and the Institute of Arts anc 
Sciences of Columbia University, New 
York, as the first of a series of lectures 
arranged by the University in coopera- 
tion with the New York section of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers 
The subject of Doctor Mead's address 
was The Boulder Canyon Project. 

On March 9 the Commissioner deliver- 
ed a lecture in Bethlehem, Pa., before the 
Lehigh University and the local branch 
of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers. A number of professors from 
Lafayette University also attended the 
lecture. 



Doctor Mead left Washington on 
March 28 to visit several of the south- 
western project;? and to look over the 
Parker-Gila project in Arizona. 



During the absence of Commissioner 
Mead and pending the return to the office 
of Assistant Commissioner Dent, Miss 
Mae A. Schnurr, Assistant to the Com- 
missioner, has been designated Acting 
Commissioner. 



P. W. Dent, Assistant Commissioner 
and Chief Counsel, left Washington for 
Los Angeles on March 14 for the purpose 
of negotiating contracts in connection 
with the Boulder Canyon project. He 
will also confer with Mr. Cramton at Las 
Vegas with respect to plans for Boulder 
City. In addition his visit takes him to 
the Yuma and Rio Grande projects. 



Porter J. Preston, superintendent of the 
Yakima project, Washington, left Yak- 
ima on March 15 for Denver, Colo., to 
take charge of the Colorado River in- 
vestigations. John S. Moore has taken 
over the affairs of the Yakima project as 
acting superintendent. 



It is with regret that announcement is 
made of the death on March 3 of Joseph 
C. Avery, special fiscal agent on the 
Klamath project. In November Mr. 
Avery suffered an attack of flu, followed 
by pneumonia, and later developed an 
inflammation of the heart, which was the 
immediate cause of his death. Mr. 
Avery has been employed by the bureau 
on the Klamath project since 1923. 



F. E. Weymouth, former chief engineer 
was in the Denver office during the month 
for the purpose of discussing the appli- 
cation of the Metropolitan water district 
of California, of which he is now chief 
engineer, before the Federal Power Com- 
mission for construction of a dam anc 
power plant at or in the vicinity of the 
Parker dam site. 



J. L. Savage, chief designing engineer, 
spent two days the first of the month on 
the Boulder Canyon project, going from 
there to Globe, Ariz., where he investi- 
gated the Dorr clarifiers and classifiers 
installed at certain mining properties 
and obtained first-hand information for 
use in connection with the grading of 
concrete aggregates for Hoover Dam and 
the problem of desilting the Colorado 
River at the All-American Canal diver- 
sion dam. Mr. Savage also served for the 
State of California on the Pine Canyon 
Dam consulting board, returning to 
Denver early in the month. 



C. D. Greenfield, agricultural develop- 
ment agent of the Great Northern Rail- 
way, visited the Milk River project early 
in the month. 



E. E. Lewis, superintendent of the 
Huntley project, returned to the project 
on March 1 after an absence since Decem- 
ber 19 last. During his absence from 
headquarters Mr. Lewis visited several 
irrigation projects in the Southwest and 
enjoyed a pleasant and profitable winter. 



Fly 



Control Method 

(Continued from page 91) 

In conclusion, it may be stated that this 
plan has succeeded far beyond expecta- 
tions, and St. Elizabeths Hospital enjoyed 
a season of appreciable relief never before 
experienced in fly time. Flytraps, screens, 
and sprays are still in use to be sure and 
must continue to be used because not all 
iy-breeding places can be brought under 
this scheme, but with all the farm manure 
and other refuse brought together and 
Tenched in this way the fly menace is 
materially checked at the main source of 
ncubation. 

Furthermore, before another year rolls 

-round the labor of digging the trench 

will be eliminated by the installation of 

oncrete trenches which will still further 

implify the process. 

O 



W. J. Burke, district counsel, spent a 
few days on the Lower Yellowstone project 
in the consideration of irrigation matters, 
particularly the purchase of tax certificates. 



A trip has been planned by Val Kuska, 
colonization agent of the Burlington Rail- 
road, to interest prospective settlers in 
the Willwood division of the Shoshone 
project. Mr. Kuska expects to travel as 
far as Kansas and L. H. Mitchell, superin- 
tendent of the Shoshone project, is to 
accompany him. 



W. O. Fleenor, manager, and Phil 
Rouse, engineer, for the Gering-Fort 
Laramie irrigation district, were visitors 
at the North Platte project office during 
the month. 



George O. Sanford, Assistant Director 
of Reclamation Economics, left Washing- 
ton on March 31 for the West. He will 
first visit the Uncompahgre project, Col- 
orado, going from there to the Humboldt 
and Truckee River districts in Nevada, 
and later to the Milk River and Sun 
River projects, Montana. 

W. F. Kubach, chief accountant, has 
been in the Denver office during the past 
few weeks preparing a system of accounts 
for the Boulder Canyon project. 



N. E. Fordham, master mechanic in the 
Denver office, was on the Rio Grande 
project during the month in connection 
with the work of increasing the air inlets 
to the throats of the outlet conduits in 
Elephant Butte Dam. 



Passing of Governor Emerson 

Gov. Frank C. Emerson, of Wyoming, 
passed away on February 19, following a 
sudden illness. He was particularly 
active, both in his former capacity as 
State engineer and as governor, in Colo- 
rado River matters, being the only engineer 
among the executives of the Colorado 
River Basin States. Governor Emerson 
was very active in recent years in ob- 
taining a correct and up-to-date inventory 
of the remaining possibilities of irrigation 
development. 



J. W. Myer, chief of mails and files, 
Washington office, is in Las Vegas, Ne- 
vada, installing a filing system. 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION FOR THE BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR, SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Jos. M. Diion, First Assistant Secretary; John Edwards, Assistant Secretary; E. C. Finney, Solicitor of the Interior Department; 

E. K. Burlew, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary and Budget Officer; 

Northcutt Ely and Charles A. Dobbel, Executive Assistants 



Miss M. A. Schnurr, Assistant to the Commissioner 
W. F. Kubach, Chief Accountant 



Washington, D. C. 
El wood Mead, Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 

P. W. Dent, Assistant Commissioner 

C. A. Bissell, Chief of Engineering Division 

C. N. McCulloch, Chief Clerk 

Denver, Colo., Wilda Building 



Hugh A. Brown, Director of Reclamation Economics 
George O. Sanford, Assistant Director of Reclamation 
Economics 



R. F. Walter, Chief Eng.; S. 0. Harper, Oen. Supt. of Construction; J. L. Savage, Chief Designing Eng.; E. B. Debler, Ilydrographic Eng.; L. N. McClellan, Electrical 
Eng.; C. M. Day, Mechanical Eng.; Armand Offutt, District Counsel; L. R. Smith, Chief Clerk; Harry Caden, Fiscal Agent; C. A. Lyman, Field Representative 

Projects under construction or operated in whole or in part by the Bureau of Reclamation 



Project 


Office 


Oflieial in charge 


Chief clerk 


Fiscal agent 


District counsel 


Name 


Title 


Name Address 




Yuma, Ariz 


R. M. Priest 


Superintendent. 


J. C. ThraUkill. .. 


E. M. Philebaum. 
/Charles F. Wein- 
l kauf. 
C. H. Lillingston.. 
E. A. Peek 


R. J. Coffey - LosAngeles, Calif 




Walker R. Young. 

R. C.E.Weber... 
W. J. Chiesman... 


E R Mills 


/ do Do. 


Orland 


Orland, Calif 
Orand Junction, Colo. 


Superintendent . 
do 


C. H. Lillingston-. 
E. A. Peek 
O H. Bolt 


U.R.Alexander.-- Las Vegas, Nev. 
R. J. Coffey LosAngeles,Calif. 
J. R. Alexander - Las Vegas, Nev. 


Grand Valley 




do 


F D Helm 


do Do 


Boise ' 


Boise, Idaho 


R. J. Newell 


...do 


W. L. Vernon... 
C. B. Funk 


Denver office ' 


B. E. Stoutemyer- Portland, Oreg. 
do Do. 


Boise, Deadwood Dam._ 


Cascade, Idaho 


do 


...do 


do 


Burley, Idaho 


E. B.Darlington _. 
H. H. Johnson 


...do 


Q. C. Patterson 


Miss A. J. Larson. 
E. E. Chabot 


do . Do. 


Milk River 3 


Malta, Mont 


do 


E. E. Chahot 


Wm. J. Burke Billings, Mont. 
do Do. 


Sun River, Greenfields... 
Lower Yellowstone 
North Platte * 


Fairfleld, Mont 


A. W. Walker 


.. do 1 H. W. Johnson 


H. W. Johnson 


Savage, Mont 


H. A. Parker 


do 

Supt. of power 


N. O. Anderson 
A. T. Stimpflg 


Denver office 


... do Do. 


C. F. Oleason 


A. T. Stimpflg 


. do Do. 


Carlsbad 


Carlsbad, N. Mex 
El Paso, Tex 


L. E. Foster 


Superintendent, 
do 


W. C. Berger 


W. C. Berger 


H. J. S. Devries El Paso, Tex. 




L. R. Fiock 


H. H. Berryhill 


H. H. Berryhill 


_. do Do. 


UmatUla, McKay Darn,. 
Vale - 

Klamath 8 


Pendleton, Oreg 


C. L Tice 


Reserv. supt 




Denver office 
C. M. Voyen 


B. E. Stoutemyer. Portland, Oreg. 
do ! Do. 
do | Do. 


Vale, Oreg 

Klamath Falls, Oreg.. 


Chas. C. Ketchum. 
B. E. Hayden 
F. A Banks 


Superintendent . 
do 


C. M. Voyen... 
N. O. Wheeler 






H. N. Bickel 


F. P. Qreene 


do .. ! Do. 




Newell, S Dak 


F. C. Youngblutt.. 
F. F. Smith 
John S. Moore 
R. B. Williams.... 
H. D. Comstock.. 
L. H. Mitchell.. . 


Superintendent . 
Constr. engr 
Acting supt 
Constr. engr 
Superintendent - 
...do.... 


J. P. Siebeneicher 


J. P. Siebeneicher. 
Denver office 


Wm. J. Burke Billings, Mont 


Salt Lake Basin 7 


Coalville, Utah 
Yakima, Wash 


C. F. Williams 


J. R. Alexander Las Vegas, Nev. 




R. K. Cunningham. 
Ronald E. Rudolph 


C. J. Ralston... 


B. E. Stoutemyer- Portland, Oreg. 


Yakima Kittitas 




do 


do Do 






R B Smith 




Wm. J. Burke Billings, Mont. 
...do... Do. 


Shoshone 9 ___ 


Powell, Wyo... 


W. F. Sha... 


...do.... 



' Arrowrock Reservoir, Boise diversion dam, and Black Canyon power plant. 

' Jackson Lake and American Falls Reservoirs, power system and Gooding division. 

' Malta, Glasgow, and Storage divisions. 

1 Pathfinder and Guernsey Reservoirs, and power systems. 

i Acting. 

Completed projects or divisions constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation and operated by water-users' organizations 



8 Storage, main, and Tule Lake divisions. 

7 Echo Reservoir. 

1 Storage, Tieton, and Sunnyside divisions. 

' Reservoir, power plant, and Willwood division. 



Project 


Organization 


Office 


Operating official 


Secretary 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 


Salt River - 


Salt River Valley, W. U. A.... 


Phoenix, Ariz . . . 
Grand Junction. 


C. C. Cragin... 
C. W. Tharpe 
Wm H Tuller 


Gen. supt. and chief engr. 
Superintendent 


F. C. Henshaw 


Phoenix, Ariz. 
Grand Jet., Colo. 
Boise, Idaho. 
GlennsFerry, 
Idaho. 
Rupert, Idaho. 
Burley, Idaho. 
B al 1 an t in e 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
Do. 
Harlem, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont. 
Do. 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr. 

Gering, Nebr. 
Torrington.Wyo. 
Bridgeport, 
Nebr. 
Fallon, Nev. 

Hermiston.Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg. 
Bonanza, Oreg. 
Do. 
Payson, Utah. 
Okanogan, 
Wash. 

Powell, Wyo. 
Deaver, Wyo. 


Grand Valley, Orchard Mesa.. 
Boise ' 


Orchard Mesa irrig. district . . . 


H. O. Lambeth 


Project manager 


F. J. Hviftgan 


King Hill 


King Hill irrigation district.. . 

Minidoka irrigation district... 
Burley irrigation district 
Huntley irrigation district 


King Hill, Idaho- 
Rupert, Idaho. 
Burley, Idaho. -- 
B allant ine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
do 


F. L. Kinkade... 

R. L. Willis 
Hugh l~ Crawford 
E E Lewis 


Manager . .-. 


Chas. Stout 
W. C. Trathen... 




do 

Superintendent - . 


Minidoka pumping 


Geo. W. Lyle 
H. S. Elliott 


Milk River, Chinook division. _ 
Do 


Alfalfa Valley irrig. district 


A L Benton 


President 


R. H. Clarkson . 


Fort Belknap irrig. district 


H. B. Bonebright.. do 
Thos. M. Everett do 


L. V. Bogy 
Geo. II. Tout 
J. F. Sharpless 
H. M. Montgomery. 
U. W. Genger 


Do 


Harlem irrigation district 
Paradise Valley irrig. district.. 


Harlem, Mont__. 
Chinook, Mont.. 
Zurich, Mont 
Fort Shaw, 

Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr.. 

Gering, Nebr 
Torrington.Wyo. 
Northport, Nebr. 

Fallon, Nev 


Do 


Do 




do ... . 


Sun River, Fort Shaw division- 
North Platte: 


Fort Shaw irrigation district... 

Pathfinder irrigation district. . 

Gering-Fort Laramie irrig. dist. 
Gosheu irrigation district 
Northport irrigation district... 

Triickee-Cftrson irriz. district 


H. W. Genger 

T. W. Parry 
W O Fleenor 


Superintendent 


Manager 


Mary McKay Kin- 
ney. 
C. G. Klingman 
Mrs. Nelle Armitage 
Mrs. M. J. Thomp- 
son. 
L. V. Finger 

W. J. Warner 




do " 


Do 


B. L. Adams 


...do 




D R Dean 


do 




D. S. Stuver . . 


Project manager 
do 


Umatilla: 




E D Martin 




West Extension irrig. district.. 




A. C. Houghton... 
R. S. Hopkins 


Secretary and manager. . 


A. C. Houghton 




Bonanza, Oreg... 
do 


R. S. Hopkins 


Do 


Horsefly irrigation district 




Wm. F. B. Chase 




Strawberry W. U. A 




Lee R. Taylor.... 
J. C. Iddings 

Frank Roach 
Sydney I. Hooker. 


Manager 


E. G. Breeze 






Okanogan, 
Wash. 

Powell, Wyo 
Deaver, Wyo 


Superintendent 


Nelson D.Thorp.... 

Geo. W. Atkins 
Edw. T. Hill 


Shoshone: 
Garland division 


Shoshone irrigation district 
Deaver irrigation district 


Irrigation superintendent 


Frannie division. 





1 Boise, Kuna, Nampa, Meridian, Wilder, New York, Big Bend, and Black Canyon irrigation districts. 

Important investigations in progress 



Project 


Office 


In charge of 


Cooperative agency 


All-American Canal 


Denver, Colo 


H. J. Gault 

W R Young and C. A. Bissell 


Imperial and Coachella districts. 
State of California. 


Salt Lake Basin 


Salt Lake City, Utah 


E. O. Larson 


State of Utah. 




Spokane, Wash 


H W. Bashore 








Porter J. Preston 













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8 



NEW 

RECLAMATION ERA 



VOL. 22, NO. 5 




MAY, 1931 




Photo, by West, Bu. of Rec. 

HON. RAY LYMAN WILBUR, SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, SIGNING THE CONTRACT ON APRIL 20, 1931, FOR 
THE CONSTRUCTION OF HOOVER DAM, BOULDER CANYON PROJECT 

STANDING NORTHCUTT ELY. EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT TO SECRETARY: W. A. BECMTEL. FIRST VICE PRESIDENT Six COMPANIES (INC.): E. J. HARDING. 

MANAGING DIRECTOR. ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF AMERICA: MlSS MAE A. SCHNURR. ACTING COMMISSIONER. BUREAU OF RECLAMA- 
TION. REPRESENT! NG THE BUREAU IN THE ABSENCE OF COMMISSIONER MEAD 




DR ELWOOD MEAD COMMISSIONER OF RECLAMATION (AT TOP) AND R. F. WALTER, CHIEF ENGINEER, 
SIGNING THE CONTRACT WITH THE SIX COMPANIES (INC.) FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF HOOVER DAM. 
POWER PLANT. AND APPURTENANT WORKS, BOULOER CANYON PROJECT 

UPPER STANDING LEFT TO RIGHT WALKER R. YOUNG, CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER; A. B. APPERSON. CAPITALIST; CECIL W. CREEL, DIRECTOR OF EXTENSION. UNIVER- 
SITY OF NEVADA- J. A. MCEACHERN, PRESIDENT GENERAL CONSTRUCTION Co.. SEATTLE; JOHN c. PAGE. OFFICE ENGINEER. BOULDER CANYON PROJECT; A. E. 

CAHLAN. EDITOR REVIEW-JOURNAL, LAS VEGAS: GEORGE W. MALONE. STATE ENGINEER OF NEVADA: LOUIS C. CRAMTON. SPECIAL ATTORNEY TO THE SECRE- 
TARY OF THE INTERIOR: CHARLES P. SQU'RES, EDITOR THE AGE. LAS VEGAS; P. W. DENT. ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER, BUREAU OF RECLAMATION; R. J. 

COFFEY, DISTRICT COUNSEL. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION. LOWER, STANDING LEFT TO RIGHT: EARLE R. MILLS, CHIEF CLERK, BOULDER CANYON PROJECT; 

A. E. CAHLAN: JOHN C. PAGE; O. W. YATES. PRESIDENT LAS VEGAS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE; WALKER R. YOUNG: CHARLES A. DOBBEL. EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR; Louis C. CRAMTON: J. R. ALEXANDER. DISTRICT COUNSEL. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION; GEORGE W. MALONE; S. L. 

GILLAN. PRESIDENT ENGINEERS* CLUB, LOS ANGLES: MYRON C. BURR; FRED HESSE, MAYOR OF LAS VEGAS; CHARLES P. SQUIRES. 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 

Issued monthly by the DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C. 

Price 75 cents a year 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR 
Secretary of the Interior 



Vol. 22, No. 5 




ELWOOD MEAD 
Commissioner. Bureau of Reclamation 



MAY, 1931 



Interesting High Lights on the Federal Reclamation Projects 



IN the Malta district of the Milk River 
project four land sales were completed 
during the month and a few other trans- 
fers were pending. Quite a number of 
leases also were made. 



THE Lower Yellowstone Develop- 
ment Association has decided to 
continue development work again this 
year. A representative will begin work 
in the Colorado territory in the near 
future. 



PICKING of late lettuce on the Yuma 
project continued throughout the 
month with heavy shipments of this com- 
modity. The early completion of the 
picking and marketing of the entire crop 
was anticipated. 



SIX new families have recently arrived 
on the Sun River project. No farms 
are for rent at present, although a few 
places are offered for sale. Many inqui- 
ries concerning settlement and home pos- 
sibilities continue to come in from inter- 
ested persons. 



ANNOUNCEMENT has been made 
_/~\ by the Varney Air Lines, holders of 
the contract for carrying mail on the 
route from Salt Lake City to Seattle, 
Wash., that they will start immediately 
on the construction of a $50,000 depot at 
the Boise airport, Boise project, Idaho. 



f I ^HE State Highway east from Yuma 
J_ to Phoenix, some 200 miles distant, 
which is a Federal-aid project, is being 
rapidly developed with oiled surfacing. 
A.t present there are approximately 50 
miles of pavement, and of the remaining 
150 miles, all but 8 are now oil surfaced. 
Traffic over this highway, which is the 
main southern transcontinental route, is 
heavy throughout the year. 

5195331 1 



A CARLOAD of honey left Fruitdale, 
Belle Fourche project, on March 26 
bound for France. This shipment was 
consigned to a firm at Jersey City, N. J., 
and will be loaded on board ship at that 
point for its final destination. 



PUBLIC LAND OPENING, RIVERTON 
PROJECT, WYOMING 

The Secretary of the Interior has 
announced an opening to entry on 
May 1, 1931, of a tract of public land 
comprising 50 farm units on the Pilot 
division of the Riverton irrigation 
project, Wyoming. The farm units 
have an irrigable area ranging from 
46 to 106 acres. 

Until August 3, 1931, these lands 
will be open to entry only by ex-service 
men who have served in the United 
States Army or Navy in any war. 

Requests for public notices, farm 
application blanks, and further infor- 
mation should be addressed to the 
Commissioner, Bureau of Reclama- 
tion, Department of the Interior, Wash- 
ington, D. C., or to the Superintendent, 
Bureau of Reclamation, Riverton, Wyo. 



EMBING, which has been in prog- 
ress on the Vale project since Febru- 
ary 1, is now nearly completed. A num- 
ber of sheep men have reported 150 per 
cent increase of lambs. The sheep are 
now being trailed to the summer ranges. 



SPRING pruning and plowing of 
orchards on the Orland project were 
completed on April 1. A heavy set of 
almonds and apricots developed, indicat- 
ing a large yield this year provided there 
are no late spring frosts. Oranges and 
other fruits gave promise of prolific bloom- 
ing. Alfalfa made good growth. The 
first cutting is now ready for harvest. 



A HERD of Holstein cows owned by 
S. W. Beck, of Paul, Minidoka proj- 
ect, made an unusual record during the 
year 1930 by producing an average of 404 
pounds of butterfat and' 10,710 pounds of 
milk. One cow yielded 613 pounds of 
butterfat and 17,854 pounds of milk. 
The Mini-Cassia Cooperative Dairymen's 
Association during a recent month pur- 
chased 1,074,862 pounds of milk contain- 
ing 40,215 pounds of butterfat. In 
addition 18,243 pounds of cream butter- 
fat were bought, or a total of 58,458 
pounds of butterfat, an increase of nearly 
4,400 pounds over the record of the corre- 
sponding month last year. 



NO apprehension is felt for a water 
shortage this season on the Lower 
Yellowstone project as the minimum flow 
over a period of 30 years at Intake has 
been three times the capacity of the canal. 



^ J ^HE cantaloupe and watermelon 
J. crops on the Yuma project will be 
ready to market early in June. 



AlO-ACRE farm near Acequia, Miiii- 
doka project, including some live- 
stock, was sold during the month for 
$5,000, and another tract of 40 acres 
between Paul and Rupert was disposed of 
for $5,750. 

T TNEMPLOYMENT conditions on 
V_J the Carlsbad project have been 
somewhat improved on account of road 
work in the vicinity and increased activity 
on the farms. 



SEVERAL new settlers located on the 
Belle Fourche project during March. 
The new tenants, who came principally 
from the dry-land sections to the east 
and north, have a fair layout of stock and 
equipment with which to begin immediate 
operations. 

93 



94 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1931 



President Approves Ba^er Project, Oregon 

The Secretary of the Interior finds the project feasible from an engineering and economic standpoint 



PRESIDENT HOOVER on March 18, 
1931, approved the construction of 
the Baker project, Idaho, as submitted to 
him in the following letter from the Sec- 
retary of the Interior. 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 

Washington, March 17, 1931. 

THE PRESIDENT. 

The White House. 

MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT; 

Section 4 of the act of June 25, 1910 
(36 Stat. 835), provides in effect that 
after the date of that act no irrigation 
project to be constructed under the act 
of June 17, 1902 (32 Stat. 388) and acts 
amendatory thereof or supplementary 
thereto, shall be undertaken unless and 
until the project shall have been recom- 
mended by the Secretary of the Interior 
and approved by the direct order of the 
President. 

Subsection B, section 4, act of Decem- 
ber 5, 1924 (43 Stat. 701), provides as 
follows: 

"That no new project or new division 
of a project shall be approved for construc- 
tion or estimates submitted therefor by 
the Secretary, until information in detail 
shall be secured by him concerning the 
water supply, the engineering features, 
the cost of construction, land prices, and 
the probable cost of development, and he 
shall have made a finding in writing that 
it is feasible, that it is adaptable for 
actual settlement and farm homes, and 
that it will probably return the cost 
thereof to the United States." 

The various features requiring investi- 
gation and report in connection with the 
Baker reclamation project, Oregon, under 
subsection B, section 4, act of December 
5, 1924, supra, will be discussed in the 
order in which presented in that subsec- 
tion, as follows: 

IRRIGATION PLAN AND WATER SUPPLY 

The Lower Powder River Valley, with 
a length of 12 miles and an average width 
of 1 mile, containing a gross area of 7,400 
acres, lies from 15 to 20 miles northeast- 
erly of Baker City, Oreg. The irrigable 
lands of the valley, comprising about 
6,000 acres, are served by canals diverting 
from Powder River, which traverses the 
entire valley, and a large part of the lands 
have been under irrigation for many years. 
Stream flow has never been adequate after 
midsummer to meet the valley require- 
ments and has been further reduced in 
recent years by upstream irrigation devel- 



opment. It is proposed to construct the 
Thief Valley Reservoir on Powder River 
immediately above the valley to be irri- 
gated, with a capacity of 15,000 acre-feet, 
which will be adequate to provide a full 
water supply. Unused winter and spring 
flood waters exceed the proposed reser- 
voir capacity in every year. No other 
works are contemplated. 

LAND AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 

All of the lands to be benefited are set- 
tled and at present generally farmed to 
the limit of the available water supply. 
They have been classified by a represen- 
tative of the Bureau of Reclamation, who 
reported a tillable area of 3,200 acres and 
a pasture area of 2,800 acres, with the 
balance of 1,400 acres either waste land 
or lands not served by existing canals 
from Powder River. A part of the latter 
may later be added to the indicated tillable 
area. Tillable lands are now principally 
devoted to the production of alfalfa and 
grain which is largely converted locally 
into dairy products, beef, and mutton. 
With the augmented water supply, crop 
production will be materially increased, 
which will permit a corresponding increase 
in the number of stock on the farms, now 
comprising 13,000 sheep, 1,700 cattle, and 
a few hogs. The pasture lands are un- 
| fitted by high-water table and periodic 
inundation for the production of tilled 
crops, but constitute a valuable adjunct 
in the established farming operations. 
Their usefulness will be increased through 
the augmented water supply by increase 
in grazing capacity and the lengthening 
of the grazing season. The entire area is 
settled by experienced stockmen in hold- 
ings of less than 160 acres of tillable land, 
and most farms have fair to good improve- 
ments. No settlement problem is in- 
volved. The increased crop production 
to result from the supplemental water sup- 
ply is expected to be reflected in an in- 
crease in crop values much larger than the 
increase in costs of production and in 
enhanced profit. 

FEASIBILITY OF PROJECT 

The foregoing data justify the conclu- 
sion that the project is feasible from an 
engineering and economic standpoint, 
and I accordingly so find and declare. 

REPAYMENT OF COSTS 

The construction cost is estimated at 
$60 per acre for the tillable land, if no 
part of the cost is collected from the pas- 



ture lands which will be benefited to a 
lesser extent than the tillable lands. A 
proposed contract with the Lower Powder 
irrigation district, comprising all of the 
valley lands, provides for repayment of 
costs in 40 years, requiring an annual 
payment of approximately $1.60 per acre 
for construction if the entire cost is borne 
by the tillable lands alone. Operation 
and maintenance will be conducted by 
the district and such costs for the reservoir 
should be small. Increased annual crop 
yields to result on the tillable lands are 
estimated at not less than $8 per acre. 
These conditions fully justify the belief 
that construction costs will be repaid as 
intended. I therefore recommend ap- 
proval of this project and issuance of 
authority to this department to proceed 
with construction. By the act of Jan- 
uary 12, 1927 (44 Stat. 959), $450,000 
was appropriated for commencement of 
construction; and subsequent appropria- 
tions have kept this amount available to 
the present time. 

ENGINEERING FEATURES 

The proposed impounding dam will be 
a triple arch concrete structure with a 
maximum height for the central arch of 
52 feet from rock foundation to top of 
dam, and a total length, across the stream, 
of 380 feet, requiring in its construction 
5,500 cubic yards of concrete. This dam 
will raise the stream level 40 feet. Test- 
ing of the foundations by pits and dia- 
mond drill indicates good rock at shallow 
depths. The dam is to be of ample 
section to withstand overflow to an esti- 
mated maximum depth of 10 feet over the 
central arch, the other arches to be built 
above flood levels. Release of storage 
will be controlled by two simple slide 
gates. 

CONSTRUCTION COST (ESTIMATED) 

Dam $135, 000 

Right of way for reservoir flow- 
age and dam 42, 000 

Previous investigations and re- 
ports 12,000 

Foundation testing 5,000 

Contingencies 6, 000 



200, 000 
Very truly yours, 

RAY LYMAN WILBUR. 

Approved, March 18, 1931. 

HERBERT HOOVER, 

President. 



May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



95 



Gradual Expansion of Irrigated Area Not Injurious to Agriculture 

in Nonirrigated Sections 



By John W. Haw, Director of Agriculture, Northern Pacific Railroad 



THE 1930 census just completed 
brings to light startling facts rela- 
tive to rapid population growth of the 
States of the Pacific slope. The seven 
States of this region, consisting of Wash- 
ington, Idaho, Oregon, California, Utah', 
Arizona and Nevada had a population at 
the time of the 1920 census of 6,859,702. 
The 1930 census announces a population 
for this identical area of 9,661,900, an 
increase of 2,802,198, or a percentage 
increase of 40.8. The United States as 
a whole increased 16,987,570 during this 
period, or only 16.1 per cent. 

Further emphasizing the rapidity and 
the character of the population growth in 
this area as compared with the rest of the 
country, immigration statistics show a 
net average increase in population by 
admission and departure of aliens of 247,- 
778 for each of the last five years, and in 
the report of the Commissioner General 
of Immigration, the following statement 
is found: 

"One-half of the new arrivals, or 50 
per cent, settled in the States of the 
North Atlantic group; 21.1 per cent in 
the North Central States; 1.6 per cent in 
the South Atlantic States; 12.6 per cent 
in the South Central States, and only 

12.7 per cent in the Western States." 
Thus, although growth of population in 

the United States in the last 10 years 
from immigration has amounted to 
approximately 3,000,000, these aliens 
largely remained east of the Rocky 
Mountains and settled down principally 
in the States along the Atlantic seaboard, 
a very small percentage filtering through 
to the Pacific Coast States to add to 
population growth in that area. The 

40.8 per cent growth in population, there- 
fore, becomes even more significant as we 
understand that responsibility for the 
16.1 per cent growth in the country as a 
whole was to an extent dependent upon 
immigration, of which the Pacific slope 
had but a small share. 

Undoubtedly, this drift of our native 
population to the Pacific coast in search 
of better opportunities, more satisfactory 
living conditions, and a more equable 
climate, will continue at an accelerated 
pace since during the decade 1910 to 1920, 
population growth in the same area was 
only 30 per cent. 

AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION AN 
ECONOMIC NECESSITY 

The problem of expanding agricultural 
production in this general area to meet 
the food requirements of its own people 



resolves itself largely into one of reclaim- 
ing arid land by irrigation. It is not a 
flight of fancy to say that the population 
of the Pacific Slope States will be close to 
20,000,000 in 1950, but such further 
growth is destined to continue unabated 
only provided the great staple food 
requirements of its people can be met 
from a production reasonably near at 
hand. Any policy of curtailing irriga- 
tion expansion will throttle this growth, 
just as surely as industrial development 
is migrating from the East Coast, west 
and south in search of cheap food. 

During the last five years, it has been 
very evident to students of traffic that 
the breaking point between west and 
east bound shipments of the great staple 
food crops on western railroads is being 
pushed further east as Pacific coast 
demands have rapidly expanded. Pota- 
toes and corn, pork and pork products, 
dairy products, particularly butter, feed 
grains and an increasing volume of wheat, 
now move to the Pacific coast markets 
from States in the Mississippi Valley. 
The Pacific Coast consumer is thus more 
and more forced to pay mid- West prices 
plus transportation costs on many staple 
food products. 

IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE HAS DUAL 
ROLE 

Irrigated agriculture has a logical dual 
r&le in provision of this nation's food 
supply. First it should supply such 
staples as potatoes, wheat, dairy products, 
as well as fruits, vegetables, berries, nuts 
and other specialties to the people residing 
west of the Continental Divide. Since 
irrigated agriculture would receive on 
bulky, comparatively low-value staple 
products, the eastern market price, less 
transportation costs, the middle western 
farmer has nothing to fear from such a 
program. With a population growth in 
this area of nearly 3,000,000 in the last 
decade, and an estimated increase of 
4,000,000 or 5,000,000 in the decade 
just ahead, a very large expansion of 
production will be necessary merely to 
provide staple food articles for the local 
western market. For instance the aver- 
age American eats 3 bushels of potatoes 
and 16.9 pounds of butter per annum. 
If we figure merely a 4,000,000 population 
increase in the next 10 years, this area will 
require 12,000,000 additional bushels of 
potatoes and 67,000,000 pounds of butter. 
There would be required 400,000 addi- 
tional cows to provide such butter require- 
ment, and a production from at least 



75,000 additional acres of potatoes. 
Considering the array of other food articles 
consumed annually by 4,000,000 people, 
it would seem conservative to estimate 
that 1,000,000 additional irrigated acres 
must be brought under cultivation in the 
next 10 years in this region, if the Pacific 
slope is merely to be self-sufficient 
agriculturally. 

The second part of the dual role of 
irrigated agriculture concerns the pro- 
vision of fruits, vegetables, berries, nuts 
and specialized agricultural products 
which either it is impossible to produce at 
all, or which can not be produced at 
certain seasons in the territory east of 
the Continental Divide. 

YEAR-AROUND AGRICULTURAL PROGRAM 

The American's diet now demands a 
year-around supply of quality products 
of the character indicated. Irrigation 
projects interspersed through the valleys 
west of the Continental Divide, from the 
Mexican to the Canadian line, with an 
extensive range of climate and soil con- 
ditions, are gradually articulating their 
production into the general scheme of a 
year-around supply of such products for 
the Nation. The handicap of trans- 
portation charges practically prohibits 
competition with the same products of 
equal quality produced east of the 
Divide and put on the market at the 
same time. Thus western irrigation proj- 
ect production of these crops is gradually 
filling in the seasonal gaps in a year- 
around program of supplying these 
present-day indispensable food articles to 
the American public. There is now an 
extensive refrigerator-car movement of 
head lettuce, green peas, asparagus and 
forced rhubarb from projects located in 
the Pacific Northwest in off seasons to 
the large centers of consumption on the 
eastern coast. There is even movement 
at certain seasons from this area into 
Florida and Texas, which at other seasons 
of the year supplies the market. Such 
movement would not take place were 
there no unsatisfied demand for standard, 
dependable grades, attractively packaged, 
of certain high-quality products which 
the balance of the country could not, or 
at least is not, providing. It is incon- 
ceivable that the consuming public of 
this country desires other than that such 
production program be gradually ex- 
panded to meet the increase in demand 
occasioned by population growth and 
tendency of our diet toward increased 
consumption of such articles. With an 



96 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 11W 



estimated population growth in the next 
decade of nearly 20,000,000 people in this 
country, just how is this program of ade- 
quate supply to be maintained without 
extensive further irrigation development? 
Improved varieties, better culture and 
efficiency in production methods will 
accomplish something, but there must be 
in addition a tremendous acreage expan- 
sion if normal consumptive demands are 
to be met. 

What has been said with respect to 
supplying the country east of the Conti- 
nental Divide with fruits and vegetables 
can also be said with respect to both wool 
and beef cattle. We are definitely on an 
import basis with respect to both of these 
commodities. As demands for these 
products heretofore have increased, the 
country has been accustomed to look 
toward the western horizon as it has 
always been from the great range areas 
of the Mountain and Pacific Slope States 
that our supply of these products has 
originated. But, if production of these 
commodities is to increase, the area of 
land irrigated must be expanded, since 
the large limiting factor in connection 
with complete utilization of range areas 
in Western United States is fall and early 
spring pasturage and available feed for 
wintering breeding stock in the irrigated 
valleys at lower altitude, within trailing 
distance from the range. Alfalfa, hay, 
beet tops, pulp and molasses, together 
with barley and oats, constitute such 
winter feed, but its takes irrigated land 
in this section to produce these crops. 

WESTERN LIVESTOCK MARKETS 

As further indicating the manner in 
which consumption is running away from 
production west of the Continental 
Divide, let us take the live hog and 
dressed pork situation. In 1929, 9,727 
carloads of live hogs, consisting of 
875,400 head, were moved into the State 
of California by common carriers, for 
slaughter. This is 55 per cent of all the 



live hogs slaughtered in that State. 
These shipments largely originated east 
of the Continental Divide and largely in 
the States of Kansas and Nebraska. In 



WATER SUPPLY CONDITIONS 

March was generally cold and ac- 
companied by light storms, which 
added but little to the already deficient 
snow cover. Heavy storms at the end 
of the month throughout Oregon, 
Washington, and western Idaho, very 
materially improved water supply 
prospects for this region. 

Snow cover in the mountain regions 
at the end of the month was generally 
much below normal and, being ac- 
cumulated largely in late winter, lacks 
the density desirable for maintained 
stream flow. Heavy shortages in late 
season will be common except where 
projects are fortified with storage re- 
serves. Bureau projects are generally 
so prepared with indications that no 
heavy shortages are expected, although 
in some cases waters will have to be 
conserved to avoid crop losses, while in 
a few cases such as Yakima and 
Okanogan, minor crop loss appears 
unavoidable even with the best of care. 

A killing frost near the end of the 
month did considerable damage to 
fruit on the Carlsbad and Rio Grande 
projects. 

For reservoirs with concurrent data 
available, the storage contents on 
March 81, 1931, were 3,880,000 acre 
feet, compared with 4,720,000 acre 
feet for the same date in 1930. These 
amounts exclude American Fall* 
Reservoir, where storage on hand does 
not clearly reflect requirements. 



the case of the Oregon markets, 29 per 
cent of all the slaughter hogs in Oregon 
originated in Idaho, 9 per cent in Mon- 
tana and 6 per cent in North and South 



Dakota. Livestock markets in Washing- 
ton received 250,000 head of hogs from 
outside the State, and in addition im- 
ported 12,000,000 pounds of green, 
frozen and cured pork products. It is a 
known fact that the Pacific coast con- 
sumer of pork and pork products pays 
now and will continue to pay Middle 
West prices plus carrying charges from 
Missouri River markets. 

There is every reason to feel concern 
as to whether the irrigated area of this 
country can be expanded with sufficient 
rapidity to meet the demand for irrigated 
farm products. The large, difficult irri- 
gation projects require many years for 
completion of surveys, economic and 
engineering, for construction of reservoirs, 
canals and other structural works, and 
additional years for securing sound settle- 
ment. Experience shows that it requires 
from eight to ten years in the case of a 
small project and 20 to 25 years in the 
case of a large project, before construction 
is completed, settlement secured and the 
farmers have found themselves agricul- 
turally and are making any substantial 
contribution of farm products beyond 
their own horizon. 

In conclusion there is nothing static 
about agricultural production. It is as 
migratory as industry, shifting with 
exhaustion of fertility, population growth, 
ebb and flow of export demand, changing 
human food and clothing requirements, 
transportation facilities, and develop- 
ment in preservation and refrigeration. 
Close students of economic geography 
see in all these shifts a necessity for at 
least a modest program of expansion of 
our irrigated lands west of the Continental 
Divide. It would seem far-sighted states- 
manship for the Government to adopt a 
policy that would keep ahead of, certainly 
abreast of, demand for the products which 
irrigated agriculture alone can produce 
and in step with development of its own 
natural west coast market. 




OWTHEE DAM, OWYHEE PROJECT, OREGON-IDAHO 

Construction 56 rer cent complete 



May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



97 



The Reason Why Federal Reclamation Should Be Continued 



NUMEROUS requests have been 
received recently by the Bureau of 
Reclamation for a concise statement that 
will present the economic conditions of 
the West which appear to justify contin- 
uing the present conservative policy of 
Federal reclamation, particularly in view 
of the depressed agricultural situation 
and the agitation for a reduced cropped 
acreage. Knowledge of western condi- 
tions will demonstrate the fallacy of 
applying a national yardstick to regional 
problems. 

The arid States have necessities of their 
own, different from the States where 
moisture for agriculture comes from rain. 
In these States agriculture and other 
industries depend on conserving and using 
the flow of streams. In this region, 
which embraces nearly one-third of the 
United States, mining, manufacturing, 
and the satisfactory use of the grazing 
land depend on irrigation development. 

Irrigated farming has been the chief 
factor in building up the cities and in- 
dustries of the arid region. In doing that 
it has created a market for the manufac- 
tured products of the humid States that 
more than counteracts any competition 
it may offer to the agriculture of the rest 



By Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner of Reclamation 

of the country. One has only to think of 
what this country would be if the whole 
arid zone were without irrigation, and one 
has to have only a cursory understanding 
of what is going on in that country, to know 
that the cities and towns of that region 
are growing fast and are creating a larger 
market for agricultural products than the 
irrigated region supplies. It has not then, 
as a region of its own, a surplus of agri- 
cultural products, and while it suffers 
from the prevailing low prices, it does not 
contribute to the low prices of the East. 
On the contrary, the very restricted irri- 
gation development going on in the West 
is contributing to agricultural recovery in 
the East. 

The area supplied with water from Fed- 
eral irrigation works is less than 1 per cent 
of the farmed area of the whole country. 
One good rain in the Mississippi Valley 
adds more to the surplus than all the prod- 
ucts of the little widely scattered oases 
irrigated from Federal works. 

The money for construction of Federal 
reclamation works comes from payments 
made by irrigators on completed works, 
the small amount of money which comes 
from land sales, and from a part of the 
leases from Government oil lands. This is 



not enough to enable the Government to 
complete in 15 years projects that were 
under way in 1927. Meantime the eco- 
nomic welfare of the arid region requires 
the taking on in a conservative way of 
projects where valuable water supplies are 
going to waste and where communities 
are languishing because of the need of an 
adequate local food supply. 

In regard to the increased taxable value 
of land arising from the construction of 
reclamation projects, it has to be recog- 
nized that the cities and towns on those 
projects are as much a creation of the 
irrigation canal as the farm itself. Over a 
large area of the West, whatever values 
exist are the creation of irrigation, and 
that includes the towns as well as the 
farms. The yearly crop values on recla- 
mation projects now practically equal the 
entire construction costs. Without irri- 
gation these would be worthless unpeopled 
deserts. The actual repayment of the 
money spent by the Government will be 
completed on some of these projects in 
two years. It will be repaid on all now 
building within the next 50 years. No 
investment of the Government has brought 
to the Nation a larger social and economic 
return. 



Articles on Irrigation and Related Subjects 



Hoover Dam: 

Contract to build Boulder (Hoover) 
Dam is largest ever let by Nation. 
Illus. Signatures. U. S. Daily, 
March 12, 1931, v. 6, pp. 1, 9 (pp. 87, 
95). 

Big figures in the news (Hoover Dam 
award). Eng. News-Record, March 
12, 1931, v. 106, pp. 425, 455. 

Award of Boulder (Hoover) Dam con- 
tract put through in record time. 
Southwest Builder and Contractor, i 
March 13, 1931, v. 77, pp. 51-52 
(editorial, p. 45). 

Construction starts soon on Hoover 
Dam. Illus. Power, March 17, 1931. 
v. 73, pp. 432-436. 

Bids and engineers' estimates of cost. 
Tabulation. Western Construction 
News, March 25, 1931, v. 6, pp. 156- 
157. 
State Engineers: 

Status of water development in the 11 
Western States. Symposium by 
Messrs. Bartholet, Malone, Hyatt, 
Carter, Stricklin, James, Hinderlider, 
Bacon, Whiting, Yeo, and Trott. 
Engineering News-Record, March 12, 
1931, v. 106, pp. 428-431. 



Los Angeles Aqueduct: 

Colorado River Aqueduct route selected 
for metropolitan district of southern 
California. Illus. Western Con- 
struction News, January 10, 1931, v. 
6, pp. 21-22, 44. 
Owyhee Dam: 

Foundation procedure at Owyhee Dam. 
Long illustrated article. Eng. News- 
Record, January 29, 1931, v. 106, pp. 
178-182. 
Westergaard, H. M.: 

Arch dam analysis by trial loads simpli- 
fied. Diagrams. Eng. News-Record, 
January 22, 1931, v. 106, pp. 141-143. 
Weymouth, F. E.: 

Colorado River Aqueduct. Illus. Civil 
Engineering, February, 1931, v. 1, 
pp. 371-376. 
Darlington, E. B.: 

Wholesale blasting on the Minidoka 
reclamation project. Engineering 
and Contracting, March, 1931, v. 70, 
p. 74. 
Scott, W. A.: 

Colorado River Aqueduct for the Los 
Angeles metropolitan district. Map. 
The American City, April, 1931, v. 44, 
pp. 86-88. 



Lane, E. W.: 

Great Min River irrigation project 
(China). Illus. Civil Engineering, 
February, 1931, v. 1, pp. 307-400. 
DeBoer, S. R.: 

Boulder City, the proposed model town 
near the Hoover Dam. Plans. The 
American City, February, 1931, v. 44, 
pp. 146-149. 

Boulder City, Government's model 
town, to rise on the Nevada Desert. 
Illus. Western City, March, 1931, 
v. 7, pp. 16-19. 
Birdseye, C. H.: 

Photographic surveys of Hoover Dam 
site. Illus. Civil Engineering, April, 
1931, v. 1, pp. 619-624. 
Schuyler, Philip: 

A trip to Denver, Las Vegas, Hoover 
Dam site, etc. (opening bids Hoover 
Dam) . Western Construction News, 
March 25, 1931, v. 6, p. 152-155. 
Henny, D. C.: 

Problems in concrete dam design. 
Illus. Engineering News-Record, 
March 12, 1931, v. 106, pp. 431-435. 

Jardine, James T.: 

Economic aspects of land reclamation in 
eastern Oregon. Illus. Engineering 
News-Record, March 12, 1931, v. 106, 
pp. 441-443. 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1831 



By P. W. DENT, Asst. Commissioner 




Irrigation District Taxes under California Law 

Decision of Attorney General of California 



THE following is a copy of a letter 
from Hon. U. S. Webb, attorney 
general of California: 

SAN FRANCISCO, September 27, 1930. 
Hon. GUARD C. DARRAH, 

District Attorney, San Joaquin County, 
Stockton, Calif. 

DEAR SIR: I have before me your letter 
of September 17, reading as follows: 

"In the South Side irrigation district in 
the county of San Joaquin there is con- 
siderable property which has been sold 
and stands in the name of the State of 
California. This property has a great 
amount of county taxes and irrigation 
taxes and assessments against it. The 
directors, along with their attorney, John 
Hancock, have called upon this office stat- 
ing that there is a possibility that a new 
clover, if planted, will allow the property 
to be of considerable value, and put it 
back upon a paying basis, and also make it 
taxable property. 

' ' However, the county taxes and the 
irrigation taxes are so great that no pur- 
chasers can be secured. The irrigation 
district directors are willing to enter into a 
compromise for the amount of the back 
taxes. Mr. Hancock informed me that 
about 12 years ago the attorney general's 
office worked out a compromise of county 
and State taxes upon property known as 
the Royal Consolidated Mines in Cal- 
averas County, and pursuant to the sug- 
gestions of the attorney general a court 
action was brought and the tax properly 
compromised. It would be of consider- 
able benefit to the county of San Joaquin, 
and also to the public, if some form or 
manner of means could be secured in order 
to compromise taxes past due. Could you 
kindly advise the present writer as to the 
proceedings or status that were followed 
in that case. Unless the back taxes are 
compromised, the county and State will 
receive no benefit at all and the land will 
remain perpetually abandoned. This of 
course is a great detriment to land in 
irrigation districts." 



A recent investigation by this office into 
the question of the status of lands in 
irrigation districts and of the relative 
priorities of tax liens as between the State 
and the district has forced us to the con- 
clusion that under section 48 of the Cali- 
fornia irrigation district act, a sale by the 
district of land acquired by it through de- 
linquent district assssments vests a title 
in the purchaser free and clear of any lien 
for county taxes. 

In other words, the lien for county taxes 
becomes merged in the title acquired by 
the district, and when the district sells the 
property a clear title is conveyed and the 
county taxes for previous years are thereby 
wiped out. Of course, when the property 
passes into private ownership through the 
sale by the district it again becomes sub- 
ject to taxation for county purposes. 

On the other hand, a sale by the State 
under section 3787 of the Political Code 
does not wipe out or impair a prior or sub- 
sequent deed based upon an irrigation dis- 
trict levy, but the purchaser from the 
State takes title subject to the lien of the 
district for its assessments. (Bolton v. 
Terra Bella Irrigation District 289 Pac. 
678, decided June 9, 1930, by the District 
Court of Appeal for the Fourth Appellate 
District.) 

The intention of the legislature in so 
providing may have been to meet such a 
situation as you have described and to 
make it possible for property to get a new 
start, so to speak, as taxable property. 

It appears that the assessment levied by 
the district which is latest in point of time 
is the assessment under which the property 
should be offered for sale. (Woodill & 
Hulsc Electric Co. v. Young, 180 Cal. 667.) 

Applying the foregoing observations to 
the situation referred to by you it would 
appear that the only practical way out of 
the difficulty is for the district to proceed 
to sell the lands in question for such price 
as it may obtain and to convey to the pur- 
chaser a title free and clear of encum- 
brances. The property will then again 



become liable for future county taxes as 
well as for future assessments levied by 
the district. 

I note your reference to the Royal Con- 
solidated Mines (Ltd.) case, and in that 
connection will state that under date of 
July 31, 1915, an opinion was rendered by 
this office to the district attorney of Cal- 
averas County covering the situation then 
existing in regard to unpaid taxes by that 
company. 

A transcript of the county records was 
furnished us from which it appeared that 
the property of the company was assessed 
by the proper county officials in 1904; the 
taxes remaining unpaid, the property was 
marked delinquent and was sold to the 
State in 1905, and a certificate of sale exe- 
cuted by the tax collector, and in 1910 a 
deed to the State was executed. In the 
meantime the property had been assessed 
for the years 1905 to 1909, inclusive. 

After 1909 the property was not assessed 
as it had been deeded to the State. Owing 
to deficiencies and irregularities in the 
assessment of 1904 this office concluded 
that the assessment was void and the sale 
nugatory, and that any action by the 
State to collect the taxes that had accrued 
would be defeated. 

On the other hand it was held that the 
property owners were without statutory 
authority to bring an action against the 
State to quiet the title. 

Certain propositions were made for a 
settlement but eventually an action was 
brought by the State comptroller under 
section 3773 of the Political Code to 
secure possession of the property and the 
rents, issues and profits therefrom, upon 
the allegation that since July 12, 1910 
(the date of the deed to the State), the 
State had been the owner of the property. 
The trial court rendered judgment for 
the defendant and in addition found as a 
conclusion of law that the plaintiff had 
no right, title or interest in the property. 

The case was appealed to the supreme 
court and its decision reversing the judg- 



May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



99 



ment of the trial court may be found in 
187 Cal. Reports, at page 343. 

I assume that the county taxes to 
which you refer were based upon valid 
assessments, and that being the case, I do 
not know of any statutory authority for 
remitting the taxes or compromising them. 
It has been held that attempted cancella- 
tion of taxes lawfully levied and assessed 
upon property not exempt under the 
constitution are unconstitutional and 
void. (City of Oakland v. Whipple, 44 
Cal. 303; Wilson v. Supervisors, 47 Cal. 
91; Whitney v. Town of West Point, 15 
L. R. A. 860; Constitution, sec. 13, Art. 
XI.) 

It would appear, therefore, that the 
only method of procedure is through a 
sale by the district, as above pointed out. 
This may result in a great hardship to 
the county, but perhaps the result will 
be beneficial in the long run, inasmuch as 
the property will again become subject 
to the levy of assessments for county 
purposes, and the new owner may be 
more successful in operating the prop- 
erty than former owners have been. 



Order to Pioneer Contested 
by Railroad 

An order of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission (Public Service Commission 
of Oregon v. Central Pacific Railroad Co., 
et al., 159 I. C. C. 630) requiring the 
Union Pacific Railroad Co. to pioneer in 
central Oregon with a line of road through 
Bend, paralleling its Columbia Gorge 
line, blazes a trail in the field of law. 
Heretofore similar orders for spur tracks 
and short connecting lines have been held 
to be within the powers of the commission 
under the transportation act of 1920. 

The railroad company, contending the 
order usurps the power of its board of 
directors in designating where and how 
the investment of its stockholders may 
be expended, has brought an injunction 
against execution of the order, in which 
action the Southern Pacific has intervened 
claiming the proposed new road is not 
only unjustified by the revenue pros- 
pects from the territory to be served, 
but is so competitive with the lines of 
the Southern Pacific as to reduce the 
latter's earnings below a fair return. 

The action is now under advisement 
by the United States District Court for 
the District of Oregon, argument having 
been recently submitted before a special 
court consisting of United States District 
Judges Bean and McNary, and the late 
Frank S. Dietrich, a former judge of the 
Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. The 
subsequent demise of Judge Dietrich will 
doubtless require a new trial. 

The final outcome of the case is anxious- 
ly awaited by settlers under several of 
the irrigation projects of eastern and 



Recently Enacted Legislation 



CONTRACT WITH RIO GRANDE PROJECT 

[PUBLIC RESOLUTION No. 127 71sT 
CONGRESS] 

[S. J. Res. 222J 

JOINT RESOLUTION Relating to the authority of 
the Secretary of the Interior to enter into a contract 
with the Rio Grande project 

That nothing contained in the act ap- 
proved May 28, 1928 (45 Stat. 785), enti- 
tled "An act extending the time of con- 
struction payments on the Rio Grande 
Federal irrigation project, New Mexico- 
Texas," shall be construed to deny au- 
thority to the Secretary of the Interior to 
enter into a contract with the Elephant 
Butte irrigation district of New Mexico 
and/or El Paso County Water Improve- 
ment District Numbered 1, of Texas, in 
accordance with the provisions of the act 
approved May 25, 1926 (44 Stat. 636), 
and/or the act approved December 5, 
1924 (43 Stat. 672). 

Approved, March 3, 1931. 



SATURDAY HALF HOLIDAYS 

[PUBLIC No. 783 71sT CONGRESS] 

[S. 471] 

AN ACT Providing for Saturday half holidays for 
certain Government employees 

That on and after the effective date of 
this act four hours, exclusive of time for 
luncheon, shall constitute a day's work on 
Saturdays throughout the year, with pay 
or earnings for the day the same as on 
other days when full time is worked, for 
all civil employees of the Federal Govern- 
ment and the District of Columbia, exclu- 
sive of employees of the Postal Service, 
employees of the Panama Canal on the 
Isthmus, and employees of the Interior 
Department in the field, whether on the 



hourly, per diem, per annum, piecework, 
or other basis : Provided, That in all cases 
where for special public reasons, to be 
determined by the head of the depart- 
ment or establishment having supervision 
or control of such employees, the services 
of such employees can not be spared, such 
employees shall be entitled to an equal 
shortening of the workday on some other 
day: Provided further, That the provi- 
sions of this act shall not deprive em- 
ployees of any leave or holidays with pay 
to which they may now be entitled under 
existing laws. 

Approved, March 3, 1931. 



ADVANCES TO RECLAMATION FUND 
[PUBLIC No. 822 71sT CONGRESS] 

[S. 6046] 

AN ACT To authorize advances to the reclamation 
fund, and for other purposes 

That the Secretary of the Treasury is 
authorized, upon request of the Secretary 
of the Interior and upon approval of the 
President, to transfer from time to time to 
the credit of the reclamation fund created 
by the act of June 17, 1902 (32 Stat. L. 
388), such sum or sums, not exceeding in 
the aggregate $5,000,000, as the Secretary 
of the Interior may deem necessary for 
the construction and operation of recla- 
mation projects authorized under said act 
of June 17, 1902, and now under way, and 
acts amendatory thereof or supplementary 
thereto. 

SEC. 2. That reimbursement of the 
moneys so advanced under the provisions 
of this act shall be made by transfer 
annually of the sum of $1,000,000 from 
the reclamation fund to the general funds 
in the Treasury, beginning July 1, 1933. 

Approved, March 3, 1931. 



THE State Highway Department of 
Colorado has nearly completed the 
road through the Colorado River Canyon, 
Grand Valley project, which will shorten 
the present route to Denver by approxi- 
mately 9 miles. This road is also of inter- 
est to the project as it places the Colorado 
River diversion dam on the main highway. 

central Oregon and the Riverton proj- 
ect, Wyoming, in particular, as well as 
by members of the legal profession gener- 
ally, since it is apparently a case of first 
impression involving the constitutionality 
of the transportation act of 1920 under 
the "due process" clause of the fifth and 
fourteenth amendments to the Federal 
Constitution. (B. E. Stoutemyer, dis- 
trict counsel.) 



MAIL inquiries amounting to 107 
were received during the month by 
the Vale-Owyhee Government Projects 
Land Settlement Association, and 22 in- 
terested persons called at the office rela- 
tive to project lands. A number of in- 
quiries was also received at the project 
office. Several additional families have 
settled on the Bully Creek West Bench 
Unit and preparations are under way for 
farming the land this season. 



THE potato mill of the Otato Cor- 
poration on the Minidoka project 
was given a short preliminary run during 
the month, with very satisfactory results. 
A carload of potato flour was shipped 
east for testing and sampling. 



100 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1931 



By C. A.BISSELL, Chief, Engineering Division 




Morrison Canyon Siphon, Yatyma Project, Washington 
Design, Construction and Deflection Tests 



By Peter Bier, Engineer, Denoer Office, Bureau of Reclamation 



MORRISON Canyon siphon is one 
of nine inverted siphons built on 
the main canal of the Kittitas division 
of the Yakima project in Washington. 
It is located about 9 mines east of Cle 
Elum, at canal station 1262-81, and 
forms a connection across Morrison 
Canyon between concrete-lined rock and 
earth sections. The canyon has very 
steep slopes overlaid mostly with un- 
stable slide rock and dips down for about 
250 feet to its bottom. 

DESCRIPTION AND DESIGN DATA 

The siphon has a designed carrying 
capacity of 1,145 second-feet, with a uni- 
form diameter of 12 feet 1 inch through- 
out its entire length of 992 feet. It is a 
combination monolithic reinforced-con- 
crete and riveted-steel pipe structure, 
the concrete pipe being carried down to 
about 110-foot head. The maximum 
static head is 234 feet. The diameter 
of the pipe was determined by the avail- 
able head of 3.68 feet, or the difference 
between computed water surfaces of in- 
let and outlet ends of the siphon. Losses 
in head at 10 feet velocity and with 
Kutters n=.014 for the pipe, plus tran- 
sition and bend losses, are approximately 
equal to the head available. 

CONCRETE PIPE AND TRANSITIONS 

Figure 1 shows the plan and profile 
of the siphon, with details of the concrete 
inlet and outlet transitions and pipe 
sections. The concrete pipe is mono- 
lithic in construction with a mix of 
1:2:3.25, dry rodded and a 1J4 per cent 
admixture of diatomaceous silica for 
heads up to 100 feet. For heads over 
100 feet a mix of 1:1.7:2.8 dry rodded 
was used, without any admixture. Dia- 
tomaceous silica was added to the leaner 
mixture primarily for workability, but 
it also effected improvement in water- 
tightness. 

Continuous barrel forms were used for 
both inner and outer forms. The inner 
form consisted of a number of circular 
ribs made up of 2-inch boards with a 
facing of 2-inch tongue and groove 



staves. The inside forms were supported 
on concrete cradles placed about 8 feet 
centers, with the top of each at the in- 
vert elevation of the pipe. 

The specifications required that the 
pipe barrel should be poured in sections 
of the longest practicable dimensions 
and without horizontal construction 
joints. As 30 feet of length was found 
to represent an average day's work for the 
concrete crews employed on the siphons, 
construction joints approximately 30 feet 
apart were provided for. 

The pipe barrels are reinforced with 
steel hoops made in two pieces, lapped 40 
diameters at quarter points, two rows 
of transverse hoops being used for the 
higher heads. Splices in the longitudinal 
temperature steel were staggered. The 
total length of the concrete pipe is 444 
feet. The ends are enlarged for the 
welded steel expansion sleeves, which 
were used as a form and concreted in 
when pouring the last sections of the 
concrete pipe. 

After removal of the forms, which was 
not less than 14 days after pouring, the 
interior of the siphon was finished with 
carborundum bricks to remove projec- 
tions and rough spots caused by imper- 
fections in forms, thus securing a very 
smooth inside finish. 

The inlet and outlet transitions for 
the siphon were designed and propor- 
tioned to conserve head in accordance 
with the usual practices of the bureau. 
They are properly reinforced for outside 
earth pressures and provided with about 
0.3 per cent longitudinal steel for tem- 
perature stresses. 

STEEL PIPE 

Profile and details of the steel pipe 
used for the siphon are shown in Figure 
2. This steel pipe is 552 feet long and 
connects at both ends to the concrete 
pipe by means of sleeve expansion joints. 
Graphited flax packing, tightened by 
angle gland rings, is used in the expan- 
sion joints to prevent leakage. 

The steel pipe has a uniform inside 
diameter of 12 feet 1 inch and is made of 



copper bearing steel plates 100 inches 
wide, varying in thickness from seven- 
sixteenths to three-quarters inch, in 
accordance with the pressure head. The 
pipe was designed for a working stress of 
12,000 pounds per square inch, with a 
uniform thickness of one-sixteenth inch 
added for corrosion. All pipe courses 
are made from two plates, which were 
sheared, beveled, and drilled for rivet 
holes. The plates were then rolled in the 
shop, and reamed, riveted, and calked 
in the field. All calking was done on the 
outside of the pipe. The plates were 
also required to be planed at the longi- 
tudinal joints and trimmed to true lines 
at the ends. All rivet holes were drilled 
one thirty-second inch larger than rivet 
diameter in the shop, and reamed to one- 
sixteenth larger than rivet diameter in 
the field. The rivets range in size from 
% to l}i-inches. Triple butt-riveted longi- 
tudinal joints are used for the J^-inch 
plates and quadruple butt-riveted joints 
for all the other plates. All girth joints 
are double butt riveted with a single out- 
side strap. All plates up to and includ- 
ing nine-sixteenth inch are stiffened 
against collapse by angle rings. 

The siphon can be drained by an 8-inch 
extra heavy gate valve which is connected 
to its lowest section. Accumulations of 
sand deposits in the bottom of the lowest 
section of the pipe may be removed 
through the manhole located there after 
the water is drained. 

PIERS AND ANCHORAGE 

The steel pipe is supported on concrete 
piers spaced from 30 to 40 feet center to 
center. They are provided with graphited 
steel slide plates to reduce the friction 
force due to temperature movements of 
the pipe. The piers are designed for a 
horizontal overturning force equal to 
the weight of pipe and water supported 
on it, multiplied by the friction coefficient 
which was assumed at 0.50. The piers 
at the bottom of the canyon are about 18 
feet high and it required some 35 cubic 
yards of concrete, heavily reinforced, 
to provide safe support for the 275 tons 



May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



101 



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MORRISON CANYON SIPHON 
STEEL PIP -PROFILE AND BENDS 



- ..JL..A--^ /?] T 

r*'- o Kb-JhiMMU*' 1 




'of vertical load and 80J4 tons of hori- 
zontal force. 

A single concrete anchor is placed at 
the right hand bend in the lower section. 
This stabilizes the steel pipe at this point 
allowing it to expand or contract freely 
on each side toward the expansion joints. 
This provision for free movement of the 
steel pipe is necessary in order to prevent 

5195331 2 



excessive temperature stresses in the steel 
plate and possible rupture at the girth 
joints. 

The anchor used is a new type developed 
first for this pipe to reduce concrete yard- 
age in comparison with the typical anchor 
which is poured entirely around the pipe. 
It was designed for an unbalanced hori- 
zontal force of 160 tons and rests on solid 



rock, requiring about 60 cubic yards of 
concrete, using a sliding coefficient of 
0.65. The pipe bend is provided with 
angle rings and heavy bolts for its con- 
nection to the anchor. The piers and the 
anchor were constructed first and grouted 
to the finished elevations or the bottom 
of the pipe after erection of the latter. 
Figure 3 shows the arrangement of the 



102 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1931 



supporting piers and the concrete anchor 
at the bottom of the canyon. 

CONSTRUCTION 

The work on the siphon was done under 
two general contracts. E. A. Webster & 
Co., of Seattle, Wash., had the contract 
for all earthwork, concrete structures, and 
installation of expansion joints. The 
Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co. fur- 
nished and erected all the steel pipe for 
the siphon. The expansion joints were 
fabricated by the Willamette Iron Works, 
of Portland, Oreg. 

The contractors' earnings were as fol- 
lows: 

For all earth and concrete work, 
including placing of reinforc- 
ing bars $61,793 

For the steel pipe complete in 

place 40,545 

For placing the expansion joint 

sleeves.. 446 



Total contract earnings. . 102, 784 

The quantities were as follows: 

Cubic yards of concrete 2, 030 

Cubic yards of excavation ... 13, 117 

Cubic yards of back fill (of which 
286 cubic yards were puddled or 

tamped) 573 

Tons of steel pipe 370 

The material for the 2,030 cubic yards 
of concrete, consisting of cement, aggre- 
gate, diatomaceous silica, and 315,060 
pounds of reinforcing steel, was furnished 
by the Government at a unit costof$10.11 
per cubic yard of concrete. The total cost 
to the Government of these materials, 
together with expansion joints, painting, 
etc., was $31,472, exclusive of overhead. 
The photograph (fig. 4) shows the unstable 
nature of the slide rock near the siphon. 
Excavation around the siphon caused 
some difficulty and was greatly increased 
due to raveling and sliding of this rock 
into excavated areas. 

All steel was painted after erection, 
using one coat of bituminous primer fol- 
lowed by one heavy coat of enamel, 



inside and out. The paint was furnished 
by the W. A. Briggs Bitumen Co. and 
was made in accordance with Navy 
Specification 52-B-10. 

The water test of the siphon was made 
when water for this purpose was available 
from the main canal. 

DEFLECTION TESTS 

In order to determine the behavior of 
the steel shell during the filling process, 
when the distortive moment is the great- 
est, a series of measurements were made 
on the pipe shell. The frames and plat- 
forms used for this purpose are shown in 
Figure 5. One frame was erected in the 
center of the span nearest the anchor and 
one over the first pier from the anchor, 
both on the horizontal pipe section at the 
bottom of the siphon. 

The measurements were taken at two 
different times, the first series in Novem- 
ber and December, 1929, the second 
series on April 29 and 30, 1930, when the 
siphon was being filled for the irrigation 
season of 1930. As the measurements of 
the second series were taken under better 
weather conditions and are considered 
more accurate, reference is made herein 
only to the figures obtained in these 
tests. The weather during the two days 
of testing was clear, with a temperature 
ranging from 38 to 69 Fahrenheit. The 
temperature of the water was 50 F. 

All water elevations below the top of 
the horizontal section of the pipe were 
obtained by the use of a manometer. 
This consisted of a glass tube inserted in 
a hose connected to the drain valve in the 
lower manhole cover and a level rod with 
zero at the invert elevation of the hori- 
zontal pipe section. All readings above 
the top of the horizontal pipe were 
obtained by means of a pressure gage, 
connected likewise to the valve in the 
manhole cover. The pressure gage read- 
ings were converted into pressures on the 
center of the pipe by the aid of a calibra- 
tion curve. No movement was detected 
at the measuring frames as checked by two 



transits, one set at right angles and one 
parallel to the center line of the pipe. 

The circumference of the pipe was meas- 
ured with a steel tape, wrapped around 
the pipe. The vertical diameter was 
measured by leveling between the top and 
bottom surfaces of the pipe at the measur- 
ing frames. The horizontal diameter was 
measured with the aid of two transits, one 
on each side of the pipe, so they could be 
sighted between the pipe and the side 
brackets attached to the measuring 
frames. The distance from the pipe to the 
lines of sight was measured with a steel 
rule. The lines of sight were then trans- 
ferred to the horizontal timber on the top 
of the measuring frame, and the sum of the 
two readings on the horizontal diameter 
subtracted from the direct reading 
between the lines of sight. 

Set-ups were made at the two piers near 
the anchor on the horizontal pipe section 
to measure the longitudinal movement, 
using the edge of a butt strap as one meas- 
uring point and the edge of the pier as the 
other. The water surface was kept as 
near constant as possible. Pressure head 
readings were taken at the beginning and 
end of each set of micrometer readings. 

The results of the measurements are 
shown graphically in the deflection curves, 
Figures 6, 7, and 8. Checks on horizontal 
and vertical diameters indicated an accu- 
racy of about 0.005 feet in the direct 
measurements of these dimensions. Re- 
peated measurements checked the microm- 
eter readings within 0.0005 feet. Any 
movement of the frames could not have 
been over 0.005 feet or they would have 
been checked by the transits. 

Water depth is correct to within 0.05 
feet. As only two points were used to 
establish the gage calibration curve, 
pressure readings may be several pounds 
in error. The measurements for circum- 
ference were made with an accuracy of 
0.003 feet. 

The diameters at the head of 1.81 feet 
were taken as basic dimensions. Meas- 
urements of horizontal and vertical diam- 
eters of the pipe were made at this head. 




Steel pipe-supporting piers and concrete anchor 



May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



103 



Fig. 4 




I 



YAKIMA PROJECT. WASHINGTON 
KITTITAS DIVISION 

MORRISON CANYON SIPHON 




To obtain the diameter at any head or 
pressure the total change in the two 
opposite micrometer readings was calcu- 
lated in feet and added to the basic 
dimension. 

The beam deflection was calculated by 
assuming that the pipe as a whole moved 
in a vertical plane. With reference to the 
center line of the pipe the tendency of this 
movement was upward as the pressure 
increased in the pipe. Owing to the 
greater flattening effect at the piers in 
comparison with the center of the span, 
the increase in vertical diameter and 
corresponding rise of the center line with 
increased pressure is greater at the piers 
than in the center of the span. This 
accounts for the indicated rise of the 
pipe for pressures up to about 15 pounds 
per square inch as shown in Figure 8. 

The pipe diameter curves are all similar 
in shape. The pressure heads taken were 
hardly sufficient to obtain well-defined 
curves for water depths below full pipe. 



With reference to Figure 6, it may be 
noted that the horizontal diameter at the 
pier and in the center of the span is greater 
than the vertical diameter. When the 
water is turned into the pipe, it tends to 
flatten out, thereby increasing the hori- 
zontal diameter and at the same time 
decreasing the vertical diameter. As the 
pressure is increased up to about 30 
pounds there is a tendency for the pipe 
to be forced into a true circle. From 30 
to 55 pounds pressure the horizontal 
diameter at the center of the span shows 
a slight increase with a corresponding de- 
crease in the vertical diameter. Above 55 
pounds pressure, in the center of the span 
a stable condition apparently existed, as 
the changes in the horizontal and vertical 
diameters are very slight. At the pier the 
pipe continued to be forced into a true 
circle as the horizontal and vertical diam- 
eters continued to approach each other 
until the siphon was filled. For Figure 7 
the variations in horizontal and vertical 



diameters under heads up to 20 feet, are 
plotted to a larger scale. Figure 8 shows 
the changes in the circumference and beam 
deflection of the pipe under pressures up 
to 100 pounds per square inch. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The deflection curves for the pipe diam- 
eter established the fact that the distortive 
moment of the water in this pipe was the 
greatest at about 12-foot head or when 
the pipe was just full. As the head in- 
creased above this point the two diameters 
began to approach each other. 

The greater difference between hori- 
zontal and vertical diameters or the more 
pronounced flattening of the pipe at the 
piers may be explained by the greater 
bending moment at this point. The con- 
centrated reaction of the pier to the uni- 
form pipe and water load produces nega- 
tive moments which are approximately 
twice as large as the positive moments in 
the center of the span. 



104 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May. 



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It is assumed that for a pipe with a very 
thin shell the flattening would be much 
greater when the pipe is just filled, as 
has been experienced for the heavy Mor- 
rison Canyon pipe. The thin shelled pipe 
should also form a truer circle under the 
higher heads than pipes made of heavy 
plates. 

According to the beam deflection curve 
the circumference of the pipe increases 
from 38.359 feet at zero pressure to 
38.415 feet at 100-pound pressure. As the 
vertical diameter of the pipe increases up 
to about 40-pound pressure a correspond- 
ing rise can be seen in the center of the 
pipe as shown in the curve at the pier and 
the middle of the span, all in comparison 
with elevations at the basic head of 1.81 
feet. For pressures above 40 pounds the 
vertical diameter of the pipe apparently 
remained stationary and the beam de- 
flection shows positive values, as plotted 
on the curve. 

Considering that all values are relative 
the above deflections in diameters and 



beam effect would be of much more 
interest if they could be compared to 
similar deflection measurements made on 
other pipes. Deflection measurements on 
various large diameter pipes of thin shell 
and of pipe stiffened against collapse by 
angle rings should be of especial value in 
arriving at more definite conclusions re- 
garding safe limits in plate thickness and 
pier spacing. Figure 9 shows a view of 
the completed siphon. 

The construction and testing of the 
siphon was under the direction of Walker 
R. Young, construction engineer and V. 
W. Russell, division engineer. The de- 
flection measurements were made by 
George C. Imrie, associate engineer and 
W. H. Waldorf, assistant engineer. The 
principal designing work was done uuder 
the general supervision of J. L. Savage, 
chief designing engineer. All engineering 
and construction work is done under the 
general supervision of R. F. Walter, chief 
engineer, with headquarters at Denver 
and all activities of the bureau are in gen- 



eral charge of Dr. Elwood Mead, com- 
missioner, with headquarters at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



Secondary Projects 

The report on All-American Canal 
investigations, under a cooperative con- 
tract with the Imperial and Coachella 
Valley districts, has been completed in 
the Denver office. Studies of storage at 
the Twin Springs Reservoir site, Boise 
project, Idaho, are being made at Denver 
H. W. Bashore, now stationed at Spokane 
Wash., in charge of Columbia River 
Basin investigations, is making an investi- 
gation of the Rathdrum Prairie project. 
The report on the Alcova-Casper project, 
Wyoming, has been printed and is avail- 
able for distribution. Engineering and 
economic reports on the Saratoga project, 
Wyoming, are completed. 



May, 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



105 



Boulder City Buildings 
Approved 

Secretary Wilbur on April 7 approved 
preliminary sketches (see back cover) of 
three of the principal buildings to be 
erected by the Government in Boulder 
City, the administration building, post- 
office building, and the dormitory and 
guest house. Final plans are now being 
drawn in the Denver office and construc- 
tion will be started about June 15. The 
general construction of the administration 
building will consist of hollow brick walls 
stuccoed on the outside, concrete floors for 
the basement and first floor, and wood for 
the second floor. The basement will con- 
tain a garage for six cars and also a steam 
heating plant for both the administration 
building and the dormitory and guest 
house. An air conditioning plant will bo 
installed for cooling and ventilating pur- 
poses. The preliminary floor plan calls 
for a building 54 feet by 138 feet, two 
stories and basement. It is estimated 
that the building will cost $50,000. 

In the post office building will be quar- 
tered the post office, court room, jail, and 
offices of the United States marshal, city 
manager, city engineer, and city clerk. 
It will be one story and basement and cost 
about $35,000. All three buildings will 
follow the Spanish type of architecture. 

The dormitory and guest house will be 
similar in construction to the adminis- 
tration building, except that it will not 
have a basement or cooling system, but 
will have slatted doors and large windows 
to insure proper ventilation. The main 
building will be 31 feet by 130 feet with 
two ells each 35 feet by 50 feet. It will 
cost about $30,000 and will provide quar- 
ters for unmarried Government employees 
and also accommodate visitors to the 
project. 

Six Companies (Inc.) Pur- 
chase Materials 

A technical publication reports that the 
Six Companies (Inc.) have awarded a 
contract to the Ingersoll-Rand Co., total- 
ing approximately $750,000, for furnishing 
500 rock drills, compressors, and acces- 
sories for use on Hoover Dam construc- 
tion. The Crucible Steel Co. of America 
has received from the same contractors 
what is described as the largest order for 
rock drill steel recorded in the history of 
modern engineering construction. Re- 
quirements to be filled are approximately 
1 ,000 tons and first shipments are alread v 
on the way to the dam site from Pitts- 
burgh. All this material will be required 
this fall when the contractors start work 
on the four 50-foot diameter diversion 
tunnels involving 2,000,000 cubic yards 
of excavation. 



Notes for Contractors 



Belle Fourche project. On April 22, 
bids were opened at Newell, S. Dak., 
under specifications 520, for the construc- 
tion of approximately 43 miles of open 
drains and drainage structures incidental 
thereto. The work involves about 923,- 
000 cubic yards of excavation and is to 
be completed in 220 days. 

Boulder Canyon project. Bids were 
opened at Las Vegas, Nev., on March 13 
for the construction of 12 cottages 
(specifications 507-D). Alternative bids 
were received on a number of different 
types of construction from 17 building 
contractors. W. W. Dickerson of Lehi, 
Utah, was awarded the contract for build- 
ing six 4-room cottages, his bid being 
$12,655.50. Louis J. Bowers, of Salt 
Lake City, Utah, with a bid of $10,363.11, 
was awarded the contract for six 3-room 
houses. The Government furnishes the 
materials. These cottages will be of 
hollow brick wall construction. Bids 
were received in Denver on February 16 
for the furnishing of material for a steel 
frame warehouse 50 by 150 feet. The 
contract was awarded to the Edwards 
Manufacturing Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
whose bid was $2,775. Bids for the 
foundations, floor, and erection of the 
warehouse building were opened at Las 
Vegas, Nev., on March 31, and the contract 
awarded to Storm & Mahoney (Inc.), 
of Las Vegas, Nev., for the low bid of 
$3,135. Bids were opened in Denver on 
April 28 for the furnishing of material 
for two steel frame pumping plant build- 
ings, 16 feet by 30 feet, with stucco and 
corrugated asbestos walls. Plans and 
specifications for the construction of Gov- 
ernment administration building, post- 
office building, dormitory, and guest house, 
and garage will probably be ready for issu- 
ance about May 15 and bids requested 
shortly thereafter. 

The Steams-Roger Manufacturing Co. 
of Denver, Colo., was awarded the con- 
tract for the furnishing of pumps and 
motors for the Boulder City water-supply 
system on a bid of $1,174.50. Bids were 
received in Denver on March 10 for elec- 
trical apparatus (specifications 510-D) 
for the Boulder City water and electric 
system and awards made to the low bid- 
ders as follows: Item 1 to the Wolfe & 
Mann Manufacturing Co. for $2,668; 
items Nos. 2, 3, and 4, to the Walthaw 
Corporation for $4,376.52, $3,533.64, and 
$2,755.50, respectively; items Nos. 5 and 
10 to the Mine & Smelter Supply Co. of 
Denver, Colo., for $2,411.10 and $42.19, 
respectively; item No. 6 to American 
Brown Boveri Co. for $900; and items 
Nos. 7, 8, and 9 to the Bowie Switch 
Co. for a total of $850. 



Bids were opened in Denver on April 1 
(specifications 514-D) for the furnishing 
of materials for approximately 6.6 miles 
of high pressure, 10 and 12 inch diameter 
pipe, for the Boulder City water-supply 
system. Awards for this were made on 
April 9 as follows: Schedule 1, items Nos. 
1 and 2, to Midwest Piping & Supply Co. 
of St. Louis, Mo., bid price $11,721.04; 
Schedule 3, items 5 and 6, to Associated 
Piping & Engineering Co. of Los Angeles, 
Calif., bid price $11,198.68; Schedule 4, 
items 7 and 8, to the Thomas Haverty Co. 
of Los Angeles, Calif., bid price $20,046.99; 
Schedule 6, item 10, to the Mine & Smelter 
Supply Co. of Denver, Colo., bid price 
$4,285.40. No awards for Schedules 2 
and 5 were made. Bids for the construc- 
tion of the pipe line (specifications 515- D) 
were opened at Las Vegas, Nev., on April 
13. The pipe line will extend from a 
point on the Colorado River about a 
half-mile below the site of the Hoover 
Dam to the receiving tank in the north- 
west section of the town site. The time 
allowed for completion is 60 days after 
date of receipt of notice to proceed. On 
April 17, bids were received in Denver, 
under specifications 516-D for the fur- 
nishing of pressure-control equipment for 
the Boulder City water-supply, system; 
and on April 21, bids were opened under 
pecifications 517-D, for the furnishing 
of pipe, fittings, valves, and other mis- 
cellaneous material for the Boulder City 
water distribution and sewer systems. 
Specifications for construction of the 
Boulder City water distribution and sewer 
systems are being prepared for requesting 
bids to be received at Las Vegas early 
in May. Plans and specifications for 
street grading, surfacing, paving, and 
sidewalk construction will be issued and 
bids opened for this work at Las Vegas, 
Nev., during May. 

Bids were opened at Denver, Colo., 
on February 25 for furnishing apparatus 
for the water-purification and sewage- 
disposal plants at Boulder City, Nev., 
under specifications No. 505-D. The 
low bidders were as follows: Items 1 to 
5, inclusive, $25,169, Dorr Co. (Inc.), 
Deliver, Colo.; items 6, 7, 10, 11, and 12, 
$6,960, International Filter Co., Chicago, 
111.; items 13 to 16, inclusive, $884.40, 
Water Works Supply Co., San Francisco, 
Calif.; items 17 and 18, $795, Michigan 
Valve & Foundry Co., Detroit, Mich.; 
item 19, $59.40, Hendrie & Bolthoff 
Manufacturing and Supply Co., Denver, 
Colo.; item 20, $1,831.50, the Paradon Co., 
Arlington, N. J.J items 21 and 22, $3,593, 
Vogt Bros. Manufacturing Co., Louisville, 
Ky. Award has been made to the low 
bidders at the f. o. b. prices given. No 



NEW KECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1631 



award was made for items 1-A, 1-B, 2-A, 
3-A, 7-A, 8, and 9. 

Under invitation No. 3078-B for track 

material, award has been made as follows: 
Hi-ins 1, 3, and 4, $10,468.05 f. o. b. Min- 
noiua, Colo., Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., 
Denver, Colo.; iti-ius 2 and it, 132.50, 
Racor Pacific Frog & Switch Co., Los 
Angeles, Calif.; item 5, $1,232.50, Woodings 
Forge & Tool Co., Verona, Pa.; item 6, 
$612.50, f. o. b. St. Louis, Mo., St. Louis 
Frog & Switch Co., Denver, Colo.; items 
8 and 10, $158, f. o. b. Oakley, Ohio, L. B. 
Foster Co., Chicago, 111. No award was 
made for item 7. 

Bids under specifications No. 3-B. C. 
were opened at Las Vegas on March 31 
and contract was awarded to Storm & 
Mahoney for the erection of a steel ware- 
house 50 by 150 feet, lo be located on 
the proposed railroad spur at Boulder 
City. 

Yakima project. Bids for the furnish- 
ing of material and erection of a 34-inch 
diameter continuous wood stave pipe 
discharge line, 6,212 feet in length (specifi- 
cations 512-D) for the Kennewick High- 
lands pumping plant were opened in 
Denver on March 30. The low bid of 
$14,500.05 was made by the Federal 
Pipe & Tank Co. of Seattle, Wash. No 
award will be made until the contract 
between Kennewick irrigation district 
and the Government has been finally 
consummated. 

Plans and specifications for the con- 
struction of the Cle Elum Dam are being 
prepared and it is expected that bids will 
be opened some time in June. 

Work on the construction of the Kittitas 
division lateral system has been resumed 
and several specifications have been issued 
by the local project office for small earth- 
work and lateral structure contracts. 

Baker project. Plans and specifications 
are being prepared for a reinforced-con- 
crete slab and buttress-type dam for the 



Boulder Canyon Project Notes 



The Six Companies (Inc.), a Delaware 
corporation, has filed articles of incor- 
poration in California. The directors 
and officials are listed as follows: Presi- 
dent, W. H. Wattis; first vice president, 
W. A. Bechtel; second vice president, H. 
O. Wattis; treasurer, Felix Kahn; sec- 
retary, Charles A. Shea. These are all 
directors, the others being Allan Mac- 
Donald, S. D. Bechtel, H. W. Morrison, 
Philip Hart, and Henry J. Kaiser. 

Newspaper reports indicate that mate- 
rials and supplies required by the Six 
Companies (Inc.), for use on the Hoover 
Dam project will be purchased by com- 
petitive bidding. Miscellaneous hard- 
ware, pipe, oils, greases, and small tools 
are to be purchased in the open market. 
In the purchase of the latter, about 
$4,622,000 will be expended, principally in 
Los Angeles. About $5,000,000 will be 
expended for equipment, including 8 
standard locomotives, 70 dump cars, 30 
motor trucks, fifteen 2-yard electric shov- 
els, six 4-yard concrete mixers, 10 air 
compressors each with a capacity of 2,500 
cubic feet per minute, 7 cableways, a 
Diesel electric stand-by plant with 2,500 
horsepower capacity, a complete gravel 
plant with capacity of 700 tons sand and 
gravel per hour, derricks, hoists, etc. 



The percentage of participation of the 
individual companies in the Six Com- 
panies (Inc.), is as follows: Utah Con- 
struction Co., 20 per cent; Henry J. Kaiser 
and W. A. Bechtel Co., 30 per cent; 
MacDonald & Kahn Co. (Ltd.), 20 per 
cent; Morrison-Knudson Co., 10 per 
cent; J. F. Shea Co., 10 per cent; Pacific 
Bridge Co., 10 per cent. 



Humidity records were started at the 
Las Vegas laboratory on March 9, using 
improvised apparatus until more accurate 
equipment can be installed. The first 
results indicated humidity of approxi- 
mately 38 per cent during the day. 



Temporary quarters for the Boulder 
City, Nev., post office have been estab- 
lished in one of the Six Companies' build- 
ings in the industrial zone of the town 
site. J. L. Finney is postmaster. 



The Lewis Construction Co. expects to 
have 7 miles of track laid shortly after 
May 1. On the Boulder City-Hoover 
Dam highway, good progress is being 
made by R. G. LeTourneau, subcon- 
tractors. 

(Continued on page 107) 



proposed Thief Valley Reservoir, Baker 
project, Oreg., and the bids for this work 
will probably be opened in June. 

Minidoka project, Goading division. P. 
R. Thompson, Twin Falls, Idaho, with a 
bid of $7,089, was low on Schedules Nos. 
1, 2, and 3, and Dan Knight, Gooding, 
Idaho, with a bid of $4,823 on Schedules 
4 and 5, specifications No. 511-D, con- 



struction of 4-room cottages, Gooding 
division, Minidoka project, Idaho. 

Klamath project. Bids were opened at 
Klamath Falls, Oreg., on March 16 for 
the excavation of Clear Lake Channel, 
Langell Valley, division, involving 55,000 
cubic yards of excavation. The low bid of 
$8,800, or 16 cents a cubic yard, was made 
by Bissonette Bros., of Klamath Falls. 




-- 




VALE MAIN CANAL, VALK mUJECT, OKEOON 

Left: Placing earth lining. Right: Showing earth lining in place, looking downstream 



May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



107 



Boulder Canyon Project 
Notes 

(Continued from p. 106) 

The Southern Sierras Power Co. com- 
pleted its telephone line on April 10 
which will give direct communication 
between the substation and San Bernard- 
ino and Riverside. It is now expected 
that power will be available at the sub- 
station by June 1, which will be 25 days 
ahead of the required date. 



All contractors on the project are 
utilizing the services of the United States 
Employment Service, Department of 
Labor, Las Vagas, Nev., Leonard L. 
Blood, superintendent, to obtain labor. 
However, a large amount of surplus labor 
continues to flock to Las Vegas, although 
additional help is not needed at this time. 



The following companies acted as 
sureties on the performance bond for 
$5,000,000 furnished by the Six Com- 
panies (Inc.) : Fidelity & Deposit Co. of 
Maryland, $550,000; National Surety Co., 
$550,000; United States Fidelity & Surety 
Co., $550,500; American Surety Co. of 
New York, $500,000; Hartford Accident 
& Indemnity Co., $350,000; Maryland 
Casualty Co., $350,000; Royal Indemnity 
Co., $300,000; Massachusetts Bonding & 
Insurance Co., $250,000; New Amsterdam 
Casualty Co., $200,000; American Em- 
ployer's Insurance Co., $200,000; the 
Fidelity & Casualty Co. of New York, 
$200,000; the Home Indemnity Co., 
$150,000; United States Casualty Co., 
$100,000; Firemen's Fund Indemnity Co., 
$100,000; Great American Indemnity Co., 
$100,000; the Metropolitan Casualty In- 
surance Co. of New York, $100,000; 
Commercial Casualty Insurance Co., 
$100,000; the Aetna Casualty & Surety 
Co., $100,000; Glen Falls Indemnity Co., 
$100,000; Indemnity Insurance Co. of 
North America, $100,000; London & 
Lancashire Indemnity Co. of America, 
$50,000. 



The $49,000,000 contract for construc- 
tion of Hoover Dam, power plant, and 
appurtenant works was signed in San 
Francisco on March 25 by W. H. Wattis, 
president Six Companies (Inc.); at Las 
Vegas on April 11 by R. F. Walter, chief 
engineer; and on April 13 by Dr. Elwood 
Mead, commissioner; and by Secretary 
Wilbur in Washington on April 20, on 
which date Mr. Walter sent notice to the 
contractors to begin work. The speci- 
fications require that work shall com- 
mence within 30 calendar days after 
receipt of notice. 



The first group of cottages for Govern- 
ment employees in Boulder City, now 
under construction, comprises six 4-room 
and six 3-room houses. They are of the 
Spanish type of architecture, hollow brick 
walls with 4-inch air space, stuccoed out- 
side, metal lath and plaster inside, with 
red tile roofs. In the living room, a fire- 
place and heatilator are provided. Equip- 
ment includes electric refrigerator, range, 
and water heater. 



With the completion of the pioneer road 
to the substation site, the Southern Sierras 
Power Co. has established a camp at that 
point and is constructing the substation 
building, foundations for machinery and 
other appurtenances. Excellent progress 
is being made in construction of both the 
main transmission line and the telephone 
dispatching line paralleling the route of 
the electrical tower line. June 1 is the 



The following letter is being sent by 
the Six Companies (Inc.) to appli- 
cants for positions under the Boulder 
Canyon project: 

"Your application for a position in 
connection with the Hoover Dam 
project has been received and noted. 

"We regret there is nothing we can 
offer at present, nor can we hold out 
much encouragement to you. In case 
we can use your services later, however, 
we shall be glad to communicate with 
you. 

"In view of the many hundreds of 
men now here seeking employment, 
we strongly advise against any one 
coming on the chance of obtaining 
work." 



date on which the contractor hopes to have 
power available at the dam site. The 
Southern Sierras Power Co. is considering 
furnishing power to the town of Las Vegas, 
and if such delivery is undertaken the 
company will install a substation at 
Boulder City, which will serve to deliver 
power to both Boulder City and Las Vegas. 
If the company does not install this sub- 
station, the Government plans to con- 
struct a 33,000-volt transmission line from 
the dam site to Boulder City. 



The Southwest Builder and Contractor 
states that the activities of the Six Com- 
panies (Inc.), are in charge of the following 
committee chairmen: H. J. Lawler, con- 
struction; C. D. Bechtel, purchasing; 
Henry J. Kaiser, Boulder City; S. D. 
Bechtel, transportation; W. A. Bechtel, 
insurance and hospitalization. The head- 
quarters of the company are at 510 
Financial Center Building, San Francisco, 
Calif.; and Mr. Lawler's office is in the 
Phelan Building. 



The Hoover Dam consulting board on 
April 21, 1931, approved the plans and 
specifications for Hoover Dam on the 
Boulder Canyon project and submitted 
a formal report to that effect. 



FOUR men whose applications had 
previously been accepted on the 
Riverton project made homestead entry 
during the month. Five prospective 
settlers visited the project. 



Six Companies Begin 

The Six Companies (Inc.), contractors 
for the Hoover Dam, power plant, and 
appurtenant works, are known on the 
job as the "Big Six." Frank T. Crowe, 
general manager in charge of construc- 
tion, has established a branch office in 
Las Vegas and also has a field office in 
Boulder City. Thirty houses have been 
erected in the industrial zone section of 
the town, which are used as temporary 
quarters for 350 workmen. This force is 
concentrating its efforts on the drilling 
and blasting along the railroad location 
in the canyon. It is also planned to 
construct a highway from the main 
Boulder City-Hoover Dam Highway 
near Tunnel Ridge along the water line 
to river level at the lower tunnel portals. 
The houses, which are of frame construc- 
tion, can later be moved into the resi- 
dence section of the town and partitioned 
and fitted for use in the permanent camp. 
A mess house has also been built. Mr. 
George D. Colmesnil, of San Francisco, 
is preparing plans of the buildings for use 
by the contractor in Boulder City. 

One of the principal jobs for the con- 
tractors is the construction of about 22 
miles of double-track railroad from the 
United States section of railroad (Boulder 
City to Hoover Dam site) down the Hemen 
way Wash to the river, and then along 
the Nevada canyon wall to the lower 
tunnel portals. This railroad will serve 
the double purpose of taking away exca- 
vation material and bringing into the 
work area materials, supplies, etc. The 
grade of the railroad through the canyon 
will be at elevation 720, which is the ele- 
vation of the top of the upper cofferdam. 

A major problem under consideration 
by the "Big Six" strategy board is the 
transportation of gravel from the pits on 
the Arizona side of the river, about 8 
miles above the dam site, to a storage 
yard near the work area. Two plans for 
handling the gravel are under considera- 
tion, the first involving construction of 
another railroad from the pits to a stor- 
age point in Hemenway Wash above the 
water line. A second plan involves 
building an aerial tram. If the railroad 
plan is adopted, the river must be crossed 
either by bridge or tramway. 



108 



\K\V RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1931 



! By H. A BROWN, Director of Reclamation Economics I 




Census Statistics for 1930 Demonstrate Importance of Irrigation in 

Country's Development 



THE agricultural depression of 1930 
has been felt on Federal reclamation 
projects to about the same extent as in 
the humid farming section. Notwith- 
standing the severe drought the United 
States crop report for 1930 shows an 
increase in the production of all grain 
crops, except corn, as well as beans, pota- 
toes, sugar beets, apples, pears, and 
peaches. Cotton fell off about 5 per cent. 
On the Federal projects there were small 
increases in the grain crops, with the 
exception of wheat, which was reduced 
R per cent; beans were increased 33 per 
cent in area and 100 per cent in yield; 
potatoes 19 per cent in area and 50 per 
cent in yield; apples 50 per cent in yield 
from the same area as in 1929; the sugar- 
beet area dropped 5 per cent, but the 
yield increased 9 per cent; and cotton 
was reduced 29 per cent in area but only 
2 per cent in yield. Compared with crop 
production of the entire country the area 
on reclamation projects remains 0.4 per 
cent of the total area and 1 per cent of the 
total production. The average value per 
acre of irrigated crops dropped from 
$58.50 in 1929 to $41.60 for 1930, while 
for the United States the comparative 
figures are $23.39 and $17.12. 



The accompanying 
figures for 1930. 



table gives the 



INCREASED YIELDS BUT DECREASED 
VALUES 

On the basis of yields the 1930 crop was 
one of the best that has been produced on 
Federal projects, but the value per acre 
was very unsatisfactory and is the lowest 
since 1916. The sugar-beet projects came 
through with the best returns, while the 
cotton projects in the South west and wheat 
projects in the Northwest suffered heavy 
shrinkages. The project monthly reports 
show very little improvement in the price 
of farm products during the winter months 
and about the only profitable returns are 
reported from the sale of feeder lambs. 



FAIR PRICES TO PRODUCERS WILL NOT 
HURT CONSUMERS 

Notwithstanding the low price of farm 
products, the consumer has reason to 
believe there has not been a corresponding 
drop in retail prices. The price of bread 
in Washington remained 10 cents for a 
1-pound loaf until Senator Capper began 
an investigation into the continued high 



A COMPARISON OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 



Value of crops, 
Acres in crops, 
Bushels of 

Corn 

Wheat 

Barley 

Oats 

Rye 

Alfalf 

Flax 

Tons of 

Hay 

Alfalfa -.-. 

Bushels of sweet clover seed. 
Bushels of 

Beans 

Potatoes 

Apples --- 

Pears 

Peaches 

Tons of sugar beets 

Bales of cotton 





Entire United 
States 


Federal 
reclamation 
projects 


Per cent 
reclamation 
projects 




$6, 274, 427, 000 


$64, 971, 470 


1.03 




366, 507, 000 


1, 550, 967 


.42 




2, 081, 048, 000 


1, 635, 595 


.08 




850, 965, 000 


3, 613, 865 


.42 




325, 893, 000 


2, 883, 129 


.89 




1,402,026,000 
SO, 234, 000 
920,200 
23, 682, 000 

82, 656, 000 


1,654,161 
92,440 
499, 029 
41, 783 

69,024 


.12 
.18 
M 
.17 

.08 




28, 587, 000 


1, 312, 415 


4.6 




656, 400 


59, 107 


9.0 




22, 137, 000 


778, 071 






361, 090, 000 


12, 556, 237 


3.5 



1(13,543,000 I 

25,703,000 I 

53,286,000 , 

9, 175, 000 

14,243,000 



6, 658, 319 
1,423,211 

344, 354 
1, 043, 847 

170, 5(W 



4.07 

5.55 

.65 

11.4 

1.19 



price of bread, milk, and other foods. The 
defense showed that the cost of wheat 
was only a very small fraction of the cost 
of making a loaf of bread and delivering 
it to the consumer. On our western 
projects wheat has been selling during the 
past winter at about 45 cents a bushel, 
with a freight rate to Minneapolis of 25 
cents. It takes about 275 pounds of 
wheat to make a barrel of flour which can 
be made into 300 loaves of bread. Of the 
10 cents the consumer pays for a loaf of 
bread, approximately 7 mills goes to the 
farmer. On this basis flour would have 
to drop $3 a barrel to make a change of 1 
cent per loaf in the price of bread. On 
the other hand, if the producer were to 
receive $1 a bushel for his wheat, it 
would mean an increase in the cost of a 
loaf of bread of approximately 8 mills, 
which would not hurt anyone and would 
give the farmer a living wage. Take the 
case of the Idaho potato . The selling price 
for No. 1 potatoes on the project is 50 
cents per hundredweight while in the 
East the retail price is 4 pounds for 25 
cents. With prices at their present level 
the producer is selling potatoes at about 
$34 an acre under the cost of production. 
If the price on the farm were doubled, it 
would result in a small profit to the pro- 
ducer and increase the cost to the con- 
sumer one-half cent per pound. These 
figures show very clearly that we can pay 
the farmer a fair price for his product 
without upsetting the economic apple cart. 
With the exception of cotton practically 
all farm products are used either directly 
or indirectly as human food, and the ordi- 
nary stomach has a capacity of about three 
pints, but, as is well known, it is suscepti- 
ble of some distention. There is a limit, 
to what the average person can consume, 
and most of us eat too much. If we eat 
more of one food we must consume less of 
something else, and it is a well-known fact 
that, especially since the war, our diet has 
changed. We are consuming 40 per cent 
more sugar than in pre-war days; the con- 



May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



109 



sumption of cereals has dropped off about 
30 per cent, while there has been an in- 
crease in the consumption of milk, pork, 
and lard; beef is still dropping off and corn 
and rye as breadstuff's have declined tre- 
mendously, while fruits and green vege- 
tables have shown a decided increase. On 
all our projects it is necessary to study the 
present trends of the human appetite and 
get ready to furnish the food for which 
there is the greatest demand. And in 
this connection it may be well to remem- 
ber that there is no competition in quality. 
It costs very little more to produce the 
best grades than it does the fair to poor 
grades, but there is a big difference in the 
demand for high-grade products. 

COMPARATIVE SIZES OF IRRIGATED 
AREAS 

Much has been said and written about 
the unwarranted increase in the irrigated 
area in the United States and particularly 
the activities of the Federal Government. 
The presentation of a few of the facts re- 
lating to irrigation will give one a better 
idea as to what has been done and what 
is going on. The arid and semiarid sec- 
tions of the United States comprise about 
one-third of the total area. Dry-land 
farming operations can be carried on in 
semiarid sections having an annual aver- 
age rainfall of about 12 inches or more, 
but even here irrigation is a necessary and 
paying proposition, as it makes possible a 
better balanced farming program and 
greater diversification. The 1930 census 
figures give the irrigated area of the United 
States, exclusive of rice lands, as 18,329,400 
acres. This is an increase of 430,460 
acres, or 2.3 per cent more than the figures 
reported in the 1920 census. Ten of the 
States have less irrigated land in 1930 
than in 1920, while 9 States show increases, 
California heading the list with 4,731,632 
acres, which is approximately 500,000 
acres, or 12^ per cent more than reported 
in 1920. But California shows an increase 
in population of 65.7 per cent during the 
same period. Oregon has increased 22 
per cent in population while the irrigated 
area is less than 10 years ago. Washing- 
ton shows an increase of 15 per cent in 
population while the irrigated area has 
decreased 3.5 per cent. 

It is undoubtedly true that future ex- 
pansion in the irrigated areas of the 
Western States will result largely from 
the activities of the Federal Government, 
as the possibilities of combining land 
and water are becoming more difficult 
and the expense involved will be such 
that the construction can not be under- 
taken by private capital. 

It is not easy to grasp the relative size 
of the irrigated tracts of the Western 



States, but the following figures will 
give some idea. The irrigated areas of 
Arizona, Nevada, and New Mexico are 
less than 1 per cent of the total area of 
the State, Washington 1.1 per cent, 
Oregon and Montana 1.7 per cent, 
Wyoming 2 per cent, Utah 2.4 per cent, 
Idaho 4 per cent, California 4.7 per cent, 
and Colorado 5.1 per cent. 

A study of these figures shows con- 
clusively that the expansion of the irri- 
gated areas has not kept pace with the 
rapid growth in population, and this is 
especially true of the States west of the 
Continental Divide, where crop produc- 
tion is dependent almost entirely on irri- 
gation. There is a strong indication that 
the West is going to continue to grow in 
the future at a faster rate than it has in 
the past, and the expanding local markets 
are going to create an ever-increasing 
demand for food products that can best 
be supplied from adjacent farming areas, 
this being particularly true of the staple 
food products. The East will continue 
to be the industrial section of the country 
and will receive its share of the wealth 
created on the irrigated farms of the 
West through the purchase of manu- 
factured products by not only the 
farmers but by the inhabitants in the 
cities and towns that have resulted 
directly from these irrigated areas. 

It would be interesting to compile 
statistics as to just how this wealth is 
distributed over the country and the 
disposal of agricultural products from 
the irrigated farms. Such figures have 
not been available for all projects, but 
authentic data have been compiled in a 
few cases and these figures would be 
found applicable to most of the projects. 
In 1930 there were shipped from Pasco, 
a small private project in Franklin 
County, Wash., 295 cars of produce, of 
which 243 cars, or 82.4 per cent, were 
consumed in Washington and adjoining 
States, 17 cars, or 5.8 per cent, were 
delivered to points on the Atlantic sea- 
board, and 35 cars, or 11.8 per cent, to 
points in the Mississippi Valley. The 
following figures give the general loca- 
tion of the shipping points of 666 car- 
loads of manufactured products to one 
of the 27 Federal reclamation projects. 
From Colorado 62 cars, or 10.6 per cent, 
were sent out, while 604 cars, or 89.4 
per cent, originated from industrial 
centers in the Mississippi Valley and 
points east. 

These two cases show conclusively that 
Federal and private irrigation has been 
an important factor in advancing the 
development and prosperity of the entire 
country and does not enter into serious 
competition with farming operations in 
the humid sections. 



Products of Federal Recla- 
mation for Paris Exposition 



In order that the millions who are 
expected to attend the International 
Colonial and Overseas Exposition to be 
held in Paris, France, this year might 
have a clearer understanding of the 
products of Federal reclamation, the 
projects were requested to arrange, if 
possible, with canning and preserving 
factories and other organizations to 
forward to the bureau samples of their 
products for an exhibit. The response 
to this request was gratifying, and as 
a result a relatively large shipment has 
already been sent to Paris with the expec- 
tation that others will follow as material 
is received from the projects. The 
various products were donated and 
shipped at no expense to the reclama- 
tion fund. The following shows the 
projects so far represented, the names of 
the donors, and the material donated: 

Yuma project, Arizona - California. 
F. W. Creswell: Sack of pecans. 

Orland project, California. Geo. W. 
Sturm, president Orland Water Users' 
Association and secretary Almond 
Growers' Exchange: Boxes of Peerless, 
NePlus, Nonpareil, and Drake almonds 
and Franquette English walnuts; labels 
and display advertising material of Cali- 
fornia Almond Growers' Exchange. 

J. E. Fallings, manager Orland Orange 
Growers' Association (Inc.) : Material for 
orange boxes, labels for Glenora and Or- 
land brands, tissue wrappers, and display 
advertising. 

Marcus Lowry: Kadota figs in sirup, 
and large variety of containers for fig 
sirup, fig jam, and candied figs, with 
additional labels. 

Grand Valley project, Colorado. Currie 
Canning Co.: Tomatoes, catsup, pimen- 
tos, cherries, apple butter, string beans, 
pumpkin, beets and carrots, with addi- 
tional labels. 

Belle Fourche project. South Dakota. 
Squire Dingee Co.: Six quart jars of Ma 
Brown assorted pickles and gherkins, 
with additional labels. 

Salt Lake Basin project, Utah. Woods 
Cross Canning Co., Woods Cross, Utah. 
Peas: Fancy sweet wrinkled, fancy extra 
sifted, fancy petit pois, June, June sweet, 
fancy sugar, sifted sweet early June, un- 
graded. Beans: Cut stringless green, whole 
green stringless; tomatoes; asparagus 
tips; labels. 

Utah Packing Corporation, Ogden, 
Utah: Tomato catsup, tomato sauce, 
solid-pack tomatoes, tomato juice, green 
(Continued on page 116) 



110 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1931 



Measuring Hay in Stacks 



THE Department of Agriculture has 
recently issued leaflet No. 72 de- 
scribing a more accurate method for 
determining the volume and number of 
tons of hay in a stack. 

In an effort to develop a scientific 
method the department organized a study 
of this subject in cooperation with a num- 
ber of the State agricultural experiment 
stations. The purpose was to ascertain 
the accuracy of the rules in use and to 
develop new rules in case the old rules 
were found to give inaccurate results. 
Several thousand oblong and round stacks 
were measured and 'weighed in the West- 
ern and Great Plains States, and these 
data were studied and tabulated. 

OBLONG OR RECTANGULAR STACKS 

The volume of a rectangular stack is 
equal to its length multiplied by the area 
of the cross section. The length can be 
measured easily, but the exact area of the 
cross section is not determined so readily 
because an accurate formula is necessary 
for computing the area from the two 
measurements width and over that 
are usually made for this purpose. The 
width and over measurements are made 
easily and for this reason those who buy 
and sell hay by measure use rules that 
require only three measurements, namely, 
width, length, and over. Width is the 
width of the stack at the ground; length is 
the average length of the stack; and over 
is the distance from the ground on one 
side over the stack to the ground on the 
other side. 

FORMER VOLUME RULES INACCURATE 

In the investigations to determine the 
accuracy of former rules the cross section 
of each stack was calculated by each of 
several rules, such as the Frye-Bruhn or 
rule of two, and the Quartermaster rule, 
and the results were then compared with 
the actual cross-section areas of the 
stacks. This study proved that these rules 
were not accurate. For certain t3 r pes and 
shapes of stacks they gave fairly accurate 
results, but for other types and shapes 
the results were very inaccurate. 

Cross-section areas determined by the 
Frye-Bruhn rule averaged only 86 per cent 
of the actual cross-section areas; the vol- 
ume of the stacks, therefore, as computed 
by this rule would be about 14 per cent 
less than the actual volume. Cross-sec- 
tion areas determined by the Quartermas- 
ter rule averaged 96 per cent of the actual 
cross-section areas, but in some instances 
this rule gave 25 per cent less and in others 



30 per cent more than the actual cross- 
section area. 

NEW VOLUME RULES FOR OBLONG STACKS 

Investigations were then conducted for 
the purpose of developing a new rule or 
rules that would be more nearly accurate 
and that would use the same measure- 
ments as those used in the old rules. It 
was found that by dividing hay stacks into 
three types based on shape, a rule for each 



type could be developed. The volumes 
determined by these rules averaged the 
same as the actual volumes of the stacks, 
and in no case was the error over 5 per 
cent. 

The three types of stacks (fig. 1), with 
the rule for each type, are as follows: 

For square, flat-topped stacks 
(0.56X0) -(0.55 X W) X WL. 

For high, round-topped stacks 
(0.52XO)-(0.46XWOXHa. 

For low, round-topped stacks 
(0.52X0) - (0.44 X W) X WL. 

In these rules O equals the over, W 
equals the width, and L equals the length. 
(Continued on page 115) 



SUMMARY OF CROP RESULTS ON RECLAMATION PROJECTS IN 1930 

NOTE. These detailed figures are limited to crops covered by census on Government projects proper 
excluding all crops in areas served with water under the Warren Act, but including nonirrigated crops 
grown on the project 



Crop 


1 
Acreage cropped Yields 


Crop value 


Total 


Per cent 
of cropped 


Total 


Average 
per acre 


Average 
per acre 


Total 


Per cent 
of total 
value of 
all crops 


Cereals: 


83,285 
54,653 
45,401 
5,110 
135, 201 


5.4 
3.5 
3.0 
.3 
8.8 


Bushels 
2, 883, 129 
1, 635, 595 
1. 654, 161 
92, 440 
3, 613, 865 


34.6 
29.9 
36.4 
18.1 
26.7 


$15. 10 
20.90 
10.10 
9.85 
16.80 


$1, 257, 431. 00 
1. 142, 677. 00 
457,871.00 
50, 268. 00 
2, 274, 240. 00 


1.9 
1.8 
.7 
.1 
3.5 


Corn 


Oats 


Rye 


Wheat 


Total 


323, 650 


21. 9, 879, 190 30. 5 


16.03 


5, 182, 487. 00 


8.0 


Other grain and seed: 
Alfalfa seed 


22,456 
14,841 
6,279 


1. 4 499, 039 22. 2 
. 9 59, 207 4. 
.4 ; 41,783 6.7 


38.75 
36.20 
9.30 


870, 562. 00 
537, 084. 00 
58, 364. 00 


1.3 
.8 
.1 






Total ... . . 


43, 576 


2.8 600,029 13.8 


33.60 


1, 466, 010. 00 


2.2 


Hay and forage: 
Alfalfa hay.. 


452, 526 
15,996 
57,704 
10,201 
19,324 
343, 454 


29.2 
1.0 
3.8 
.7 
1.2 
22.1 


Tons 
1,312,415 
23,045 
69,024 
64,610 
10, 679 


2.9 
1.4 
1.2 
6.3 
.5 


26.40 
9.40 
8.70 
39.50 
13.60 
10.00 


11, 940, 274. 00 
150, 256. 00 
502, 088. 00 
403, 544. 00 
263, 014. 00 
3, 444, 441. 00 


18.4 
.2 
.8 
.7 
.4 
5.3 


Clover hay.. 


Other hay. 


Corn fodder 


Other forage 


Pasture 


Total 




899,205 


58. 1, 479, 773 


1.6 


18.57 


16, 703, 617. 00 25. 8 


Vegetables and truck: 
Beans 


28,932 
2,762 
55, 752 
884 
42,982 


1.9 
.2 
3.6 


Bushels 
778, 071 
954, 430 
12, 556, 237 
93, 555 


26.9 
345.5 
225.6 

105.7 


44.60 
333.00 
86.60 
145.50 
111.80 


1, 290, 178. 00 
918, 788. 00 
4, 822, 241. 00 
128, 691. 00 
4, 809, 615. 00 


2.0 
1.4 
7.4 

0.2 
7.4 


Onions _ . 


Potatoes, white 


Potatoes, sweet 


Truck 


2.7 


Total 




131, 312 


8.4 


14, 382, 293 


109.6 

13,800 
4,700 
9,680 
7,530 
12,870 
7, ItiO 
8,820 


91.20 


11, 969, 513. 00 


18.4 


Fruits and nuts: 
Apples 


24,174 
3,518 
7,062 
2,469 
4,949 
3,388 
21,913 


1.5 
.2 
.5 
.1 
.3 
.2 
1.5 


Pounds 
332, 915, 952 
16, 528, 960 
68,314,111 
18, 590, 352 
63, 768, 110 
24, 268, 230 
193, 4tfO, 313 


163.50 
96.50 
99.70 
74.60 
315. 50 
232.00 
115. 30 


3, 950, 158. 00 
339, 250. 00 
703, 150. 00 
184, 305. 00 
1, 561, 015. 00 
784, 859. 00 
2, 526, 213. 00 


6.1 
0.5 
1.1 
0.2 
2.4 
1.2 
3.9 


Peaches 


Pears . 


Prunes 


Citrus fruit 


Small fruit 


Miscellaneous " 


Total 


67, 473 


4.3 


717, 786, 028 


10, 630 


148. 30 


10,048,950.00 


15.4 


Miscellaneous: 
Sugar beets 


79, 897 
} 192, 120 
47, 025 


5.1 
12.4 
3.0 


Tom 
1, 043, 847 
/ 175, 809 
\ 78, 924 


13,0 
1.9 
.4 


94.70 
} 59.40 
14.10 


7, 575, 664. 00 
11, 398, 544. 00 
662, 485. 00 


11.6 
17.6 
1.0 


Cotton 


Cottonseed 


Other crops 


Total 


319, 042 


20.5 






61. CO 


19, 636, 693. 00 30. 2 


Duplication 


233,291 

1, 550, 967 
1, 186, 023 


15.0 
"100.0 










All crops for which detailed 
census was taken 






41.90 
44.85 


65, 007, 270. 00 
53, 206, 850. 00 


100.0 


Warren Act projects 3 






Total 










2, 736, 90 








43.19 


118,214,120.00 






1 









' Bales. 

' The dry-farmed area of this total amounted to 83,870 acres, with a total value of $588,330. 

' Totals only available. Acreage, yield, and value not compiled by crops. 



May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



111 



Reclamation Organization Activities and Project Visitors 



Doctor Mead, Commissioner of Recla- 
mation, after leaving Washington on 
March 28 went direct to El Paso, Tex., 
where he met with the water users of the 
Rio Grande project and the International 
Water and Boundary Commissioner; 
from El Paso he went to Yuma and later 
to Phoenix, where he met a number of 
State officials; going thence to the Parker- 
Gila project, which he inspected in com- 
pany with P. J. Preston, in charge of the 
Colorado River Basin investigations, 
R. M. Priest, superintendent of the Yuma 
project, and local representatives; thence 
back to Yuma for a conference with the 
water users. From Yuma he went to 
Los Angeles, where with P. W. Dent, 
assistant commissioner, and R. J. Coffey, 
district counsel, he considered the Ail- 
American Canal contracts. Doctor 
Mead, Mr. Dent, and Mr. Coffey then 
left Los Angeles for Las Vegas, where 
they were met by R. F. Walter, chief 
engineer, Louis C. Cramton, special 
attorney to the secretary in charge of 
leasing at Boulder City, and C. A. Dobbel, 
executive assistant to the Secretary. 

From Las Vegas Doctor Mead went to 
Salt Lake and from there to Cheyenne, 
where he met and discussed Wyoming's 
water problems with Acting Governor 
Clark and State Engineer Whiting. 
Doctor Mead's next stop was in Denver, 
where on April 20 he conferred with repre- 
sentatives of the Bridgeport and Northport 
districts of the North Platte project, and 
on the 21st with the Hoover Dam Con- 
sulting Board and the Concrete Board 
sitting jointly, returning to Washington 
on the 24th. 



Dr. Hugh A. Brown, director of recla- 
mation economics, on April 3 attended a 
meeting in Chicago of agricultural and 
development agents of the railroads of the 
United States, Canada, and Mexico, 
to make plans for the exhibits of the 
results of reclamation agriculture and in- 
dustry at the World's Fair, A Century of 
Progress, in 1933. 



F. E. Weymouth, former chief engineer 
of the Bureau of Reclamation, now chief 
engineer of the Metropolitan Water Dis- 
trict of Southern California, with head- 
quarters in Los Angeles, was in the Denver 
office recently in conference with repre- 
sentatives of other power interests on 
Boulder Canyon power matters. 



Miss Kate McDougall, secretary to Mr. 
Cramton, who has charge of leasing at 
Boulder City, left on April 16 for Las Vegas 
to establish the office. 



P. W. Dent, Assistant Commissioner, 
left Washington on March 14, going direct 
to Denver for a conference with the Chief 
Engineer's office regarding the proposed 
contract with the Imperial Irrigation Dis- 
trict for construction Ail-American Canal. 
Mr. Dent then paid official visits to El 
Paso and Yuma and next went to Los 
Angeles, where he and District Counsel 
Coffey held various conferences with the 
attorneys for the Imperial Irrigation Dis- 
trict and the Coachella Valley County 
District concerning the All-American 
Canal contract. Then following a few 
days' visit to the Imperial Valley, several 
conferences were held in Los Angeles 
which resulted in an agreement concerning 
a tentative form of contract for the All- 
American Canal. Mr. Dent's next stop 
was in Las Vegas, where he met Commis- 
sioner Mead and Chief Engineer Walter. 
He then returned to Los Angeles, where 
the final conference on the All-American 
Canal contract was held, and arrived in 
Washington on April 30. 



A. J. Wiley, L. C. Hill, and D. C. 
Henny, consulting engineers, and Prof. 
Raymond E. Davis, Prof. Wm. K. 
Halt, Prof. Herbert J. Gilkey, Frank- 
lin R. McMillan, and P. H. Bales, 
comprising the members of the con- 
crete research board, held a joint meet- 
ing called by the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior in Denver on April 21, to consider 
Hoover Dam problems, in which they 
were joined by Doctor Mead. 



We regret to announce that James A. 
Waldrip, employed as dragline oiler on 
the Klamath project, was accidentally 
killed on April 10 while in the perform- 
ance of dutv. 



J. L. Finney, of Las Vegas, Nev., has 
been appointed postmaster for Boulder 
City. The new post office was estab- 
lished on April 15 in one of the temporary 
buildings which will give place to per- 
manent buildings to be erected within the 
next few months. Commissioner Mead 
was one of the new postmasters first visi- 
tors. 



Col. B. F. Fly, of Yuma, Ariz., is again 
in Washington looking after the affairs of 
the Yuma project. 



Fred. G. Gettins, engineer department, 
National Surety Co., San Francisco, was 
a visitor on the Kittitas division of the 
Yakima project. 



H. H. Johnson, superintendent of the 
Milk River project, and Josef Sklower, 
president of the Malta irrigation district, 
have returned to Malta from Washington, 
where they were in attendance on a hear- 
ing before the International Joint Com- 
mission on the distribution of St. Mary 
and Milk River water between the United 
States and Canada. 



F. L. Taylor, agricultural agent for the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 
visited the Riverton project on March 19. 



Oliver P. Morton, special assistant to 
the Attorney General, spent two days at 
the Orland project office in connection 
with matters relating to the order from 
the United States district court for the 
appointment of a water master to ad- 
minister the decree in United States v. E. 
C. Angle, et al, during the coming irriga- 
tion season. 



J. L. Savage, chief designing engineer, 
and L. N. McClellan, electrical engineer, 
left Denver on March 23, accompanied by 
two engineers from the Panama Canal 
Zone, to inspect the Guernsey Dam at 
Guernsey, Wyo., North Platte project. 
They returned to Denver on the 24th. 



W. R. Young, chief construction engi- 
neer of the Boulder Canyon project, was in 
Denver from March 1 to 7. 



Hobart D. Fox, assistant engineer 
arrived on the Uncompahgre project on 
March 23 to take up the construction of 
the experimental flume to be built at the 
chute section of the south canal main line 
for studies in connection with Hoover 
Dam. 

W. F. Kubach, chief accountant in the 
Washington office, has returned to head- 
quarters after making an official visit re- 
garding accounting matters to the Yuma 
and Boulder Canyon projects and the 
Denver offices during the months of 
March and April. 



F. T. Crowe, general manager of the 
Six Companies (Inc.), spent five days in 
Denver recently. 

Associate District Counsel Spencer L. 
Baird spent one day recently on the Vale 
project in connection with legal matters. 
(Continued on page 114) 



112 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1931 



By Miss MAE A. SCHNURR, Assistant to the Commissioner 




Help in Curtain Problems 



AjMOST every home requires cur- 
tains of some sort in most of its 
rooms, either to insure privacy, to modify 
the light, or to add to the decorative 
effect. The cost of curtains is one of the 
leading items in the outlay for household 
textiles. Even a 5-room house having a 
total of only a dozen windows will need 
about 60 yards of material if curtained 
completely. The expense for curtains 
must be repeated every few years, be- 
cause they wear out or fade. It is impor- 
tant, therefore, for the housewife to know 
how to meet this expenditure advanta- 
geously. 

Some of the following points should 
be kept in mind: To be useful, curtains 
must not conceal an attractive view, 
prevent adequate ventilation, or shut out 
too much daylight. They should soften 
and diffuse the light entering the room 
and break the severe lines of the wooden 
casing around the window. Good design 
requires that curtains have strong lines 
and pleasing proportions, and that through 
a careful choice of texture and color they 
link together the furnishings of the room. 
Simplicity is the keynote of the best 
curtain arrangements nowadays, though 
just how this is carried out must depend 
on the shape and type of window and the 
general tone of the room. 

In a living room with a pleasant out- 
look, side draperies and a valance may 
serve to frame the window and its view 
and add to its color scheme. For the 
bedroom, transparent curtains hung close 
to the window glass are oftentimes suffi- 
cient. The bathroom and kitchen cur- 
tains must be able to stand frequent tub- 
bing and be so simply made that they can 
be taken down and put up easily. 

DAINTY CURTAINS FOR A GIRLS ROOM 

Here is a charming idea for curtaining 
a window in a girl's bedroom. Girls are 
apt to want their rooms daintier and 
lighter in treatment than boys, although 
the character of the room depends some- 
what on a girl's interests. A hearty out- 
of-doors sort of girl who enjoys the same 
things as her brother may want strong 
colors, straight lines, vigorous patterns 



and durable materials. But for the girl 
who likes daintiness, nothing could be 
more appealing than these ruffled tie-back 
curtains of cream voile over a glazed 
chintz shade in a gay pattern. 

Other good materials to use for curtains 
in a girl's room with a figured shade are 
organdie, marquisette, or net. With plain 
shade, dotted swiss, or cheesecloth dyed 
in a color harmonizing with the other 
furnishings of the room, would be good. 




Dainty curtains for a girl's room 

If the woodwork is white, curtains may be 
white, or they may repeat the dominant 
color in the room. Curtains of these 
materials may be used alone, or with val- 
ance and side draperies of cretonne, taf- 
feta, poplin or glazed chintz. Interesting 
variations are obtained by hanging two 
layers of organdie or voile of different 
color over each other. 

CURTAINS FOR THE SUN ROOM 

A sun room with its many windows is a 
special problem in curtaining. Simple 
curtains are needed to cut down glare, 
but at the same time let in plenty of sun- 
shine. Curtains are also an excellent 
way to add color and gayety to the sun 
room. Shades of bright-colored awning 



cloth or striped linen mounted on spring 
rollers are suggested for the sun room. 
Such shades are decorative enough to take 
the place of curtains and have all the 
needed utility features. Also these heavy 
materials with colors fast to light are likely 
to be more durable than lighter weight 
materials. The sun's rays have an injuri- 
ous effect on many textile fibers as well as 
on dyes. That is the reason many cur- 
tain materials get tender and go to pieces 
on laundering after they have been up for 
a comparatively short time. In a sun 
room curtain materials are put to a partic- 
ularly hard test. 

The sun room in the picture has awning 
cloth shades. The background of the 
cloth is natural linen color, and the stripes 
are blue, green, orange, and reddish violet. 
These colors blend with the rug in two 
shades of blue and orange. The cushions 
on the wicker chairs and the porch swing 
repeat these same colors in various com- 
binations. An attractive addition over 
each shade would be a scalloped fitted val- 
ance of the same material deep enough to 
cover the roller. The valance should be 
made on buckram or beaver board and 
nailed to a board 4 inches wide resting on 
top of the window frame. 

MAKE GIRLS' SCHOOL DRESSES SIMPLE 
AND EASY TO LAUNDER 

Possibly no task gives a mother more 
real enjoyment than selecting or making 
the dresses worn by her small daughter 
when she is between 3 or 4 and 10. Some- 
times the mother herself feels once more 
like a little girl with a doll to dress, and 
she takes so much pleasure in planning 
her "doll's" wardrobe that she allows her 
imagination to run riot. The little girl, 
too, has ideas about frills and ruffles and 
fancy decorations she has seen on other 
children's clothes. The result is often an 
elaborate, overtrimmed impractical group 
of dresses which not only give much work 
in the making but also in "doing up." 

Dresses that are too fussy or too fragile 
for everyday wear prevent a child from 
indulging in normal active play, and make 
her too conscious of herself and her ap- 
pearance; or else they are soon dirty and 



May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



113 



draggled and much less pleasant to look 
at than plain, sturdy play suits. Another 
unfortunate point, too, is that the frocks 
that make a little girl look like a dressed- 
up doll are not really in good taste except 
for "dress-up" occasions. If worn to 
school the child is likely to be criticized 
rather than admired. 

The little girl should have dresses that 
can be easily made and laundered, that 
are comfortable to wear, pleasing to look 
at, and easy to put on and take off. Even 
a 3-year-old can learn to dress herself if 
the fastenings are few in number, with 
large, findable buttons, placed in front. 

It is not necessary to choose dull, unin- 
teresting colors, for there are many gay, 
fast-colored cotton prints available that 
appeal to any little girl. In wintertime 
they may be replaced by warm, washable 
challies in similar designs. Plain colors, 
too, are good in such materials as broad- 
cloth and poplin. 

The fact that little girls grow contin- 
ually and in all directions should always 
be kept in mind in selecting patterns for 
them. Raglan sleeves are the most satis- 
factory for allowing for chest expansion. 
Lengthening must be possible by means 
of wide hems, tucks that can be let out, 
and loose finishes at neck, wrists, and 
knees. Waistbands on bloomers or the 
line where a waist and skirt join should be 
loosely fitted at first. 

BUILT-IN CONVENIENCES 

More and more the housewives uf the 
country are arousing the interest of home 
builders to carry the benefit of their experi- 
ences into improvements in new homes, 
as they are built, making remodeling un- 
necessary. Arrangement of closets, stor- 
age spaces, windows, lights, etc., should 
all be worked out according to an efficiency 
plan. Built-in equipment takes the place 
of heavy pieces of portable furniture which 
previously took up floor space, had to be 
bought when furnishing a house, and had 
to be moved when cleaning. 

Another advantage of built-in equip- 
ment is that it can be made harmonious, 
attractive, and easy-to keep clean, being 
efficient at the same time. 

Some modern kitchens are so con- 
structed that no furniture is required. 
The kitchen is the home maker's most 
important workshop. Size, equipment, 
lighting, and arrangement are the four im- 
portant factors in planning a kitchen. 
They involve the difference between many 
and few steps and comfort and strain. 

For the walls a hard, durable surface 
should be chosen and a coat of enamel 
applied which will add much to its wearing 
quality and washability. 

For the floor, linoleum is the most satis- 
factory. This is especially true if it is laid 
w y ith a cement base to insure its lying flat 




Curtains for a sun room 



\ so that the edges will not curl and allow 
water to seep under the linoleum. 

CLOSETS ADD GREATLY TO HOME 
COMFORT 

No matter how large the house, if it 
lacks plenty of closet room, it never seems 
to have a place to put things. 

Nowadays closets are much specialized. 
From the one for coats, near the front 
door, with its hooks and hangers, its hat 
shelf and umbrella stand and rubber box, 
to the closet off the back porch where there 
is space for the garden hose and the lawn 
mower, as well as Junior's "trike," each 
closet has its own duty and its own equip- 
ment. 

Among the new closets to aid home 
makers are some for the bedroom. There 
5s a compact little hanging closet, just the 
width of an ordinary door, and just the 
right depth for a pole filled with clothes 
hangers. The floor is slightly raised for 
ease of cleaning, and is sloped up toward 
the back, with notches to hold shoes. 
Every bit of space is utilized for taking 
care of clothing and none is used for 
| standing room. 

Another of these new closets is a tray 
I case that any man would be sure to appre- 
ciate. Like the hanging closet, it is in- 
closed by a door of regular size and style, 
and so can be used to give the room a bal- 
anced treatment. The tray case con- 
sists of a chiffonierlike arrangement of 
trays of various depths. They have a 
half-front, so that the man of the house 
can see at a glance, and without pulling 
out the trays, just where his shirts are or 
which compartment holds his ties and 
socks. The shallower trays are at the 



top. The two upper ones are subdivided 
into smaller compartments for small 
articles. 

CARING FOR FLOORS 

If you have a good-sized boy in your 
family, enlist his help out of school hours 
to recondition the floors. If they have 
been varnished, they should be swept 
with a soft brush, a mop, or a broom cov- 
ered with a cotton-flannel bag, and then 
rubbed with a cloth or mop slightly 
moistened with floor oil or kerosene. The 
oil gradually dries out of varnish after it 
has been applied to wood, and unless 
restored by an occasional rubbing with an 
oiled cloth the varnish becomes exceed- 
ingly hard and brittle. Use only enough 
oil to moisten the cloth or mop. 

In general, varnished floors retain their 
color and luster better if no water is used 
on them, but if very dirty they may be 
wiped with a cloth or mop wrung out of 
warm, soapy water, wiped dry at once, 
and polished with an oiled cloth or mop. 
White spots made by water and light 
scratches can generally be removed by 
rubbing with a cloth moistened with 
floor oil, kerosene, or furniture polish. 

Waxed floors should be swept with a 
soft brush or mop entirely free from oil. 
Oil softens wax and should never be used 
on it in any way. About once a week a 
waxed floor should be given a more thor- 
ough cleaning with a cloth wrung out of 
warm soapy water, or moistened with 
turpentine or gasoline. Occasionally after 
cleaning, the entire floor may be given a 
very thin coat of wax and polished with a 
weighted brush or woolen cloth. Under 
moderate use, however, a floor needs 

(Continued on p. 115) 



114 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1031 




Forty Million Dollars Repaid by Water Users on Construction Account 



h I A HE following tabulations disclose 
J. how the reclamation fund has been 
expended throughout the various Western 
States for construction and operation and 
maintenance on reclamation projects and 
how much of the expenditure has been 
repaid by the water users. It is note- 
worthy that despite the difficult situation 
created as a result of the low prices for 
farm products which affected the irriga- 
tion projects, as well as the country as a 
whole, 96.6 per cent of operation and 
maintenance charges and 93.8 per cent of 
construction charges due had been repaid. 
Repayments on the construction account 
show a return to the revolving fund of 
more than $40,000,000. 




Spillway, East Park Dam, Orland project, California 



Status of Construction Account Repayments, February 28, 1931 



State and project 


Construction 
account, Feb. 
28, 1931, re- 
payable 


Value of re- 
payment con- 
tracts 


Amounts of 
repayment 
contracts due 
on Feb. 28, 
1931 


Balance of re- 
payment con- 
tracts deferred 
(not due) 


Amounts paid 
on amounts 
due 


Amounts un- 
collected of 
amounts due 


Per cent 
repaid of 
amounts due 




$10, 166, 021 97 


$10 166 021 97 


$6 506 254 09 


$3 659 767 88 


$5 586 331 45 


$919 922 64 


85 9 


Arizona-California: Yuma - 


9,512,669.11 


5, 074, 957. 21 


3, 823, 569. 44 


1, 251, 387. 77 


3, 642, 782. 44 


180. 787. 00 


95.3 




2, 355, 528. 09 


2, 474, 446. 35 


765, 670. 19 


1, 708, 776. 16 


729, 937. 75 


35, 732. 44 


95 3 


Colorado: 
Grand Vallev 


4. 058, 843. 92 


4,074,584.11 


160, 219. 93 


3, 914, 364. 18 


122, 827. 52 


37, 392. 41 


76.7 




5, 466, 485. 80 


5, 509, 945. 06 


826, 700. 81 


4, 683, 244. 25 


490, 461. 16 


336, 239. 65 


59 3 


Idaho: 
Boise 


17,105,873.97 


14 698 000 12 


3 783 821 14 


10 914, 178 98 


3 765 349 37 


18 471 77 


99 5 


King Hill 


1, 489, 968. 94 


1, 489, 968. 94 


42, 550. 00 


1.447,418.94 




42, 550. 00 




Minidoka 


13,789,934 12 


11,614 415 80 


7 162 557 24 


4 451 858 56 


7 066 490 13 


96 067 11 


98 7 


Minidoka-Gooding 


3, 331, 784. 67 


5, 278, 735. 97 


278, 735. 97 


5, 000, 000. 00 


278, 735. 97 




100.0 


Montana: 


1, 853, 375. 78 


1, 806, 752. 19 


537, 807. 75 


1,268,944 44 


537,650 56 


147 19 


99 9 


Milk River 


5, 337, 289. 84 


5,012 000 00 


3, 002. 76 


5, 008, 997. 24 


3 002 76 




100 


Sun River - 


7, 374, 127. 05 


10, 012, 693. 49 


199, 025. 73 


9, 813, 667. 76 


197. 463. 73 


1, 562. 00 


99.2 


Montana-North Dakota: Lower Yellowstone 


4, 083, 092. 46 


4, 134, 864. 70 


251, 853. 21 


3, 883, Oil. 49 


248, 693. 62 


3. 159. 59 


98.7 


Nebraska-Wyoming' North Platte 


20, 976, 764. 74 


22,206 003 25 


2,897,824 16 


19, 308, 179 09 


2,813,268 72 


84 555 44 


97 1 




3, 484, 999. 52 


3, 260, 278 05 


1,051 002 23 


2, 209, 275 82 


1,047,651 34 


3 350 89 


99.7 


New Mexico: Carlsbad 


1, 420, 867. 61 


1, 425, 182. 75 


920, 241. 63 


504, 941. 12 


857, 296. 34 


62, 945. 29 


93.2 




12 929,384 15 


13 639,075 00 


2,952,801 00 


10,686,274 00 


2,554,444 15 


398 356 85 


86 5 


Oregon: 


4, 397, 257. 79 


3, 818, 252. 93 


468, 839. 15 


3, 349, 413. 78 


389, 145 44 


79,693 71 


S3. 


Vale 


3, 182, 842. 32 


4, 500, 000. 00 




4, 500, 000. 00 










5, 571, 007. 37 


4, 067, 709. 12 


1, 091, 820. 05 


2, 975, 889. 07 


1, 031, 730. 23 


CO 089 82 


94 5 




4, 736, 765. 84 


18, 000, 000 00 




18,000,000.00 








South Dakota* Belle Fourche 


4, 600, 799. 76 


5, 404, 739. 77 


617, 789. 39 


4, 786, 950. 38 


607, 525. 08 


10 264 31 


98 3 


Utah: 
Salt Lake Basin 


2, 709, 043. 89 


3, 000, 000. 00 




3, 000, 000. 00 










3, 342, 028. 55 


3, 342, 028. 55 


1, 194, 383. 69 


2, 147, 644. 86 


1, 169, 432. 71 


24, 950. 98 


97.9 


Washington: 
Okanogan _ . _ . 


424, 198. 97 


424, 198. 97 


141, 217. 39 


282, 981. 58 


131,217.39 


10, 000. 00 


92.9 


Yakima 


14, 158, 897. 49 


11,661,746.76 


6, 479, 007. 85 


5, 182, 738. 91 


6, 240, 333. 30 


238, 674. 55 


96.3 


Yakima-Kittitas 


7 781 841 18 


9 000 000 00 




9 000 000 00 








Wyoming: 
Riverton 


3, 902, 595. 38 

















8, 032, 376. 81 


5, 583, 409. 08 


801, 127. 76 


4, 782, 281. 32 


800, 362. 30 


765. 46 


99.9 


















Total 


187, 576, 667. 09 


190, 680, 010. 14 


42, 957, b.'2. ."6 


147, 722, 187. 58 


40, 312, 143. 46 


2, 645, 679. 10 


93.8 



















May, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



115 



Status of Operation and Maintenance Account Repay- 
ments, February 28, 193 1 



State and project 


Amount due 


Amount repaid 


Charges due 
and unpaid a 


Per cent 
mounts due 











Arizona-California: Yuma 

California: Orland 

Colorado: 

Grand Valley 

Uncompahgre 

Idaho: 

Boise 

King Hill 

Minidoka 

Montana: 

Huntley - - - 

Milk River 

Sun River 

Montana-North Dakota: Lower Yellowstone 

Nebraska- Wyoming: North Platte 

Nevada: Newlands _ 

New Mexico: Carlsbad 

New Mexico-Texas: Rio Grande 

North Dakota: 

Buford -Trenton _ 

Williston . 

Oregon: Umatilla 

Oregon-California: Klamath 

South Dakota: Belle Fourche.. 

Utah: Strawberry Valley 

Washington: 

Okanogan 

Yakima.. 

Wyoming: Shoshone - 



Total. 



$3,237,402.19 
488, 122. 33 

159,875.00 
1, 052, 237. 70 

2,109,717.41 

60, 711.27 

1. 800, 197. 36 

546, 029. 25 

152,235.24 

158,971.46 

304, 353. 33 

1,814,899.22 

1,167,318.55 

815, 281. 52 

2, 876, 755. 87 

2,317.41 

34, 042. 75 

369, 107. 27 

1,111,735.78 

852,308.18 

376, 875. 48 

371,441.72 

4, 235, 372. 38 

540, 783. 73 



$3, 144, 382. 36 
467, 844. 87 

159,875.00 
931,468.44 

2,109,717.41 

CO, 71 1.27 

1,800,197.36 

546, 029. 25 

148, 541. 00 

158, 789. 64 

304, 353. 33 

1,810,085.99 

1,167,318.55 

774, 029. 18 

2, 564, 613. 41 

2,317.41 

34, 042. 75 

369, 107. 27 

1, 035, 035. 05 

852, 308. 18 

376, 875. 48 

371, 441. 72 

4, 058, 458. 95 

540, 669. 87 



$93, 019. 83 
20, 277. 46 



120, 769. 2 



24,638,090.40 ; 23,788,213.74 



3, 1,94. 24 
181.82 



4, 813. 23 



41, 252. 34 
312, 140. 46 



76, 700. 73 



176,913.43 
113.86 



849, 876. 66 



97.1 
95.8 

100.0 
88.5 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
97.6 
99.9 

100.0 
99.7 

100.0 
94.9 
89.1 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
93.1 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
95.8 
99.9 

96.6 



Measuring Hay Stacks 

(Continued from p. 110) 
EXAMPLE 

To determine the volume of a rectangu- 
lar stack of the high, round-topped type 
that is 20 feet wide, 45 feet over, and 50 
feet long. 

Volume = (0.52X45) - (0.46X20) X 
(20X50). 

0.52X45=23.40 
0.46X20= 9.20 



14.20 
14.20X20X50=14,200 cubic feet 

CUBIC FEET PER TON 

Many factors affect the density of hay 
in the stack and therefore the number of 
cubic feet required for a ton of hay. The 



to the same extent as moisture. For these 
reasons there is often a considerable dif- 
ference in the number of cubic feet re- 
quired for a ton in different stacks, and, 
at present, there are no simple methods for 
measuring variations in density. 

The following figures, which are the 
averages obtained from a large number of 
stacks, can be used with fairly good 
results: 



Kind of hay 



Alfalfa 

Timothy and timothy mixed ... 
Wild... 



Length of time in 
stack 



30 to 90 Over 90 
days days 



Cubic feet Cubic feet 
per ton per ton 



485 
640 
600 



470 
625 
450 




Cross section of typical oblong stacks 



factor that causes the greatest variation 
is probably moisture in the hay at stacking 
time. Tough or slightly undercured hay 
will settle and become more compact than 
very dry or overcured hay. Other factors 
like texture and foreign material may 
affect the density also, but probably not 



When these figures are used with the 
rules for determining volume herein recom- 
mended more accurate results will be ob- 
tained than if such rules as the Frye- 
Bruhn or Quartermaster rules are used 
with such figures for cubic feet per ton as 
have been in common use heretofore. 



Curtain Problems 

(Continued from p. 113) 

rewaxing only two or three times a year. 
Applying too much wax is a common 
mistake. Rub white spots with a woolen 
cloth or weighted brush, applying a little 
wax if necessary. Keep a slip-on cover 
on the weighted brush when it is not in 
use. Never allow it to come into contact 
with oil. 



Organization Activities 

(Continued from p. Ill) 

Miss Mae A. Schnurr, assistant to the 
commissioner, has the honor of being the 
recipient of a letter mailed out from the 
newly established post office at Boulder 
City, Nev., on its opening date, April 15, 
1931. 



Early in March a settlement conference 
was held in Great Falls, Sun River project. 
R. W. Reynolds, commissioner of agricul- 
tural development and colonization, Dan 
Noble, colonization agent, Mr. Ford, 
livestock agent, and Mr. Randall, freight 
and passenger agent, all of the C. M. & 
St. P. & P. Railroad; D. P. Thurber, 
associate county agent, A. W. Walker, 
project superintendent, and J. E. Young, 
banker, were present. The Milwaukee 
officials were well pleased with the results 
of their advertising campaign. 



W. J. Burke, district counsel, stopped 
ai Great Falls, Sun River project, 'on 
March 17, for a short conference with the 
superintendent. The latter part of the 
month Mr. Burke spent four days on the 
Belle Fourche project, where he considered 
contract confirmation and also tax title 
difficulties on lands in the district. 



B. E. Stoutemyer, district counsel, 
attended the conference of irrigation dis- 
trict representatives called by the acting 
superintendent of the Yakima project on 
March 27 for the -purpose of discussing 
water supply conditions during the coming 
irrigation season. 



ON March 30 the Great Northern 
Railway Co. started construction 
work on the line of their amended location 
between Klamath Falls, Oreg., and 
Stronghold, Calif. This line crosses the 
Klamath project, passing through or near 
the towns of Merrill and Malin. 



116 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



May, 1931 




Photo, by Beyer, Bureau of Reclamation. 

Water users who were in Washington at the opening of the Japanese cherry blossoms saw this remarkable 

view at the Tidal Basin 



At his attractive home, 60 Elm Avenue, 
Taeonia Park, D. C., Morris Bien cele- 
brated his seventy-second birthday on 
April 17. As physical evidence of the 
fact that his many friends in Reclamation 
had him in mind, their signatures were 
affixed to a scroll, which was suitably 
worded to express our "heartiest birthday 
greetings," and this was sent to him, 
together with a beautiful floral offering. 



Prof. Alvin Kezer, head of the Agron- 
omy Department, Colorado Agricultural 
College, spent March 4 and 5 with the 
local county agent on the Grand Valley 
project. Mr. Kezer called at the project 
office several times and was in the field in 
connection with a contemplated experi- 
mental plot of land under the project. 



The plan contemplates experimenting on 
about 5 acres of ground with various 
methods of reclaiming land which has 
been seeped. 



Filemore C. Rodriguez, a student of the 
Bureau of Public Works of Manila, P. I., 
spent the month of March in the Denver 
office studying reclamation methods. 



A. J. Hobson, electrical engineer, 
Richard Randolph, hydraulic engineer, 
and Bob Fletcher, designer, all of the 
Panama Canal Zone, spent the entire 
month of March in the Denver office 
assisting in the preparation of designs for 
the Madden Dam. 



D. W. Aupperle, director of the Grand 
Valley Water Users' Association, called at 
the Denver office on March 12 to confer 
regarding the sale of power to be pur- 
chased at the proposed Orchard Mesa 
[ power plant. 

Miss Marie L. Hagmuller, clerk to the 
Committee on the Conservation and Ad- 
ministration of the Public Domain with 
headquarters for the past several months 
in the Washington office of the Bureau of 
Reclamation, has just been elected an 
honorary member of the National Indian 
War Veterans, the only woman in the 
history of the organization to have re- 
ceived this distinction. Miss Hagmuller's 
father, Matthew Hagmuller, was an old 
Indian fighter and an active member of 
the organization for many years. 



Pearl of Great Price 

COMMISSIONER. I observe that you 
treat that gentleman very respectfully. 

PROJECT SUPERINTENDENT. Yes; he's 
one of our early settlers. 

COMMISSIONER. Early settler? Why 
he's not more than 40 years of age. 

PROJECT SUPERINTENDENT. That may 
be true, but he pays his bills on the first 
of everv month. 



Reclamation Products for 
Paris Exposition 

(Continued from page 109) 

Lima beans, early garden sugar peas, 
sauerkraut. 

Kaysville Canning Corporation, Kays- 
ville, Utah: Royal Anne cherries, apricots, 
peaches, tcmatoes, fancy ungraded peas, 
sifted early June peas, fancy cut stringless 
beans, labels. 

Khoshone project, Wyoming. Great 
Western Sugar Co. Six souvenir bags of 
beet sugar made at the Lovell factory. 




OWYHEE DAM, OWYHEE PROJECT, OREGON-IDAHO 

Left: Pouring concrete pipe at Dunaway; mixer and gravel plant in distance. Right: Reinforced concrete pipe in storage yard at Dunaway. 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION FOR THE BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 

RAY LYMAN WILBUR, SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Jos. M. Diion. First Assistant Secretary; John Edwards, Assistant Secretary; E. C. Finney, Solicitor of the Interior Department; 

E. K. Burlew, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary and Budget Officer; 

Northcutt Ely and Charles A. Dobbel, Executive Assistants 



Miss M. A. Schnurr, Assistant to the Commissioner 
\V. F. Kubach, Chief Accountant 



Washington, D. C. 
Elwood Mead, Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 

P. W. Dent, Assistant Commissioner 

C. A. Bissell, Chief of Engineering Division 

C. N. McCulloch, Chief Clerk 

Denver, Colo. Wilda Building 



Hugh A. Brown, Director of Reclamation Economics 
George (). Sanford, Assistant Director of Reclamation 
Economics 



R. F. Walter, Chief Eng.; S. O. Harper, Gen. Supt. of Construction; J. L. Savage, Chief Designing Eng.; E. B. Dehler, Hydrographic Eng.; L. N. McClellan, Electrical 
Eng.; C. M. Day, Mechanical Eng.; Armand Oflutt, District Counsel; L. R. Smith, Chief Clerk; Harry Caden, Fiscal Agent; C. A. Lyman, Field Representative 

Projects under construction or operated in whole or in part by the Bureau of Reclamation 



Project 


Office 


Official in charge 


Chief clerk 


Fiscal agent 


District counsel 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 






R M Priest 


Superintendent . 


J. C.Thrailkill 
E. R. Mills 

C. II. Lillingston... 
E. A. Peek... 
O. H. Bolt 


E. M. Philebaum. 
/Charles F. Wein- 
l kauf. 
C. H. Lillingston.. 
E. A. Peek 
F. D. Helm... 


R J Coffey 


Los Angeles, Calif 
Do. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
LosAngeles,Calif 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
El Paso, Tex. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Las Vegas, Nev 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 






Walker R. Young. 

R. C. E. Weber... 
W. J. Chiseman.-. 
L. J. Foster 
R J Newell 


do 




Orland, Calif.. 
Grand Junction, Colo. 
Montrose, Colo 


Superintendent . 
do 
...do.... 
do 


J. R. Alexander. . . 
R. J. Coffey 
J. R. Alexander. .. 
do.- 
B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 


Grand Valley 






Boise, Deadwood Dam.. 




do 


do 


C B. Funk 


do 




E. B. Darlington. 
H. H. Johnson 
\ W Walker 


do 


G. C. Patterson... 
E E. Chabot 


Miss A. J. Larson . 
E. E. Chabot 


do 


Milk Rivers 


Malta, Mont 
Fairfield, Mont 


...do 
do 


Win. J. Burke... 
do 


H W. Johnson 






H \ Parker 




do 


North Platte * 




C. F. Gleason 
L E Foster 


Supt. of power. . 
Superintendent - 
do 


A. T. Stimpflg' 
W C. Berger 


A. T Stimpflg 


do 




Carlsbad, N' Mex 


W. C RHI- 


H.J.S.Devries 
do . . 




El Paso Tex 


L R Fiock 


II. II. Berryhill H TT Rerrvhill 


Umatilla, McKay Dam. . 
Vale 


Pendleton, Oreg 
Vale Oreg 


C. L. Tice__ 
Chas.C.Ketchum. 
B E Hayden 


Reserv. supt 
Superintendent 
do 


C. M. Voyen 


Denver oiliee 


B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 






Klamath Falls, Oreg 


N. G. Wheeler 




do 


Owyhee 

Belle Fourche 


Owyhee, Oreg... 
Newell, S. Dak 


F. A. Banks 
F.C.Youngblutt.. 
F F Smith 


Constr engr 




F. P. Greene 


do 


Superintendent. J. P. Siebeneicher... J. P. Siebeneicher. 
Constr engr C. F. Williams Denver office 


Wm. J. Burke 
J. R. Alexander. . 




Coalville, Utah 


Yukima 8 

Yakima Kittitas 


Yakima, Wash 


John S. Moore 
R B. Williams 


Acting supt 


R. K. Cunningham 
Ronald E. Rudolph. 
R. B. Smith 
W. F. Sha 


C. J. Ralston... 
do 


B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 




Riverton Riverton, Wyo... 


H. D. Comstock.. 
I. H Mitchell 


Superintendent . 
do 


Denver office... 


Wm. J. Burke.. 




dn 


do 









' Arrowrock Reservoir, Boise diversion dam, and Black Canyon power plant. 

! Jackson Lake and American Falls Reservoirs, power system and Gooding division. 

s Malta, Glasgow, and Storage divisions. 

4 Pathfinder and Guernsey Reservoirs, and power systems. 

s Acting. 



1 Storage, main, and Tule Lake divisions. 

' Echo Reservoir. 

8 Storage, Tieton, and Sunnyside divisions. 

> Reservoir, power plant, and Willwood division. 



Completed projects or divisions constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation and operated by water-users' organizations 



Project 


Organization 


Office 


Operating official 


Secretary 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 


Salt River 


Salt River Valley, W. U. A . . . 
Orchard Mesa irrig. district. .. 
Board of control... 


Phoenix, Ariz 
Palisade, Colo 
Boise, Idaho 
KingHill, Idaho. 


C. C. Cragin 
C. W. Tharp 
Wm. H. Tuller.... 
F. L. Kinkade 
R L Willis 


Gen. supt. and chief engr. 
Superintendent 
Project manager 


F. C. Henshaw 


Phoenix, Ariz. 
Grand Junction 
Boise, Idaho. 
Glenns Ferry. 
Rupert, Idaho. 
Burley, Idaho. 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
Do. 
Harlem, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont. 
Do. 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr. 
Gering, Nebr. 
Torrington.Wyo. 
Bridgeport, 
Nebr. 
Fallen, Nev. 

Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg. 
Bonanza, Oreg. 
Do. 
Payson, Utah. 
Okanogan, 
Wash. 

Powell, Wyo. 
Deaver, Wyo. 


Grand Valley, Orchard Mesa.. 
Boise ' 


H. O. Lambeth 


F. J. Hanagan 


King Hill 


King Hill irrigation district.. . 


Manager 


Chas. Stout 
W. C. Trathen.. .. 




do 






Burley, Idaho 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont, 
do 




do 


Geo. W. Lyle 
H. S. Elliott 

R H. Clarkson 


Huntley 


Huntley irrigation district 


E. E. Lewis 


Superintendec* 


Milk River, Chinook division.. 
Do 


Alfalfa Valley irrig. district 
Fort Belknap irrig. district-- 




H.B.Bonebright-. 
Thos. M. Everett. 
R E Musgrove 


...do.. 


L. V. Bogy -- 


Do 


Harlem irrigation district 
Paradise Valley irrig. district.. 
Zurich irrigation district 
Fort Shaw irrigation district-. 

Pathfinder irrigation district. . 
Gering-Fort Laramie irrig. dist. 
Goshen irrigation district 
Northport irrigation district. .. 

Truckee-Carson irrig. district.. 

Hermiston irrigation district . . 
West Extension irrig. district.. 
Langell Valley irrig. district... 
Horsefly irrigation district 
Strawberry W U A 




- do-. 


Geo. H. Tout 
J. F. Sharpless 


Do 


Chinook, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont._- 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr 


. do._ 


Do 


John W. Archer..- 
H. W. Genger... 

T. W. Parry... 
W O. Fleenor 


do 


H. M. Montgomery. 


North Platte: 


Manager 


Mary M. Kinney... 


Fort Laramie division 
Do 




do 


C. G. Klingman 
Mrs.NellieArmitage. 
Mrs. M. J. Thomp- 
son. 
L. V. Finger.. 


Torrington,Wyo. 
Northport.Nebr. 


B. L. Adams 
D R. Dean 


do 




.. do 




D. S. Stuver 


Project manager.. 


Umatilla; 


Hermiston.Oreg. 


E. D. Martin 


do 


W. J. Warner ... 




A. C. Houghton... 
R S Hopkins 


Secretary and manager. . 


A. C. Houghton 
R S Hopkins 




Bonanza. Oreg.. 
do ... .-- 


Do 






Wm.F.B. Chase 
E. G. Breeze 




Provo, Utah 
Okanogan, 

Wash. 


Lee R Taylor 


Manager . 




Okanogan irrigation district. .. 

Shoshone irrigation district 
Deaver irrigation district. 




Superintendent 


Nelson D. Thorp.... 

Geo. W. Atkins... 
Edw. T. Hill 


Shoshone: 


J. O. Roach 


Irrigation supt 




Deaver, Wyo 


Sydney I. Hooker- 


do 









1 Boise, Kuna, N'arupa, Meridian, Wilder, New York, Big Bend, and Black Canyon irrigation districts. 

Important investigations in progress 



Project 



Office 






In charge of- 



Cooperative agency 



All- American Canal 

Central California water resources. . 

Salt Lake Basin, Utah 

Columbia Basin, Wash 

Shoshone project extensions 

Boulder Canyon project act, sec. 15. 



North Platte River power . 
Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho. . 



Denver, Colo 

Sacramento, Calif 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Spokane, Wash . 

Denver, Colo. - 



..._ 

Spokane, Wash. 



II. J. Gault Imperial and Coachella districts. 

C. A. Bissell Stat of California. 

E. O. Larson State of Utah. 

H. W. Bashore - ! 

J. R. lakisch j State of Wyoming. 

P.J.Preston Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, and New 

Mexico. 

Denver office None. 

H. W. Bashore-- None. 




ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 




BOULDER CITY POST OFFICE 




BBBBOH1 

DORMITORY AND GUEST HOUSE 

BUILDINGS APPROVED FOR CONSTRUCTION AT BOULDER CITY. NEVADA, BOULDER CANYON PROJECT 

(See page 105) 




as City, 1 



.Docc. 

Ref 



RECLAMATION ERA 



VOL. 22, NO. 6 




JUNE, 1931 




A RANCH HOME ON THE KlTTJTAS DIVISION OF THE YAKIMA PROJECT, WASHINGTON 



NATIONAL BENEFITS FROM 
RECLAMATION 



Bureau of Reclamation has created over $ 1 ,000 ,000 ,000 of wealth 
for the Nation by its score of reclamation projects throughout the West. These have 
turned deserts into prosperous empires in the Salt River Valley in Arizona, and on 
the Rio Grande, the Colorado, and on lesser streams. These new American com- 
munities consume 'millions of dollars of eastern products each year, and their own 
products are of such a character and come on to the market at such a time that 
there is little competition with the great farming area of the East. 

We have begun a plan of local management, operation, and responsibility 
wherever possible. Reclamation is a wise national policy. It is self-supporting; 
all construction is financed from a revolving fund which the settlers repay. Ninety- 
six per cent of all maintenance charges and 94 per cent of all construction charges 
due were paid last year. To-day we are engaged on the greatest reclamation project 
of all history, the building of Hoover Dam on the Colorado River. Through sale of 
electric power, already contracted for 50 years, the falling waters of the Colorado 
will pay for their own capture. 

A river which is now a threat to hundreds of thousands of acres of farm lands in 
Arizona and California will be converted into a steady stream of about the volume 
of the Hudson River at Troy. It will carry commerce, water thousands of acres 
of arid public lands and furnish drinking water to a dozen cities. Power contracts 
already signed allocate this energy among three States, 12 cities, the great Metro- 
politan Water District which will build an aqueduct from the Colorado to the Southern 
California plain, and four utility companies serving the agricultural areas outside 
the municipalities. A wide regional benefit was sought and obtained. 

Arizona and Nevada may claim over 100,000 horsepower each, whenever they 
can use it, within 50 years. Surplus revenues, of which there will be millions, 
also are divided among these two Stales and a fund to build more dams in the Colorado. 
All the funds used for construction will be repaid by power contracts, with interest. 
The construction contract for the dam itself was signed on April 21 ; work has been 
under way on the railroad, highway, and construction camp for months. 

HON. RAY LYMAN WILBUR, 

Secretary of the Interior. 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 

Issued monthly by the DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C. 

Price 75 cents a year 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR 
Secretary of the Interior 



Vol. 22, No. 6 




ELWOOD MEAD 
Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



JUNE, 1931 



Interesting High Lights on the Federal Reclamation Projects 



NE of the applicants for the 50 public 
land farm units on the Riverton 
project opened to entry on May 1 was 
accepted; 15 prospective settlers were 
shown over the project; and 10 parties, 
all of whom can probably qualify before 
the examining board, make formal appli- 
cations for farms. 



ERGE numbers of men continue to 
arrive at Las Vegas from all parts of 
the country hoping to obtain employment. 
Approximately 1,000 men are now em- 
ployed and many idle men are still avail- 
able in the vicinity. About 300 persons 
are now camped near the boat landings 
and more arrive daily. Under the direc- 
tion of Deputy United States Marshal 
Claude P. Williams good order is main- 
tained and little trouble has been encoun- 
tered in this settlement. 



f I ~^HE Holly Sugar Corporation has 
_L contracted for approximately 10,000 
acres of sugar beets on the Lower Yellow- 
stone project during the coming season. 



THE preparation of land and seeding 
on the Grand Valley project was 
carried on continuously throughout April. 
Soil conditions are exceptionally good at 
this time of the year. 



ACCORDING to the local California 
_/\. and Arizona quarantine inspection 
stations maintained on the highway at 
Yuma, some 22,000 cars passed through 
Yuma during April, containing approxi- 
mately 35,000 passengers. An average 
of 433 cars daily, or a total of 13,000 cars, 
were west bound and examined at the 
California station, and 9,000, or 300 cars 
per day, were east bound and examined 
at the Arizona quarantine station. It 
has been estimated that .an average 
expenditure of $5 per car is made at 
Yuma for food, lodging, supplies, or 
repairs. It can be readily seen that the 
tourist travel through Yuma is the source 
of a goodly revenue to local business men. 

S7784-31 1 



SHIPMENTS of potatoes from the 
Minidoka project continued heavy 
during the month. More than 5,000 cars 
were shipped out during the past year 
and it is estimated that only 300 to 400 
cars yet remain that will be marketed. 
There was a substantial advance in price 
in the early part of the month. 



BOULDER CANYON PROJECT ACT 
CONSTITUTIONAL 

As the ERA goes to press, the Su- 
preme Court of the United States 
announces its decision in Arizona v. 
Wilbur, holding the Boulder Canyon 
project act constitutional. The de- 
cision is dated May 18, 1931, and 
was prepared by Justice Brandeis. 
The court takes judicial notice of the 
navigability of the Colorado, and gives 
effect to the declaration of Congress 
that one of the purposes of the Boulder 
Canyon project act is the improve- 
ment of navigation. It holds that the 
Secretary of the Interior need not 
comply with the laws of Arizona 
before building the Hoover Dam across 
the Colorado River where the river 
forms the boundary of 'Arizona and 
Nevada. Arizona's suit is dismissed 
without prejudice to her right to bring 
a later action, in case the Boulder 
Canyon project should later interfere 
with her interests. 



THE laying of the corner stone of 
the new Masonic Temple at Powell, 
Shoshone project, took place on May 1, 
the ceremony being attended by Masons 
from the towns of the entire Big Horn 
Basin. 

THE Department of Commerce is 
planning the erection of a radio 
broadcasting station at Yuma, Ariz., in 
connection with the new lighted southern 
air mail route which passes through the 
Yuma project. 



THERE are 1,800 acres of newly 
seeded land on the Harper and Little 
Valley division of the Vale project, and 
approximately 600 acres on the Bully 
Creek West Bench unit, 150 acres of 
which are planted to early peas and 
onions. A number of grain crops are 
now above the ground. On the Bully 
Creek West Bench clearing of sagebrush, 
plowing and seeding are still actively 
carried on. 



'TpWENTY-ONE carloads of grapefruit 
J. were packed and shipped by rail 
during April from the Yuma auxiliary 
project. Prices received during the 
month ranged from $2.50 to $3.25 per 
box according to grade of fruit. This 
is about 15 cents per box increase over 
March prices. A further increase of 
approximately 25 cents per box during 
May, with the remainder of the season's 
pack marketed, was anticipated. 

THE Lower Yellowstone Development 
Association has continued employing 
a representative to bring in settlers to the 
project. He has already interested sev- 
eral good prospects who made a personal 
visit to the project last month. 



THE Mini-Cassia Cooperative Dairy- 
men's Association purchased 61,926 
pounds of butterfat in March, of which 
41,262 pounds were milk butterfat and 
20,664 pounds cream butterfat. The 
price paid was 30 cents per pound for the 
milk and 24 cents for the cream fat. The 
total amount of butterfat purchased is 
an increase of 1,238 pounds over the 
corresponding month last year. 



WORK was started during the 
month of April on the construction 
of about 28 miles of gravel highway 
between Malta and Hinsdale. The com- 
pletion of this reach will provide a gravel 
highway through the entire length of the 
project. 

117 



118 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June. 19lr 



Business Permits at Boulder City 

By Louis C. Cramlon, Special Attorney to trie Secretary of the Interior 



BOULDER City, the construction 
camp now coming into being in con- 
nection with the building of Hoover Dam, 
can not be the ordinary construction camp. 
The Boulder Canyon project, involving 
the creation of the world's greatest dam 
and largest artificial reservoir, has aroused 
the interest of the people of the United 
States to a greater degree than any other 
construction project of the Government, 
with the possible exception of the Panama 
Canal. The new town shares in this 
widespread interest of the country. Not 
only because of this interest and the old- 
time pioneering instinct of our people, 
but because of existing economic condi- 
tions several thousand people have 
already expressed to the Bureau of Rec- 
lamation their desire to go to Boulder 
City and engage in business there. In 
hundreds of these letters this desire is 
expressed in the strongest terms. Some 
emphasize their desire to see the building 
of the dam; many stress their lack of 
employment or the unsatisfactory business 
conditions at home. Occasionally one 
stresses the need for change of climate for 
health conditions. There is no doubt in 
my mind if the Government desired to do 
so it could create in Boulder City in the 
next year one of the most spectacular 
boom towns of recent history. If the 
Government were to reply to these inquir- 
ies without discouragement and without 
limitations, simply setting aside the 
necessary lots for building and residence 
purposes, I have no doubt a thousand 
or more would sell out what they have at 
home and go to Boulder City expecting to 
make their fortunes in business there. 
Ruin would inevitably follow any such 
movement, for the business possibilities 
in Boulder City are limited. Certainly 
the Bureau of Reclamation does not desire 
to have any part in such wholesale business 
disaster, hence the necessity for limiting 
in some way the number who will engage 
in business in the new town in its develop- 
ment days. 

In our attempt to work out a program 
for such limitation of business permits 
we have been guided by three fundamental 
principles: First, the town existing for 
the construction of Hoover Dam, it is 
important that its business section serve 
the needs of the town as fully and satis- 
factorily as possible, thereby contributing 
to the best living conditions for the con- 
struction employees; second, that inter- 
ested people throughout the country be 
protected from unwise business ventures 
so far as can reasonably be done; and 
third, that so far as is consistent with the 



other two principles, the ordinary rules of 
competition in business communities be 
not interfered with. 

Guided by these principles, various 
plans have been considered in connection 
with business permits in Boulder City. 
The system obtaining in the National 
Parks is in effect a monopoly given to one 
organization which submits to regulation 
of its charges and pays the Government a 
percentage of its net profits. The granting 
of such a monopoly has been found neces- 
sary in order to make possible needed 
facilities for the public, because of the 
short season, the remoteness of the areas 
involved and the limited patronage. 
These conditions will not obtain at 
Boulder City, and hence the idea of exclu- 
sive permits has not been adopted. 

Suggestion has been made that the 
rental for a business lease of land being 
determined, and the number to engage in 
a certain line of business being fixed, such 
leases be sold at auction and awarded to 
those paying the largest bonus. A little 
thought shows that this plan would oper- 
ate quite contrary to our purposes. The 
highest bidder might entirely over-estimate 
the business possibilities of the town, and 
then to save himself would be obliged to 
pass on to the public through increased 
charges wherever possible whatever ex- 
travagance there was in his bid. Further- 
more, the dealer who expected to comply 
fully with law and regulations in the con- 
duct of his business would be out-bid by 
the man who planned to use his business 
as a cloak for unlawful commerce in drugs 
and liquor, or for other unlawful practices. 

Hence, the revenue from these business 
permits not being the prime objective for 
the Government, but desirable and orderly 
living conditions held more important, the 
plan set forth in the circular of informa- 
tion, May 18, 1931, has been determined 
upon. Under this plan there is a fixed 
charge for the business or residence lots, in 
accordance with the area and desirability 
of location. There is no charge for the 
permit beyond the filing fee of $10, which 
is returned to the applicant if the applica- 
tion is not approved. There is a deter- 
mined attempt through the application 
form provided and through subsequent 
investigation of the applicant through 
other sources, to judge his fitness to serve 
the needs of the town. Thousands seek- 
ing permits for the same line of business 
will be carefully graded in this way by a 
board of three. The number of permits 
at first issued will be limited, and those 
believed to be best fitted to serve the town 
will be granted permits. 



At the present time there is no town in 
being, and how much of a town will 
develop there is in considerable degree a 
matter of speculation upon which opinions 
greatly vary. The need for present limi- 
tation chiefly comes from this fact. 

Later, when the town has developed and 
when any person desiring to engage in 
business there can come to Boulder City 
and see for himself the size of the town, the 
amount of business opportunity and the 
conditions of competition, this need of 
limitation will very largely disappear. 
Hence, it is expected, as stated in the 
circular, that when conditions in the town 
shall have become stabilized the limits 
upon permits will largely be removed, sub- 
ject always to compliance with needed 
regulations involving character and finan- 
cial capacity. Copy of the leasing regu- 
lations follows: 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 
BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 

Information regarding permits and leases in Boulder 
City (Boulder Canyon Project Federal Reser- 
vation) for business enterprises and 
residence purposes 

MAY 18, 1931. 
GENERAL INFORMATION 

1. Boulder City is established as an 
adjunct to the construction of Hoover 
Dam, the power plant, and the appur- 
tenant works under the Boulder Canyon 
project act. It is in effect a construction 
camp, although, owing to the long con- 
struction period, men employed will be 
encouraged to bring their families and 
establish homes, and the necessary facili- 
ties are provided to make that possible. 
The town site, heretofore a desert waste, 
arid and treeless, is 7 miles by highway 
from the dam site, the mountainous char- 
acter of the region about the dam site 
making impracticable any extensive camp 
development there. The town site is 
2,500 feet above sea level and about 1,850 
feet higher than the river. It is about 4 70 
feet higher than Las Vegas, Nev., the 
nearest town, 25 miles distant across the 
desert. Although the town site is suffi- 
ciently exposed to get the benefit, of any- 
air currents, the maximum summer tem- 
perature will be about 120 in the shade. 
Those accustomed to milder climates 
should give consideration to the possible 
effect of extreme heat upon the health of 
themselves and their families. 

Water for Boulder City use must be 
piped 6 miles from the Colorado River, 
raised about 2,000 feet, desilted, purified, 
and softened, and will be furnished to 



June, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



users at cost, expected to be approximately 
50 cents per thousand gallons. 

During the early period of construction 
of Hoover Dam electricity will be fur- 
nished to the Government by the Southern 
Sierras and Nevada-California Power Co., 
and will be resold to consumers at rates 
permitting its use for cooking and refrig- 
eration. The Government will later 
furnish power from the Hoover Dam 
power plant. 

The Government will not erect any 
buildings for commercial use or for resi- 
dence for any but its own employees. 
Permittees engaging in business in Boul- 
der City will be obliged to arrange for their 
own business and residence quarters, the 
plans for all such buildings to be subject 
to the approval of the Government, as to 
construction, height, architectural design, 
and location on the lots. All buildings 
will be of Spanish design . In the principal 
business district buildings must be of 
semifireproof construction, with brick, 
concrete, hollow tile, or adobe walls and 
stucco finish. Arcades over the side- 
walks must be provided for protection 
against severe sunlight. Industries which 
spread dust, create noise, or carry un- 
usual fire hazard or are otherwise objec- 
tionable will not be permitted in the cen- 
tral business district or in residential 
districts. 

Buildings in the residential districts can 
not be used for commercial or industrial 
purposes. 

Six Companies (Inc.), the general con- 
tractor for the dam, following the usual 
practice in large construction operations, 
will operate a commissary or general store 
carrying most lines of merchandise and 
catering generally to the wants of their 
employees and families, as well as to the 
general public. The company will also 
operate the necessary dormitories, mess 
houses, etc. It may supply credit books 
to its employees and it may be presumed 
that it will supply a very considerable 
share of the local demand in various lines. 

Hoover Dam is to be constructed in the 
Black Canyon of the Colorado River upon 
the boundary line of Arizona and Nevada. 
It will raise the water surface of the river 
582 feet and will be about 730 feet in 
height above bed rock. The contract for 
building the dam was awarded to Six 
Companies (Inc.), and requires comple- 
tion in 1938. Installation of power 
machinery will follow as required. The 
dam abuts against great natural walls of 
solid rock on either side of the Colorado. 
It will create a reservoir about 115 miles 
in length, with an area of about 145,000 
acres and with a capacity of 30,500,000 
acre-feet. It will impound the surplus 
flood waters of the Colorado, protecting 
the valleys far below and making these 
waters available for beneficial use in 



irrigation, water supply for various cities, 
and for the generation of 663,000 horse- 
power. None of the irrigation develop- 
ment will be in the vicinity of Boulder 
City. 

APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS 

2. Applications, upon forms provided 
by the Bureau of Reclamation, will be 
received until 5 p. m., June 30, 1931, at 
the office of the Bureau of Reclamation, 
Las Vegas, Nev., for the grant of permits 
to engage in business or other service to 
the public on the Boulder Canyon Project 
Federal Reservation. 

CLASSIFICATION OF PERMITS 

3. The various businesses or other lines 
of service which may be carried on in 
Boulder City are, with reference to the 
grant of permits, classified as (A) exclusive, 
(B) limited, (C) special, (D) personal. 

4. It being desired that speculation in 
supposed opportunities in this new town 
be prevented and that such living condi- 
tions obtain on the project during the 
construction period at Hoover Dam as 
will be in the highest degree conducive to 
the successful completion of the project, 
the grant of such permits will be limited 
and controlled as follows: 

j (A) EXCLUSIVE. Where the permit 
involves the operation of that which is in 
effect a public utility or such limitation is 
clearly in the public interest, an exclusive 
permit will be granted with such special 
conditions as to rates and service as neces- 
sary. In this class may be included the 
hospital, telephone system, garbage plant, 
tourist camp, landing field, etc. The 
Government may itself operate any item 
in this class where the public needs make 
such necessary. 

(B) LIMITED. In the usual lines of 
wholesale and retail business or of service 
to the public not included in classes (A), 
(C), or (D), at least two competing per- 
mits will be granted, the number at first 
granted being limited to the apparent 
approximate needs of the town. The 
Government will later grant further per- 
mits as in its judgment the public interest 
requires. 

When conditions in the town shall have 
become stabilized, the limit upon permits 
in cla s (B) will be removed, subject al- 
ways to compliance with established 
regulations requiring approval of char- 
acter and financial capacity. 

(C) SPECIAL. This includes (1) auto- 
mobile sales, (2) gasoline and oil distrib- 
utors, (3) banks, (4) motor lines to con- 
nect with outside points, (5) telegraph 
and radio companies, (6) construction and 
rental of buildings, (7) other industries or 
services requiring special treatment. 



119 

The following is proposed as to the 
classes named: 

(1) A sales agency may be established 
by any automobile manufacturing group, 
with permit for the sale of all or any of the 
cars made by that group, upon assurance 
of maintenance of satisfactory service for 
its entire line of cars, such service to in- 
clude adequate stock of parts. 

(2) Any responsible oil-distributing 
company may establish a distributing 
agency, such permit not of itself including 
the retailing of its products. 

(3) Anyone receiving the approval of 
the Comptroller of the Currency for the 
establishment of a national bank will be 
granted a permit for that purpose. 

(4) Any motor line operating under 
franchise granted by Nevada or Arizona 
will be permitted to enter the reservation 
to take on and discharge passengers, ex- 
press, and freight at a union bus terminal 
upon compliance with conditions as to 
the establishment and maintenance of 
such terminal. 

(5) Permit will be granted to any tele- 
graph or radio company to establish an 
agency for the transmission of messages. 

(6) Every facility will be afforded re- 
sponsible persons who desire to erect 
business blocks to be sold or subleased to 
permittees, or to erect homes to be sold 
or subleased- Since economy in con- 
struction and better results as to the 
appearance of the business section can 
thereby be secured, it is desirable that 
each business block fronting upon the 
plazas be constructed as a single unit, 
and desired space therein for various 
shops, stores or offices then be sold or 
subleased to permittees. 

(D) PERSONAL. Reputable members 
of the professions where personal service 
is rendered and no large investment is 
involved in establishing an office, will be 
granted permits when in good standing 
and authorized to practice in the States 
of which they are residents. 

SELECTION OF PERMITTEES 

5. In the consideration of classes (A) 
and (B) above, the applicants will be 
graded, the factors being (a) personal fit- 
ness (including character, personality, age, 
physical condition, etc.) ; (6) financial and 
service fitness (including type of proposed 
establishment as compared with the needs 
of the town and sufficiency of capital and 
equipment to meet the needs of the pro- 
posed business) ; (c) training and experi- 
ence. In such grading an additional five 
points will be allowed veterans honorably 
discharged from the United States Army, 
Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard. 
When deemed essential, a personal inter- 
view may be required before a final rating 
is given. 



120 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June, 19S1 



In the event that there are more ap- 
proved applications for permits for a 
certain line of business than are to be 
granted, preference will be given in the 
order of standing. A register of eligibles 
will be established and whenever, during 
the restricted period, further permits are 
to be granted, the applications of those 
upon such register will be given preference 
in the same manner. 

Permits will be granted only to citizens 
of the United States, and will be granted 
for the period ending June 30, 1941. 

No applications for permits will be con- 
sidered except upon the form provided. 

Each application for a permit must be 
accompanied by a filing fee of $10 in 
certified check or postal money order 
payable to the fiscal agent, United States 
Bureau of Reclamation. No cash should 
be mailed with any application. If no 
permit is tendered the applicant, the fee 
will be returned. If permit is tendered 
the applicant, the fee will be retained by 
the Government, whether the applicant 
proceeds under the permit or not. 

As applications for permits may be filed 
until June 30, 1931, no permits will be 
issued until after that time. 

Upon approval of an application for a 
permit, the applicant will be promptly 
notified. Within 20 days after mailing 
of such notice the applicant must file with 
the Bureau of Reclamation, Las Vegas, 
Nev., his acceptance and at the same time 
may file application for a lease of a lot 
or lots for business or residence purposes. 

Since the laying of water mains and 
sewers and the paving of streets will be 
in progress, it is not expected that per- 
mittees will be able to begin business or 
erect necessary buildings before Septem- 
ber, 1931, and possibly later. 

LEASES FOR BUSINESS OR RESIDENCE 
PURPOSES 

6. The land in the reservation is owned 
by the United States, and during the 
period of construction of the dam and 
until thereafter determined otherwise no 
land will be sold. 

Under conditions approved by the Sec- 
retary of the Interior, leases until June 
30, 1941, covering the approximate period 
of dam construction and the necessary 
adjustment period thereafter, will be 
granted for business and residence pur- 
poses. The approval of an application 
for a business permit will carry with it 
the privilege of leasing the necessary land 
on which to conduct such bsuiness and 
also land for residence use. Other things 
being equal, preference will be given to 
applicants for permits who will establish 
their homes in Boulder City. 

Leases for residence use will be granted 
to any responsible persons of good char- 
acter. 



The average annual rental for a busi- 
ness lot, approximately 40 by 130 feet, 
will be about $300, the rental being more 
or less than that in accordance with the 
desirability of its location. Water and 
electricity will be additional. For resi- 
dence lots the average annual rental will 
be about $120. Rentals will be payable 
quarterly in advance. Land may be used 
only for the purpose stated in the lease, 
and assignment or subletting will be per- 
mitted only with the approval of the 
Government. 

Upon expiration of leases on June 30, 
1941, they may be extended or the land 
may be sold as may hereafter be deter- 
mined by the Government, through legis- 
lative action or otherwise. 

Each lease will provide for its forfeiture 
upon violation of the penal laws or of the 
regulations, including the laws and regula- 
tions against gambling, manufacture or 
sale of alcoholic liquors and narcotics, 
prostitution, etc., or upon use of the 
premises for any such purpose. 

No lease for business purposes will be 
granted until after the granting of a permit 
for the business. 

WARNING TO ALL INTERESTED PERSONS 

7. All persons interested are warned: 

(a) That the probable population of 
Boulder City is more limited than is popu- 
larly imagined. 

(b) That, as the surrounding country is 
undeveloped desert, there is no outside 
population from which patronage may be 
expected. 

(c) That the contractor will, through 
its commissary and other facilities, fur- 
nish goods and services in competition 
with permittees. 

(d) That the amount of business to be 
derived from tourists or other visitors to 
the town is uncertain. 

(e) That the future of the town after 
1938 is likewise uncertain. 

(/) That climatic conditions may not be 
suitable to everyone. 

The Government does not represent to 
anyone that a profit can be made under 
any business permit it may grant at 
Boulder City. Although the Govern- 
ment will temporarily place limits upon 
the number of permits granted, it does 
not represent and can not know that all or 
any of the permittees will be able to 
conduct their business at a profit. Later, 
when the limit on the number of permits 
in class B is removed, ordinary conditions 
of competition will largely prevail. 

Each applicant should carefully inves- 
tigate and consider before submitting an 
application, and a personal inspection of 
the town site will give a much better 
understanding of conditions. But because 
of the expense involved in such a trip, no 
one living at any considerable distance 



should go to Boulder City depending 
upon any expected grant of a permit and 
expecting to remain. Already more than 
3,000 persons in all parts of the United 
States have expressed a desire to engage 
in business at Boulder City, and it is 
apparent that only a small per cent can 
be granted permits or could possibly 
succeed if all were granted permits. The 
purpose of the Government in limiting 
the number of permits at this time is to 
guard against the wholesale bankruptcy 
which would otherwise result from the 
extravagant overdevelopment of the busi- 
ness district because of nation-wide 
interest in the project and plans based in 
many cases upon hopes rather than infor- 
mation. But it can not assure anyone 
that the limit is sufficiently low to guaran- 
tee success to all permittees or any. 

If an application is approved, the 
applicant will then have opportunity to 
go to Boulder City before finally commit- 
ting himself, and this will be advised. It 
is to be noted, however, that, although the 
permits may in many cases be granted in 
July, the permittee will not be able to get 
on his business or residence location until 
the following September or later. 

Applications for permits and leases must 
be submitted directly by persons desiring 
such permits and leases, and all are 
warned to beware of all persons pretend- 
ing to possess special influence in securing 
such permits or leases and seeking to 
obtain money, directly or indirectly, for 
such pretended influence. Any applicant 
known to have paid anyone for use of 
supposed influence in this connection will 
not be favorably considered. 

REQUESTS FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 

7. All requests for further information 
and correspondence with reference to 
permits and leases in Boulder City should 
be addressed to Louis C. Cramton, Bureau 
of Reclamation, Las Vegas, Nev. 

Louis C. CRAMTON, 
Special Attorney to the Secretary. 
Approved. 

ELWOOD MEAD, Commissioner. 



THE Yakima Dairymen's Association 
recently completed a new plant in 
Yakima at a cost of $150,000, fully 
equipped. This is the most complete 
and up-to-date plant of its kind in the 
Pacific Northwest. The association 
handles approximately 1,500,000 pounds 
of butterfat a year and does an average 
annual business of $750,000. 

OWING to the increasing area of 
bearing trees on the Yuma auxiliary 
projects present indications are that the 
1931 crop will show an increase of ap- 
proximately 100 per cent locally. 



June. 1931 



NKW RECLAMATION ERA 



121 



By P. W. DENT, Asst. Commissioner 




Use of Milner Dam for Gooding Project 



THE United States entered into a 
contract with American Falls Reser- 
voir district No. 2 to construct an irriga- 
tion system for the Gooding division of 
the Minidoka reclamation project, the 
district agreeing to pay the construction 
cost in instalments as provided by the 
Federal laws. Among the works to be 
constructed was a canal diverting water 
from Snake River above Milner Dam, a 
part interest in which was owned by Twin 
Falls Canal Co. The diversion was to be 
effected from the backwater above Milner 
Dam. 

The contract between the United States 
and the district contained article 21 read- 
ing as follows: "The district agrees to 
assume and pay and herein and hereby 
now assumes and agrees to pay, all obliga- 
tions and claims of every kind, nature 
and description, if any, which may arise 
and accrue in favor of any or all the legal 
or equitable owners of the Milner Dam by 
reason of the diversion of water through 
the main canal as herein provided, and to 
keep the United States harmless there- 
from." 

The Twin Falls Canal Co. brought an 
action in the Federal court of Idaho 
against the district, claiming damages for 
the use of the plaintiff's dam. The mem- 
orandum opinion of District Judge 
Cavanah upon the interesting point so 
raised is given in full below: 

OPINION OF DISTRICT JUDGE C. C. 
CAVANAH 

This suit involves a determination of 
the question from the evidence as to the 
right of plaintiff to recover from defend- 
ant a proportionate part of the initial 
construction cost and operation expenses 
of the Milner Dam, upon the theory that 
the defendant is using the dam in divert- 
ing into its canal from Snake River 1,700 
second-feet of storage water without con- 
tributing its part of such costs. Upon 
the demurrer to the amended complaint, 
it was thought that as it was specifically 
there alleged that the defendant had 
entered upon and was using the reservoir 



and dam of the plaintiff without acquiring 
the right to do so, it should compensate 
the plaintiff for such use as the entry and 
use of the plaintiff's property appeared 
within the scope of the fifth amendment. 
The inquiry now is, Does the evidence 
sustain the allegations upon which that 
conclusion was reached? 'A review of the 
testimony presents not only the question 
thus referred to but others which the 
defendant now urges should defeat a 
recovery by plaintiff. 

The first is that the action is brought 
against the wrong party, for the reason 
that the defendant district does not own 
nor has it constructed or operated the 
canal system in the Gooding reclamation 
project which it is now constructing, and 
the diversion of the storage water by it 
will not take place until some future time, 
and will remain under the control and 
direction of the United States until the 
project is turned over to the defendant 
after it is completed by the United States 
Under the reclamation act, the title to and 
the management and operation of the 
works remain in the Government until 
otherwise provided by Congress. (32 
Stat. 389, sec. 6.) In a recent case 
decided by the Supreme Court of Texas, 
where an action was brought against an 
irrigation district which had entered into 
a contract with the United States, pursu- 
ant to the provisions of the reclamation 
laws, it was held that the action could not 
be maintained against the district as the 
United States was still operating the proj- 
ect which had not been turned over to 
the district. The court said: 

"Petition in suit for damages by reason 
of breaks in irrigation canal banks due to 
negligence in maintenance and operation 
against irrigation district organized under 
Revised Statutes, 1925, articles 7622- 
7807, which by article 7653 was author- 
ized to contract with United States for 
construction, operation, and maintenance 
of irrigation works, held to state no cause 
of action against such district, in view of 
section 6 of Federal reclamation act 
(43 U. S. C. A., sees. 491, 498), and pro- 



visions of contract constituting the dis- 
trict fiscal agent of the United States in 
connection with the project but reserving 
to the United States control of mainte- 
nance and operation until certain pay- 
ments required are made to 'maintain' 
meaning to hold or keep in any particular 
state or condition; to support; to sustain; 
to uphold; to keep up; to keep possession 
of; not to surrender; to bear the expenses 
of (citing Words and Phrases, 'Main- 
tain'). 

"Duties and powers given irrigation 
districts under Revised Statutes, 1925, 
article 7653, authorizing contracts with 
Federal Government for construction, 
operation, and maintenance under Federal 
reclamation act (32 Stat. 388) , are not to 
be confused with authority given irriga- 
tion districts generally by articles 7656, 
7765, which opeiate and maintain irriga- 
tion works themselves, whereas districts 
organized under article 7653, neither 
operating nor maintaining works, can not 
be charged with negligence of Federal 
Government in such operation or main- 
tenance." (Malone v. El Paso C. W. I. D., 
20 S. W. (2d) 815.) 

But the plaintiff asserts that should it 
be held that the United States is the one 
who is now using the dam in diverting the 
water from the river, yet article 21 of the 
contract between the United States and 
the defendant, wherein the defendant 
agreed to pay all claims which may arise 
in favor of the owners of the Milner Dam 
by reason of the construction of the canal 
in question, and diversion of water 
through it, grants to the plaintiff the 
right to maintain the present suit. It 
will be observed that the contract is one 
between the Government and the defend- 
ant alone, and the provision referred to is 
one for the protection of the Government 
in case it is called upon to answer for any 
such claims. The plaintiff is not a 
privity to either party thereto and can 
claim no rights thereunder. The prin- 
ciple applicable is that "a third party can 
not maintain an action on a sealed instru- 
ment to which he is not a party." Cava- 



122 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June, 1931 



naugh f. Gas ton, 47 A. L. R. 1; Hcndrirk 
t>. Lindsay, 93 U. S. 143. Therefore it 
would seem under the evidence, that as 
the United States is the one, and not the 
defendant, who has at the present time 
title to the project and is constructing the 
canal in question and doing the act com- 
plained of, the present action is brought 
against the wrong party, although it is 
contemplated that the project will at 
some future time be turned over to the 
defendant. Until that time arises and 
the project is turned over to it in the 
manner provided by law, and it does some 
act -for which plaintiff is entitled to 
recover, an action against it at this time 
would be prematurely brought. 

The conclusion thus reached disposes of 
the case, and a consideration of the other 
questions becomes unnecessary, but as 
considerable testimony was taken it would 
seem proper for the court to consider and 
dispose of some of the other contentions 
of the defendants as reasons why the 
plaintiff should not recover on the present 
record. 

RIGHTS IN THE DAM 

The first is that when we come to con- 
sider the relative rights and interests in 
the dam, the evidence discloses clearly 
that the defendant has acquired from the 
North Side Canal Co. a one-eleventh 
interest in the dam, in consideration of it 
conveying through its canal 1,000 second- 
feet of storage water for the North Side 
Canal Co. The Milner Dam now belongs 
to three parties, the plaintiff, the South 
Side Canal Co., owning six-elevenths in- 
terest, the North Side Canal Co. owning 
four-elevenths interest, and the defendant 
district one-eleventh interest. They are 
tenants in common in the dam, and are 
entitled to use it in proportion to their 
interests. The North Side Canal Co. had 
the right to convey to the defendant an 
undivided one-eleventh interest in the 
dam, held in common by it and the South 
Side Canal Co. The conveyance was not 
a specified divided interest in the prop- 
erty held in common, but an undivided 
interest which constitutes the grantee a 
tenant in common with the grantor. Idaho 
C. S. sec. 5328, 5372; Powell v. Powell, 126 
Pac. 1058; Gordon ti. San Diego, 36 Pac. 
18; Verdugo Canon Water Co. v. Verdugo, 
93 Pac. 1021. 

Assuming that the defendant should be 
required to pay its proportionate share of 
the initial construction and operating 
costs, when measured by the standard as 
to > their respective diversion capacities 
from the river, the plaintiff has 3,600 
second-feet, the North Side Canal Co. 
3,300 second-feet by its own diversion, 
and 1,000 second-feet of continuous flow 
rights in the new canal of the defendant, 
plus their storage rights, and the de- 
fendant 1,700 second-feet in the new 



canal. Plaintiff's right of 3,600 second- 
feet equals 7,200 acre-feet per day. Fig- 
uring then plaintiff's rights of 7,200 acre- 
feet times 365 days in the year, it would 
equal 2,628,000 acre-feet per annum, and 
in addition to that it has 92,000 acre-feet 
of storage water rights in Jackson Lake, 
and 145,000 acre-feet of storage water in 
American Falls Reservoir, making the 
total diversion rights 2,865,000 acre-feet 
per annum. The North Side Canal Co. 
has 3,300 second-feet per day, or 6,600 
acre-feet, or 2,407,000 acre-feet per 
annum, and in addition to that it has 
storage water in the American Falls 
Reservoir of 150,000 acre-feet, making 
its total diversion right 2,559,000 acre- 
feet per annum. The right of the de- 
fendant is 400,000 acre-feet each season 
of the storage water of American Falls 
Reservoir. Thus the total diversion 
rights at Milner Dam of the three parties 
is 5,824,000 acre-feet per annum. Figur- 
ing then on that basis, the defendant 
being a tenant in common, it would be 
entitled to divert or to use the dam up 
to a diversion capacity of one-eleventh 
of the total capacity of 5,824,000 acre- 
feet per annum, which is 529,454 acre- 
feet, or 129,450 acre-feet in excess of its 
present stored water right of 400,000 acre- 
feet which it proposes to divert at its 
headgate on the river. Therefore it 
would seem that if the rights of these 
three owners of the dam are measured 
according to their water rights, which are 
raised in the river by the dam to the 
necessary elevation so that they can be 
diverted through their canals, then the 
defendant has already paid more than its 
proportionate part of the initial cost of 
the construction of the dam by purchasing 
the one-eleventh interest in it from the 
North Side Canal Co. The parties assert 
that they are willing to contribute their 
proportionate part of the maintenance and 
operating costs of the dam. 

This then leads to the consideration of 
the further thought, which is really the 
difficult problem involved in the case 
under the constitution and laws of the 
State, when applied to the evidence, as 
to the right of plaintiff to require subse- 
quent appropriators above the dam on the 
stream to contribute to the costs of 
construction and operation of the dam. 
The dam was constructed for the purpose 
of raising the water in the river to a cer- 
tain elevation above the bed of the river, 
so that the water rights of the plantiff and 
the North Side Canal Co. could be 
diverted through their canals. It was not 
intended to be used as a reservoir, storing 
water to be drawn upon whenever desired. 
Its backwater extended to about 25 miles 
up the river, and the point of diversion of 
the canal in question isabout400feetabove 
the dam. There is a sharp conflict in the 
evidence as to what effect the water to be 



diverted through the new canal would 
have upon the operation of the dam or 
interference with other rights. Engineers 
of equal reputation and ability who have 
testified differ as to that. Some say that 
the additional 1,700 second feet when 
placed in the river would cause greater 
pressure upon the dam, and cause confu- 
sion and complications in its operation, 
while others say no. But however that 
may be, the extent of the rights of plaintiff 
is that of an easement limited to the 
right to the use of the dam, so far as may 
be necessary for the construction, main- 
tenance' and use of its canals and ditches. 
(26 Stat. 1102, sec. 21.) The easement 
was granted by the United States upon its 
public lands (Natoma Water & Mining 
Co. v. Hancock, 35 Pac. 337; Whitmore v. 
Pleasant Valley Coal Co., 75 Pac. 748), 
and is limited to the purposes specified in 
the statute. The mere fact that the 
plaintiff has constructed a dam, and by 
doing so has raised the bed of the stream 
to an elevation which it found necessary 
in order to divert its water through its 
canal, would not give to it the right to 
require subsequent appropriators of water 
from the stream or users of storage water 
flowing in the stream to contribute to the 
initial cost of construction of the dam. 

RIGHT TO APPROPRIATE WATER 

The right to divert and appropriate 
the unappropriated waters of a natural 
stream to beneficial uses shall never be 
denied under the constitution of the 
State. (Idaho Const., art. 3, sec. 15.) 
This principle applies to the right to the 
use of such stream as a highway to carry 
storage water from a reservoir. (Idaho 
C. S. sec. 5624.) The regulation of such 
use is by the statute of the State vested 
in the Commissioner of Reclamation 
and the water masters on the stream. 
(Idaho C. S. sees. 5606, 5607, and 5611.) 
Thus it will be seen that the right to 
appropriate water or to use a public 
stream for that purpose is not an un- 
restricted one, and must be exercised 
with regard to the rights of the public. 
The permission here given to the plaintiff 
is a mere license to use the method of 
construction of a dam for raising water 
to a level so that it can be diverted 
through its canal for distribution on its 
lands. To say that it can go further 
than that and require other appropriators 
or users on the stream who may be above 
its dam to contribute to the cost of con- 
struction of the dam would result in such 
a monopoly as to work disastrous -con- 
sequences to the public. If it can re- 
quire the defendant to contribute the 
large amount demanded, then it could 
go up the stream for a distance of 25 
miles and require all subsequent ap- 
propriators or those who may use the 
stream to carry storage water from 



June, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



123 



American Falls Reservoir to contribute 
to the construction cost of the dam. 
Such a right in principle is denied by the 
Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in the 
case of Schodde t>. Twin Falls Land & 
Water Co. (161 F. 43), which was affirmed 
by the Supreme Court, Schodde t>. Twin 
Falls Land & Water Co. (224 U. S. 107.) 
The fact that plaintiff has created an 
artificial condition in the river by the 
construction of the dam, which has re- 
sulted in backing up the water in the 
stream for 25 miles, and to an elevation 
which others may utilize, would not give 
to it the exclusive right to compel de- 
fendant to contribute to the initial cost 
of the dam, for they have the right to 
use the stream in the condition they may 
find it as long as they do not injure or 
interfere with plaintiff in diverting its 
water. They have the right in the first 
instance to use the stream, in its natural 
condition, and probably would have pre- 
ferred to install a wheel or adopt other 
methods to lift the water from the river. 
Otherwise, the plaintiff would have the 
exclusive right to dictate to them to 
accept its dam as the method, regardless 
of the difference there may be in the 
cost to them. 

The contention of the plaintiff that the 
defendant should contribute to the orig- 
inal cost of the dam, which was con- 
structed some years ago, but should have 
no interest therein, runs counter to all 
legal and equitable principles requiring a 
conveyance of property to the one paying 
for the same. Here plaintiff adopts the 
theory that the defendant pay to it a 
part of the original cost and operation 
expenses of the dam, and after doing so it 
shall have no interest therein or voice in 
its operation. This would seem inequit- 
able, although plaintiff says the defendant 
would only be paying for the use of it, 
and the measure of relief under such 
circumstances would not be a proportion- 
ate part of the initial cost of the dam. 
Should plaintiff retain the interest in the 
dam, and the sole right of operation, 
without transferring the interest repre- 
sented by the amount defendant is re- 
quested to pay for the original cost, it 
could not expect to retain the dam and at 
the same time ask the defendant to pay 
for a part of its cost. 

The conclusion reached requires a dis- 
missal of the bill, and that defendant 
recover its costs. 

B. E. STOUTEMYER, 

District Counsel, 



Recently Enacted Legislation 



THE Elephant Butte Dairy Associa- 
tion is the name of a recent organiza- 
tion of independent milk producers 
distributing milk and farm produce in 
El Paso, Rio Grande project. 



Relief Extended to Uncompafigrc Project, Colorado 
[PRIVATE No. 300 71sT CONGRESS] 

[II. R. 14916) 

An Act For the relief of the Uncompahgre reclamation 
project, Colorado 

That if the Uncompahgre Valley 
Water Users' Association shall, under the 
contract of April 8, 1927, between the 
United States and the association, on or 
before January 1, 1932, take over the 
operation, maintenance, and control of 
the entire Uncompahgre reclamation 
project, Colorado, the Secretary of the 
Interior is hereby authorized to enter into 
an amendatory contract with the said 
association which shall provide as follows : 

First. All construction and operation 
and maintenance charges (exclusive of 
any operation and maintenance charges 
required to be paid by the association for 
the operation and maintenance of the 
project for the calendar year 1930) that 
were or shall be due and unpaid under 
said contract of 1927 on December 31, 

1930, including the then unpaid deferred 
charges under articles 17 (b) and (d) of 
said contract (without interest and 
penalties on such deferred accounts) 
and the construction charge that becomes 
due on December 1, 1931, under said 
contract, may be included in and made 
payable as part of the project supple- 
mental construction charge hereinafter 
mentioned. Interest and penalties here- 
tofore paid on deferred charges under 
articles 17 (b) and (d) shall be remitted 
and credited against the association's 
obligation for supplemental construction. 

Second. During each of the years 1932 
to 1937, both inclusive, the association 
shall have the right to expend for the 
construction of a drainage system such 
portion of the construction charge payable 
to the United States under said contract 
of 1927, as said association m'ay consider 
necessary and as may be provided for by 
plans prepared by the association and 
approved by or on behalf of the Secretary 
of the Interior, the moneys so expended 
to be secured from construction charge 
assessments to be made to meet the 
regular construction charge installments 
that become due and payable under 
the -said contract of 1927 on December 1 
of the years 1931 to 1936, inclusive. 
The amounts so expended by the asso- 
ciation for drainage each calendar year 
from December 1 to November 30, for 
six years, beginning with December 1, 

1931, shall be credited to the annual 
construction charge that becomes due 



annually on December 1 of each year 
during the period of 1932 to 1937, both 
inclusive, the payment of the construction 
charges for which it is so substituted being 
in each case postponed to be paid later as 
a part of the supplemental construction 
charges authorized in item 3 hereof. 
Should the amounts so expended and 
credited annually be less than the annual 
construction charge for the years 1932 to 
1937, both inclusive, the balance of each 
year's charge shall be payable to the 
United States in accordance with the 
contract of 1927. 

Third. The amounts so expended and 
credited, the amounts postponed under the 
provisions of item 1 hereof, and any 
amounts of primary construction charges 
applicable to productive lands that 
shall not have become due and payable 
by the association under the contract 
of 1927, on or before December 1, 1961, 
shall be considered and defined as the 
project supplemental construction charge 
and shall be made payable by the associa- 
tion in annual installments of $85,000, 
the first installment of such supplemental . 
construction charges to be payable on 
December 1, 1962, and a like installment 
on December 1, of each subsequent 
year until the total of the supplemental 
construction charge indebtedness is re- 
duced to $85,000 or less, which remaining 
amount shall then be made payable as the 
last installment on December 1 of the 
calendar year next following the year in 
which the indebtedness is so reduced; 
and 

Fourth. No stock assessment levied 
by the association to raise payments due 
the Government on construction need be 
increased more than 15 per centum of 
the normal yearly per irrigable acre 
construction installment as provided in 
section 17 of the contract of April 8, 
1927, to meet deficits or estimated deficits 
due to the failure of some of the associa- 
tion's stockholders to pay their assess- 
ments when due, any resulting delin- 
quencies as established after foreclosure 
of maximum assessment liens in meeting 
installments of charges due the United 
States from the association to be paid as 
a part of the supplemental construction 
charge authorized in item (3) hereof. 

SEC. 2. It shall be provided as a con- 
dition subsequent that said contract shall 
terminate and be annulled unless (1) the 
General Assembly of the State of Colorado 
at its twenty-eighth session enacts legis- 
tion, which becomes effective (a) author- 
izing a water users' association to be 
incorporated for a term of at least seventy- 



124 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June, 1931 



five years, and (b) amending chapter 76 
of Colorado Session Laws, 1929, so as to 
permit the decree in proceedings to con- 
firm a contract between such association 
and the United States to constitute as 
against parties defendant, including own- 
ers, lienors, and mortgagees of land in the 
district, an amendment of existing water- 
right contracts with individual land- 
owners in the district, so far as the con- 
tract confirmed is inconsistent with such 
individual contracts; (2) the Uncom- 
pahgre Valley Water Users' Association 
thereupon extends Its term of incor- 
poration for at least seventy-five years 
from the date of such amendment of its 
articles; and (3) the association secures 
promptly a confirmatory decree, con- 
firming such proposed contract with the 
United States under said amendment of 
chapter 76 of the Session Laws of 
Colorado, 1929. 

Approved, January 31, 1931. 



Law Notes 

In Lingle Water Users' Association v. 
Occidental Building and Loan Association, 
decided by the Supreme Court of Wyom- 
.ing March 31, 1931, 297 Pac., 385, it was 
held that a contract for the purchase of a 
water right could not be made to run with 
the purchaser's land, so that the assignee 
of the purchaser could be held personally 
liable for the selling price of the water 
right and for operation and maintenance. 
The contract of sale, which was recorded, 
contained article 12, reading in part as 
follows: 

"It is understood and agreed that the 
terms of this contract shall inure to the 
benefit and be binding upon the heirs, 
executors, administrators, successors, and 
assigns of the parties to this instrument, 
and * * * this instrument shall be 
deemed a covenant running with the land 
to which the water right hereby contracted 
for is appurtenant, and the successors in 
interest of the purchaser, whether he 
becomes such by purchase and covenant, 
or by operation of law, shall be bound for 
the fulfillment of the covenants of the 
purchaser herein contained, as fully as if 
this contract had been entered into by him 
in the first instance." 



In Smith v. Dickerson, decided by the 
Supreme Court of Idaho, March 19, 1931, 
297 Pacific 402, it was held that the re- 
ceiver of the Payette-Boise Water Users' 
Association (Ltd.), might levy an assess- 
ment of $1.83 against each share of stock 
of the association, in order to raise a fund 
to pay off the indebtedness of the associa- 
tion. 



Federal Supreme Court Dis- 
misses Seepage Suit 

\ 

The plaintiff in the case of Spurrier v. 
Mitchell Irrigation District, referred to in 
the October, 1930, issue of the ERA, page 
197, appealed to the Supreme Court of the 
United States from the Supreme Court of 
! the State of Nebraska. The appeal was 
dismissed April 20, 1931, for want of 
jurisdiction, the per curiam decision of the 
court reading as follows: 

Appeal herein is dismissed for the want 
of jurisdiction, section 237 (a) Judicial 
Code as amended by the act of February 
13, 1925 (43 Stat. 936, 937). Treating 
j the papers whereon the appeal was 
j allowed as a petition for writ of certiorari, 
as required by section 237 (c) Judicial 
Code as amended (43 Stat. 936, 938), 
certiorari is denied for want of a sub- 
stantial Federal question. Wabash R. R. 
Co. v. Flannigan, 192 U. S. 29; Erie 
R. R. Co. v. Solomon, 237 U. S. 427; 
Zucht v. King, 260 U. S. 174; Sugar- 
man v. The United States, 249 U. S. 182; 
C. A. King & Co. v. Horton, 276 U. S. 600; 
Bank of Indianola v. Miller, 276 U. S. 
605; Roe . Kansas, 278 U. S. 191. 



MANY inquiries are being received 
from prospective settlers and 
farmers in regard to lands on the Sun 
River project. 

DURING the month of April a 
40-acre partly improved farm 4 
miles northeast of Rupert, Idaho, 
Minidoka project, sold for $6,500. An- 
other 40-acre tract 2 miles east of Hey- 
burn brought $6,000. 



Alaska Tour for Government 
Employees 

Arrangement has been made for the 
third annual trip to Alaska for Govern- 
ment employees, their families and 
friends. This year's itinerary will be of 
exceptional interest. With C. E. Harris 
as tour manager the party will leave 
Washington, D. C., August 2, returning 
to Washington at 8.05 a. m. Monday, 
August 31. The entire trip will require 
29 days, with but 22 days and 2 hours 
annual leave consumed. 

The tour will include two full days in 
Glacier National Park, Mont., with launch 
trips on St. Mary's and Swiftcurrent 
Lakes; in Alaska two full days in Mount 
McKinley National Park, with side trips 
to Caribou Camp, Inspiration Point, and 
Sable Pass; the usual side trips in Chicago, 
Seattle, Juneau, Cordova, Valdez, An- 
chorage, and Fairbanks, and a cruise 
through Alaska's famed Inside Passage, 
Gulf of Alaska, and Prince William Sound, 
on the two finest ships operating in Alaska 
waters the S. S. Aleutian and S. S. 
Yukon. 

The maximum rate for the complete 
trip from Washington to interior Alaska 
and return will be $648; the minimum 
rate will be $590.50. The tour man- 
ager will care for all details of the trip, 
including the handling of transportation, 
transfer of persons and baggage, hotel 
and transportation reservations, side-trip 
arrangements, and incidental matters. 

Requests for descriptive booklet con- 
taining complete information should be 
addressed to C. E. Harris, Traffic Man- 
ager, United States Department of the 
Interior, Washington, D. C. 




Roswell dairy herd and first project silo on the Belle Fourche project, South Dakota 



June, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



125 



By C. A. BISSELL, Chief, Engineering Division 




Reconstruction of a Portion of the Mabton Pressure Pipe, Sunnyside 

Division, Yafyma Project, Washington 



By David E. Ball, Junior Engineer, Bureau of Reclamation. Yakima, Wash, 



SOME 10,000 acres of irrigable land 
lying south of the Yakima River and 
south and east of the town of Mabton 
depend on the Mabton pressure pipe for 
their water supply. An article, Replace- 
ment of Portion of Mabton Siphon, in 
the July, 1928, issue of the NEW RECLA- 
MATION ERA, described the replacement 
of another portion of this pipe. In the 
early summer of 1929, a leak occurred in 
the 48-inch wood-stave pipe under the 
Yakima River. It was fortunately lo- 
cated near the top of the pipe and, after 
two days' effort, was plugged with a 
wooden wedge driven from a boat on the 
river. Because of the hazardous condi- 
tion of the pipe under the river and the 
very bad condition of the pipe adjacent 
to the river on both sides, plans for recon- 
struction were made in the fall of 1929. 

PLAN OF RECONSTRUCTION 

As reconstructed, the pipe line crosses 
the Yakima River overhead and is a 
%-inch riveted plate-steel pipe, 60 inches 
in internal diameter and 518 feet long. 
The supporting structures are 13 rock- 
filled timber piers. Each pier contains 
eight driven piles braced above the river 
bed by timber struts and steel rods. All 
piers are covered with 3-inch planking to 
the maximum high-water surface eleva- 
tion of 650 and filled with rock. Elevation 
of pier tops is 656.5, and the pipe center 
line elevation is 660.5. A steel railing 
provides a walkway the full length of the 
steel pipe. The end sections of the steel 
pipe are provided with expansion joints 
to which the 56-inch creosoted wood-stave 
pipe is attached. One thousand one hun- 
dred and fifty-four feet of 56-inch creosoted 
wood-stave pipe, supported on reinforced 
concrete pedestals, complete the recon- 
struction. Six hundred and sixty-eight 
feet are north and 486 feet are south of the 
river. The reconstructed pipe was relo- 
cated so that at the river crossing the 
center line was 20 feet upstream from the 
center line of the old pipe. This permitted 
driving of piles without interfering with 
the old pipe in the river. 

5778431 2 



PIER CONSTRUCTION 

Each pier contains six vertical piles and 
two nose piles. The vertical piles are 
driven in two rows of three piles each, at 
right angles to the pipe center line. The 
rows are 4 feet apart and piles in the rows 
are 3% feet apart. Between these rows 



and 2% feet upstream and downstream at 
the top are driven the nose piles with a 
l-in-12 batter. All piles are cut off at 
elevation 655.5. The batter piles are 
dapped 12 inches to receive a 12 by 12 
inch cap, 12 feet long. Over and at right 
angles to it are placed the three 6 foot, 12 
by 12 inch caps, which rest on top of the 




Looking southwest across the Yakima River at site of river crossing* Skids for pile driving being constructed 



126 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June, 1931 




'kinking and roi'k filli 
of pier 



Note skip for hoisting rock at base 



vertical 
cradles. 



piles and support the pipe 
All pile tops are covered with 
10-ply of prepared roofing. Pier noses 
are protected with steel nose angles. All 
timber in the piers is creosoted. The 
metal work, except the galvanized boat 
spikes, was provided with one coat of 
water-gas tar. All materials for the piers, 
except rock, were furnished by the Gov- 
ernment. 

Piles were driven with an Arnott No: 2 
double-acting, steam hammer, suspended 
in 20-foot swinging leads from the 50- 
foot swinging boom of a stiff-leg derrick 
mounted on skids 80 feet long. This equip- 
ment was skidded over the pile tops. 

Rock for four of the piers extended 
back from the river bank. This rock was 
obtained near the work, hauled by truck 
and placed by hand. For the other piers, 
rock was obtained by blasting from a rock 
bluff about 500 feet downstream from the 
pipe line. It was "shot" into a chute 
from which it was loaded into a scow and 
towed to the piers with a gasoline launch. 
For hoisting from the scow into the piers 
a small skip was used. 

STEEL-PIPE ERECTION 

The riveted plate-steel pipe was com- 
pletely shop fabricated in 10 lengths of 
45 feet, and 2 lengths of 33 feet 3 l / 2 inches. 
The vertical end sections of the cradles 
were also completely fabricated in the 
shop. The handrailing was cut to length 
and drilled in the shop for field erection 
and riveting. Butt straps for the cir- 
cumferential field joints were punched, 
rolled and scarfed in the shop for assembly 
and riveting in the field. The steel pipe 



is provided with three manholes. An 
8-inch needle valve provided by the Gov- 
ernment was installed to facilitate drain- 
ing the pipe line. The pipe was shipped 
to Grandview on flat cars and hauled by 
truck and trailer to the north end of the 
river crossing for erection. 

A rather unique and very successful 
scheme was employed for getting the pipe 
sections into place on the piers. The 
sections were rolled, one at a time, with 



a hand winch onto a timber sled and pulled 
to place over greased skid blocks on the 
pier caps. The sled' runners were 125 
feet long, held together by cross members, 
and braced diagonally for stiffness. Cable 
st raps thrown over the pipe section made 
a truss of a portion of the light sled and 
made it possible to carry the heavy load 
nvcr the 45-foot span between piers. 
A Fordson tractor mounted on cater- 
pillar treads and equipped with a Hyster 
double-drum hoist was used for pulling 
the sled back and forth. A Sullivan 110- 
cubic-foot capacity compressor furnished 
air for reaming and riveting. Both 
edges of the circumferential butt strap 
field joints were arc welded to the pipe 
sections. 

WOOD-STAVE-PIPE RECONSTRUCTION 

The 56-inch continuous creosoted wood- 
stave pipe of Douglas fir is 1% inches in 
thickness and has 34 staves to the cir- 
cumference. It is supported on 143 
reinforced concrete pedestals, spaced 8 
feet apart. Bands are %-inch in diameter. 
Except at the river crossing, the replaced 
pipe was dismantled and the old trench 
partially back filled. A 3-inch gravel and 
spall rock blanket was placed under the 
new pipe and in the shallow drainage 
trenches provided along the new pipe. 

The river crossing was built by contract 
and the wood-stave pipe and pedestals 
were built by Government forces. The 
Pearson Construction and Engineering 
Co. of Seattle, Wash., was the contractor 
for the timber piers, and the Johnson- 
Gardner Co. of Portland, Oreg., had the 



COSTS 

Following is a tabulation showing detail of costs: 



Kind of work 


Unit 


Quantity 


Unit cost 


Total cost 


Dismantling old pipe and back-fill- 
ing trench 


Linear foot 


1,045 


$0. 41 


$425. 16 


Excavation 


Cubic yard 


468 


1. 08 


507. 87 


Gravel blanket 


do 


101 


4. 15 


418. 83 


Piling 


Linear foot 


4, 266 


1. 22 


5, 212. 74 


Timber 


M ft. b. m 


27, 971 


168. 22 


4, 705. 30 


Rock fill 


Cubic yard 


970 


4.42 


4, 291. 85 


Steel pipe 


Pounds _ 


97, 560 


. 16 


15, 213. 52 




Linear foot 


518" 


29. 37 




Concrete pedestals 




143 


15. 70 


3, 532. 83 




Cubic vard. 


121. 5 


29.08 




Wood-stave pipe 


Linear foot 


1, 154 


9. 27 


10, 773. 49 


Repairs to valve house 








224. 97 












Total field costs 








45, 306. 56 


Camp maintenance 1 5 per cent 








679. 60 


Engineering and inspection 3 2 per < 


jent 






1, 449. 81 


Superintendence and accounts, 8.4 p 


er cent 






3, 805. 75 


General expense 115 per cent 








5, 210. 25 












Grand total cost 








56, 451. 97 













June, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



127 



contract for the steel pipe. Pier construc- 
tion was begun December 17, 1929, and 
completed March 26, 1930. Field erec- 
tion of steel pipe was begun March 11, and 
completed April 9, 1930. Work on the 
wood-stave pipe and pedestals was begun 
May 9, 1930, but was not completed till 
December 1930, because of the necessity 
of using the old pipe during the 1930 
irrigation season. 



Notes for Contractors 

Belle Fourche project. Contract for the 
construction of approximately 43 miles of 
open drains on the Belle Fourche project 
under specifications No. 520, bids for 
which were opened on April 22, 1931, was 
awarded to the George W. Conden Co., 
of Omaha, Nebr., at a total price of $84,- 
695.50, the unit price for 921,000 cubic 
yards of drainage excavation being $0.074 
per cubic yard. 

Boulder Canyon project. Specifications 
(No. 521) and invitations for bids have 
been issued for the street, alley, parking 
area, and sidewalk grading; street paving; 
street and parking area surfacing; curbs 
and gutters; sidewalks; sanitary sewers 
and the water-distribution system for 
Boulder City. The principal items and 
estimated quantities involved are as fol- 
lows: 120,300 cubic yards of common 
excavation; 31,000 cubic yards of rock 
excavation; 20,000 station cubic yards of 
overhaul; 94,000 linear feet of curb and 
gutter; 6,000 linear feet of curb; 46,200 
square yards of 2-course asphalt-concrete 
pavement; 43,800 square yards of 1-course 
asphalt-concrete pavement; 128,000 
square yards of oil-treated surfacing; 
11,000 square yards of gravel surfacing; 
22,000 square yards of parking area sur- 
facing; 180,000 square feet of concrete 
sidewalk; 190,000 square feet of gravel 
sidewalk; 59,600 linear feet of excavation 
of sewer trench; laying 59,600 linear feet 
of 4 to 12 inch sewer pipe; constructing 
165 manholes; 52,000 linear feet of exca- 
vation of water-pipe trench; laying 49,600 
linear feet of 2 to 12 inch cast-iron water 
pipe; laying and connecting 60,000 linear 
feet of copper service pipe. Bids will be 
opened at Las Vegas, Nev., on June 30. 

Contract for the construction of the 
high pressure pipe line (specification 
515-D) from the Colorado River to 
Boulder City has been awarded to the 
Wheelwright Construction Co., of Ogden, 
Utah, at a total price of $38,452.70. 
The work comprises the laying of 6.6 
miles of 10 and 12 inch water-pipe line. 

The Pelton Water Wheel Co. of San 
Francisco, Calif., has been awarded a 
contract under specification No. 516, for 
furnishing pressure control equipment for 




Completed job. Looking northeast from south end of reconstruction, Yakima project, Washington 



the Boulder City water-supply system, 
bids opened April 17. On item No. 1, 
for furnishing 6 hydraulically operated 
control valves, 2 automatic check valves 
and 2 automatic relief valves, the low 
bid was $4,433, f. o. b., San Francisco. 
The low bid on item No. 2, four automatic 
air valves, was $1,148. 

Forty-six companies from 15 States 
submitted bids on the 18 items of pipes, 
fittings, valves, specials and miscellaneous 
materials, under specification No. 517-D, 
for the Boulder City water and sewer 
systems, bids opened at Denver April 21. 
Awards have been made to the Pacific 
States Cast Iron Pipe Co., Provo, Utah, 
items la, 2 and 13, $26,975.87; Kennedy 
Valve Mfg. Co., Elmira, N. Y., item 4, 
$2,528.75; Crane O'Fallon Co., Denver, 
Colo., items 5, 11, 12 and 16, $6,345.19; 
Los Angeles Valve and Fitting Co., Los 
Angeles, Calif., items 3 and 6, $2,587.35; 
Mueller Co., Decatur, 111., items 7, 10 
and 14, $3,370.04; Jas. Jones Mfg. Co., 
Los Angeles, Calif., item 8, $581.25; 
Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh, 
Pa., item 9, $54; Pittsburgh Equitable 
Meter Co., Los Angeles, Calif., item 15, 
$1,822.40; Salt Lake Pressed Brick Co., 
Salt Lake City, Utah, item 17, $11,312.06. 
No award was made for item 18. 

Bids were opened at Denver on May 1 1 
(specification No. 523-D) for furnishing, 
fabricating and erecting riveted, plate- 
steel surge, sump, and aerator tanks, 
air-vent pipe and accessories for the 
Boulder City water-supply system. 

Under specification No. 521-D, bids 
were opened at Las Vegas, Nevada, on 
May 15, for constructing approximately 
6.83 miles of single-circuit 33,000-volt, 
wood-pole and 0.73 mile of single-circuit 



2,300-volt, wood-pole, transmission line. 
The 33,000-volt line will extend from the 
Hoover Dam substation of the Southern 
Sierras Power Co., to Boulder City, and 
the 2,300-volt line will extend from the 
Hoover Dam substation to pumping 
plant No. 1 of the Bureau of Reclamation. 
The Newberry Electric Corporation, of 
Los Angeles, Calif., was low bidder at 
$3,340. 

Salt Lake Basin project. The Sevier 
Construction Co. of Richfield, Utah, has 
been awarded the contract, under speci- 
fication No. 520-D, for building a mile of 
farm road near Coalville, Utah, on the 
west side of the Echo Reservoir. Low 
bid was $10,754.50. The work is to be 
completed in 50 days. 

Yakima project. Specifications (No. 
522) and invitations for bids have been 
issued for the construction of the Cle 
Elum Dam. The work consists of the 
construction of an earth and gravel fill 
dam 130 feet high, a 14-foot diameter 
outlet tunnel, 1,800 feet long, a concrete 
spillway channel, and clearing about 2,700 
acres of reservoir site. The principal 
items and estimated quantities involved 
are as follows: 22,500 cubic yards of tunnel 
and shaft excavation; 990,000 cubic yards 
of excavation in open cut; 35,000 cubic 
yards of back fill; 1,200,000 cubic yards of 
earth and gravel embankment; 44,000 
cubic yards of riprap and paving; 11,200 
cubic yards of concrete in tunnel and 
shaft lining; 20,900 cubic yards of con- 
crete in other structures; placing 2,390,000 
pounds of reinforcement bars; placing 
3,800 linear feet of 6 to 3 inch drainpipe; 
16,200 linear feet of sheet piling; 575,000 
pounds of metal work; 2,700 acres of 
clearing reservoir site. 



128 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June, 1931 



' 





> v,. 

t ',-.& 



PROGRESS OF CONSTRUCTION AT BOULDER CITY 

PLATE I 
1 GOVERNMENT SURVEY CAMP ON RIVER 

2. OFFICIALS STARTING ON TRIP THROUGH CANYON 

3. RECLAMATION AND U P OFFICIALS INSPECTING 
BOULDER CITY BRANCH LINE IN RAILWAY SEDAN 

4 SPUR TRACKS AT EXCHANGE YARDS 

5 OFFICE OF U S. MARSHAL 

6 OPENING THE POSTOFFICE 

7. BUILDING SPUR TRACK TO WAREHOUSE OF 
SIX COMPANIES 




June, il 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



120 



1 ' 





PROGRESS OF CONSTRUCTION AT BOULDER CITY 
PLATE 2 

t. SIX COMPANIES' WAREHOUSE 
2 SOUTHERN SIERRAS SUBSTATION AT DAMSITE 
3. WATER TANK WITH EXCHANGE YARDS IN THE 
FOREGROUND 

4 HOUSES UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR SIX COM- 
PANIES' EMPLOYEES 

5 HOUSES FOR EMPLOYEES OF SIX COMPANIES 

6. HOUSES FOR EMPLOYEES OF SIX COMPANIES 

7. CAMP OF SIX COMPANIES AT EXCHANGE YARD 



130 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June, 1931 



Enlargement of Lost River Diversion Channel, Klamath 

Project, Oregon 



One of the main feature* in connection 
with the de\ elopment of the Tnle Lake 
division is the Lost River diversion chan- 
nol, whereby Lost Ri\er, \\hichoriginally 
(lowed into Tule Lake, is diverted to the 
Klamath River. The channel is ahout S 
miles in length and was originally con- 
structed during the years 1011 and I'.tl'J, 
l.o-t River lieing diverted through the 
channel for the first time on Ma\ 1. 1912. 

This original channel had a capacity of 
about 350 cubic foot per second and had 
carried as high as 500 cubic feet per sec- 
ond. While this capacity was ample for 
the normal How of Lost River, it provided 
only slight additional capacity for flood 
waters, and later studies and investiga- 
tions showed that for a development of 
33,000 acres in the Tule Lake division, 
the Lost River diversion channel, should 
have a capacity of 1,200 cubic feet per 
second. 

Work on the enlargement of the chan- 
nel was started in April, 1929, and was in 
progress until December 10, 1929. when it 
became necessary to divert the flow of 
Lost River to the Klamath River. On 
June 12, 1930, when it was again possible 
to turn the flow of Lost River to the proj- 
ect canals, work was resumed. The en- 
larged channel was completed and the 
flow of Lost River was again diverted to 
the Klamath River on November 14, 1930. 

The new channel has a bottom width of 
22 feet with side slopes of 2 to 1, and a 
designed maximum water depth of 12 
feet. This section required the deepen- 



ing of the old channel approximately 7 
feet, which involved the excavation of 
about 129,000 cubic yards of material. 
In addition to the canal excavation, the 
enlargement necessitated alterations to or 
reconstruction of a number of structures, 
the more important of which were 5 
county highwa\ bridges, 1 State highway 
bridge, 3 culverts under the channel, the 
headworks struct lire, the "C" Canal con- 
crete Hume crossing and 1 railroad 
crossing. 

The railroad crossing structure, which 
is about one-half mile up the channel 
from the Klamath River, was modified 
and radial gates were installed in the 
structure. This permits shutting off the 
Klamath River backwater from the rest 
of the channel, which makes it possible to 
utilize this 7} miles of the channel as a 
deep drain during the summer months 
when the entire flow of Lost River is 
being diverted to the project canals. 

Excavating equipment used on this job 
consisted of one Bucyrus class 9/^ drag- 
line, and one P. & H. class 206 dragline, 
assisted during the latter part of 1930 by 
a P. & H. class 775 dragline. The major 
portion of the channel excavation was 
done by the Bucyrus class 9% dragline. 
The P. & H. class 206 dragline was em- 
ployed on the excavation of a drain in the 
bottom of the old channel, used to drain 
the channel, so that the Bucyrus dragline 
could be operated from the bottom of the 
old channel, and also on leveling the canal 
banks behind the Bucyrus dragline. 




Alterations to existing structures and 
the building of new structures were done 
under contract. The accompanying illus- 
t rat ion shows work on "C" Canal con- 
crete Hume crossing. 

E. L. STEPHENS, 
Office Engineer, Klamath Project. 



Engineers Approve Hoover 
Dam Plans 

The Board of Consulting Engineers on 
Hoover Dam on April 20, made the fol- 
lowing report to Commissioner Mead: 

"Your board has been furnished with 
copies of the contract and specifications 
covering the plans for the design and con- 
struction of the Hoover Dam, and the 
members have individually and in con- 
ference, given careful consideration to the 
same. They have furthermore been in 
contact since their organization as a 
board, with many of the chief problems 
involved in this undertaking and have 
therefore approached this stud}' with the 
advantage of these earlier contacts. 

From this study we are of the opinion 
that these plans and specifications pro- 
vide for the construction of a safe and 
efficient structure and we hereby express 
our approval of the same for contract 
purposes. 

The contract designs and plans, fol- 
lowing usual practice, have been made 
general and must naturally be supple- 
mented by numerous detail designs and 
considerations relating to matters of sec- 
ondary importance. We are of the opinion 
that the terms of the contract provide 
adequately and fully for such develop- 
ments and variations in detail as further 
study may suggest or changing conditions 
require." 

The report was signed by W. F. Durand, 
D. C. Henny, Louis C. Hill, and A. J. 
Wilev. 



Irrigation 



i l.'n* pisrs supporting "C" Can 



flumo, Klimath project, Oregon-California 



Successful irrigation farming is the joint 
product of the engineer and the farmer. 
To the engineer is given the heavy and 
responsible 'task of constructing properly 
a permanent system of dams and canals 
from which water may be drawn; to the 
I farmer belongs the apparently humble but 
[ .une.nding and difficult task of using the 
water in the best manner for crop produe- 
I tion. Both workers are essential for suc- 
cess; but the work of the farmer deter- 
mines the permanence and extent of 
agriculture under irrigation. Dr. John 
Widtaoe. 



lune, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



131 



Rio Tercero Dam 

The accompanying photograph shows 
the Rio Tercero Dam at Cordoba, Argen- 
tina, South America, now under construc- 
tion by the Government. It is a rock-fill 
structure, faced with reinforced concrete 
on the upstream side, 164 feet high, and 
has a crest length of 1,200 feet. Storage 
capacity at spillway level will be 500,000 
acre-feet and the reservoir will comprise 
an area of 18,000 acres. Water will be 
available for the irrigation of 150,000 
acres, and the development of 30,000 
horsepower. Mr. S. E. Fitz-Simon is con- 
struction engineer on the project. He 
visited the Washington office in June, 
1930, and spent several months visiting 
Federal and private irrigation systems in 
the United States. 



Boulder City Water -Supply 
System 

Water for the new town of Boulder 
City will be taken from the Colorado 
River at a point about one-half mile 
downstream from the site of the Hoover 
Dam, 1,800 feet below and 6.6 miles from 
the town site. The average water-surface 
elevation at the intake is 646. Three 
horizontal pumps will lift the water 100 
feet to a presedimentation tank at eleva- 
tion 746, and located about 100 feet from 
the river. From this tank the water will 
flow by gravity to a 30,000-gallon sump 
tank, and the first set of booster pumps, 
comprising three 450 gallons per minute, 
1,200-foot head, centrifugal pumps. Here 
there is a lift of 1,015 feet to an interme- 
diate station at elevation 1,745 through 
10,900 feet of 10 and 12 inch pipe. 

At this intermediate station there is a 
duplicate pump installation which carries 
the water through 10 and 12 inch pipe a 
distance of 22,100 feet to a 100,000-gallon 
tank at elevation 2,557. The treating 
and filter tanks are located at this eleva- 
tion, and the three domestic water pumps, 
each designed for 500 gallons per minute 
at 170-foot head, take the water after 
being filtered and deliver it through 750 
feet of 10 and 12 inch pipe to a 2,000,000- 
gallon storage tank, the storage reservoir 
for the town, at elevation 2,665. 



With proper leveling, timely and wise 
use of irrigation water, a proper crop 
rotation and with the best varieties, the 
crop returns of irrigated farms can be 
multiplied by four and the expense of 
such increase almost negligible. 




f 



RIO TERCERO DAM, AR'iKNTINA 

(a) Employees quarters; (6) Home of construction engineer; (c) Power substation; (rf) Workshops 



Boulder Canyon Project Notes 



Six Companies (Inc.) are to spend 
$600,000 for construction of buildings in 
Boulder City. Geo. de Colmesmil, San 
Francisco, Calif., is architect. A main 
office building, dormitory, 1,000-man 
mess house and machine shop, are among 
the principal buildings now under con- 
struction. At the terminal yards, a 
warehouse of sheet-iron construction, 40 
by 250 feet, has been completed, which 
will be used for a transfer and storage 
space for materials and supplies. 



A. H. Baer, purchasing superintendent, 
is making all purchases for the Six Com- 
panies (Inc.) His office is in the Clark 
Building, Las Vegas, Nev. 



Bids were opened at Carson City, Nev., 
on April 29, by the State highway depart- 
ment, for construction of 11.01 miles of 
highway, the second section of the Las 
Vegas-Boulder City highway. Patrick 
j Cline (Inc.), of Las Vegas, Nev., was 
awarded the contract at $84,642.25. Ten 
miles at the Las Vegas end are under con- 
struction and the contract now being 
awarded will complete the 21-mile high- 
way, which will be opened to travel in the 
early fall. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co. has been awarded a contract 



by the Six Companies (Inc.) to furnish all 
electrical equipment to be used by the 
contractors in building the dam, power 
plant, and appurtenant works. The 
award, said to be worth about $2,000,000, 
includes furnishing motors and control for 
electric shovels, hoists, pumps, conveyors 
and compressors; electric locomotives, 
switching equipment, circuit breakers, 
switchboards and metals. It is under- 
stood that most of this equipment will be 
manufactured at the Oakland, Calif., 
plant. 



The Six Companies are planning some 
road construction on the Arizona side, so 
that access may be had to the summit of 
the cliffs for men, materials, and equip- 
ment. 



The first Union Pacific passenger train 
from Las Vegas to Boulder City was 
operated on April 26. Regular twice-a- 
day service is now being maintained 
between the two points. 



Progress being made by the Lewis Con- 
struction Co. on the Government section 
of railroad, and by R. G. LeTourneau 
(Inc.) on the Boulder City-Hoover Dam 
highway indicates that both jobs will be 
completed on schedule time September 1 
and July 1, respectively. 



132 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



Jane, 1031 



The Southern Sierras Power Co. will 
lease four lots In the town on which to 
build residences for substation employees. 

Survey parties of the Six Companies 
have located a railroad from the Arizona 
gravel pits to "3-Way Junction" in 
Hemenway Wash, at which point it will 
connect with a line to. the Government 
railroad, and to a line down the canyon. 
This railroad is to be constructed at once. 



The Lacy Manufacturing Co. com- 
pleted the erection of both the regulator 
and 2,000,000-gallon storage tank, early 
in Ma} - , well ahead of the end of the con- 
tract period. 

Construction of the railroad through 
the river canyon on the Nevada side, to 
be used by the Six Companies for the ex- 
cavation of the Nevada diversion tunnels 
and the dam foundation is being pushed 
on a three-shift basis. Adits are being 
excavated in each cliff to the elevation of 
the top of the diversion tunnels. These 
adits will serve as openings for the work- 
ing of two faces in each tunnel on a top 
heading, which the contractors propose 
to drive through the entire length before 
the full section excavation is started. 



\ contract has been let for the con- 
j[~\. struction and gravelling of a new road 
from Mack, Grand Valley project, west to 
the Utah State line. On the completion of 
this contract the highway through [the 
valley will be practically all gravel and 
oiled road. 



Articles on Irrigation and Related Subjects 



Wilbur, Ray Lyman, Secretary of the 
Interior: 

New program in administering re- 
sources of Nation developed (de- 
scription of all bureaus under Interior 
Department including Bureau of 
Reclamation with creation of $1,000,- 
000,000 of wealth). U. S. Daily, 
May 4, 1931, v. 6, p. 2 (p. 532). 
Mead, El wood: 

Facts about Hoover Dam, the world's 
largest irrigation structure. Illus. 
The Earth, May, 1931, v. 28, pp. 1-1. 
Hoover Dam: 

Work on Hoover Dam gets under way. 
Illus. Plans and portraits of Messrs. 
Wattis and Bechtel. The Construc- 
tor, April, 1931, v. 13, No. 4, pp. 
38-42 and 53. 

Six Companies (Inc.) (long article with 
portraits) . Western Construction 
News, April 10, 1931, v. 6, pp. 173-9. 

Committees will coordinate work on 
Hoover Dam. Southwest Builder and 
Contractor, April 3, 1931, v. 77, p. 46. 

Hoover Dam work will begin soon, con- 
tract forwarded for signature of Secre- 
tary Wilbur. U. S. Daily, April 17, 
1931, v. 6, p. 2 (p. 392). 

Electric work on dam two years dis- 
tant. Illus. Journal of Electrical 
Workers and Operators, April, 1931, 
v. 30, p. 178 and 221. 

Contract signed for Boulder Dam. 
(By Secretary Wilbur.) U. S. Daily, 
April 21, 1931, v. 6, pp. 1 and 4 
(p. 421 and 424). 




Loading potatoes at Powell, Shoshone project Wyoming 



Six Companies (Inc.), starts Hoover 
work. Illus. Western Highways 
Builder, April, 1931, v. 13, p. 34. 

Nevada labor laws apply at Hoover 
Dam. U. S. Daily, .April 28, 1931, 
v. 6, p. 1 (p. 481). 

Hoover Dam construction starts, Fed- 
eral engineers designed world's great- 
est construction project. Illus. The 
Federal Architect, April, 1931, v. 1, 
pp. 12-13. 

Water supply of Boulder City. Diagram. 
American City, May, 1931, v. 44, p. 7. 

Rush preliminary operations to speed 
Hoover dam building. Illus. Exca- 
vating Engineer, May, 1931, v. 25, 
p. 237. 
Utah Riverbed Case: 

United States Supreme Court defines 
navigable waters. Eng. News-Rec- 
ord, April 23, 1931, v. 106, p. 704. 

Utah sustained in claiming title to beds 
of navigable rivers (full text of Su- 
preme Court decision, original No. 
14). U. S. Daily, April 17, 1931, v. 
6, p. 6 and 7 (pp. 396 and 397). 

Contested titles to river beds in Utah 
are settled, Colorado, Grand, Green, 
and San Juan Rivers (case No. 14, 
original). U. S. Daily, April 14, 
1931, v. 6, p. 6 (p. 364). 
Madden Dam: 

Madden dam, power plant and works, 
maps and plans. Western Construc- 
tion News, March 25, 1931, v. 6, pp. 
146-149. 
Grunsky, C. E.: 

Comments on a few dams and reser- 
voirs. Illus. Series of five articles, 
concluding in May-June issue. Mili- 
tary Engineer, v. 23, pp. 220-228. 
Freeman, John R.: 

National Hydraulic Laboratory, Prog- 
ress report, with plans, Senate Docu- 
ment 308, 71st Congress, 3d session. 
February 17, 1931, 16 pp., 13 drawings. 
Yakima Siphon: 

Yakima River pressure tunnel. Illus. 
The Constructor, April, 1931, v. 13, 
No. 4, pp. 31-33. 
Burkholder, Jos. L., Chief Engineer: 

Conservancy laws adapted to irrigation 
development, Colo., New Mexico and 
Ohio. Eng. News-Record, May 7, 
1931, v. 106, p. 758. 

Progress on Rio Grande Conservancy 
Project. Illus. Eng. News-Record, 
May 7, 1931, v. 106, p. 759. 
Holmes, J. D.: 

24,000,000-cubic yard flood control, irri- 
gation and drainage project, under 
way in New Mexico. Illus. Exca- 
vating Engineer, May, 1931, v. 25, 
pp. 223-225 and 233. 



June, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



133 



I By H. A BROWN, Director of Reclamation Economics 




Statistical Research in the Bureau of Reclamation 



STATISTICAL research and the appli- 
cation of statistical methods in reach- 
ing basic conclusions are recognized as 
ossential to the proper functioning of the 
Bureau of Reclamation in its work of 
reclaiming arid and semiarid lands in the 
West and providing an opportunity for 
men of small means to make a home on 
irrigated land under conditions such that 
they will be afforded a reasonable chance 
to succeed. 

ENGINEERING STRUCTURES INCREASING 
IN MAGNITUDE 

The engineering problems of the bureau 
to-day are distinctly different from those 
of only a few years ago. The magnitude 
and difficulties of construction have 
steadily increased, and with them the 
problems that must be solved before con- 
struction can safely begin. The height 
and volume of dams for the storage of 
irrigation water have increased almost 
over night. Yesterday the 349-foot Ar- 
rowrock Dam on the Boise River, Idaho, 
visited annually by thousands, was ac- 
claimed as the "highest in the world." 
To-day the 730-foot Hoover Dam to be 
built in Boulder Canyon holds the atten- 
tion of construction engineers. 

Plans for the erection of this vast block 
of concrete masonry totaling 3,600,000 
cubic yards in the dam itself and 4,500,000 
cubic yards in the dam, power plant, and 
appurtenant works, involve an immense 
amount of statistical research and the 
application of statistical methods in the 
calculation of factors entering into the 
question of the safety and stability of the 
dam. These comprise, for example, in- 
tricate statistical analyses of twisting 
moments in the horizontal and vertical 
sections, tangential shearing stresses, 
corresponding vertical shearing stresses 
in the radial sections, the determination 
of displacements of the cross-sections of 
the arches relative to the corresponding 
cross-sections of the cantilevers, the con- 
tributions of the shearing stresses to the 
radial deflections, the twists of the canti- 
levers, the tangential deflections of the 



cantilevers and many other highly tech- 
nical computations involving the applica- 
tion of statistical methods. 

ECONOMICS GROWING IN IMPORTANCE 

In the economic work of the bureau, the 
compilation and application of statistics 
are becoming increasingly more important. 
Even since water was available for the 
irrigation of the first farm units on the 
early Federal projects statistics have been 




Flour mills, Belle Fourche project, South Dakota 

compiled and analyzed showing the results 
obtained by the settlers in growing crops, 
raising livestock, and in meeting their 
needs through the purchase of agricul- 
tural implements and machinery. These 
statistics have been elaborated from year 
to year until now they afford an accurate 
cross section of this phase of the economic 
condition of the water users. From the 
basic figures of acreage, yield, and value 
of crops, by projects, derivitive tables of 
per-acre yield and value of individual 
crops are readily obtained and the rela- 
tionship of these crops to the ultimate 
success of the water users on a project 
made a subject of study. 

For example, wheat is grown only to a 
limited extent on the Federal reclamation 



projects, the less than 4,000,000 bushels 
being barely sufficient to meet the local 
needs for this grain and of no signifi- 
cance as one of the surplus crops. How- 
ever, a study of the crop statistics shows 
that although wheat is not grown in ex- 
cess of the demand of the projects as a 
whole, on one or two individual projects 
the growing of wheat should be subordi- 
nated to other crops affording larger 
annual returns and better adapted to that 
particular locality. It is believed, for 
example, that part at least of the wheat 
acreage on the Greenfields division of the 
Sun River project, Montana, might, with 
greater advantage to the water users, be 
planted to sugar beets. The collection of 
an ever widening range of statistics deal- 
ing with the problems of reclamation 
economics points the way to a solution of 
these problems with a view not only to 
increasing the water user's chances of 
success but to safeguarding the investment 
of the Government in the irrigation works. 

STATUS OF RECLAMATION FUND 

In the field of reclamation accounting 
the statistics compiled by the bureau 
reflect not only the status of the reclama- 
tion fund, the cost of construction and of 
operation and maintenance, the repay- 
ments of the water users, but the financial 
status of the projects, showing inexor- 
ably whether they are operating on a 
sound financial basis or drifting to a point 
where corrective measures will have to be 
adopted to protect their own and the 
Government's interests. There is a close 
correlation in the studies thus made 
possible of a project's financial condition 
as shown by statistics dealing with this 
phase of the work and the economic 
status as disclosed by the statistics of 
crops, livestock, and other data relating 
to farm operations and social betterment. 

Knowledge of conditions must be the 
basis of any adequate solution of a prob- 
lem. Statistical research and the applica- 
tion of statistical methods in the work of 
the Bureau of Reclamation provide one 
means of supplying the knowledge essential 
to the proper functioning of the Bureau. 



134 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June, 1931 



IRRIGATION AND CROP RESULTS ON GOVERNMENT RECLAMATION PROJECTS, 1930 > 



State and project 


Lands on projects covered by crop census 


Other lands served by Government works, usually by 
n partial water supply through private canals under 
Warreii Act or other water service contracts 


Irrigable 
acreage ' 


Irrigated 
acreage 


('nipped 
acreage 


Crop value 


Irrigal.ir 
acreage 


Irrigated 
acreage 


Cropped 
acreage 


Crop valtir 
'""" J 


Total 


Per 
acre 


Arizona: Salt River . . 


246, 130 

65,895 
49,625 
14, 275 
L9S8 
20,770 

30,380 

75, 655 

170, 575 
17,025 
40,065 
48, 346 
56, 665 
1,600 
6,875 
8,000 
120,155 
71,235 
48,920 

32,540 
134,285 
56,652 
22,133 
55.500 
55, 875 
13, 900 
41, 975 

47,450 


223,013 

55,074 
43,573 
10, 310 
1,191 
14,091 

15,804 
59, 99S 

167, 242 
16,505 
38, 926 
47, 514 
55,882 
1,660 
6,755 
6,941 
107,200 
61, 561 
45,639 

23,488 
49, 021 
17,067 
5,495 
26, 459 
33, 274 
7,312 
25,962 

28,681 
19, 467 
9,214 

191.519 
90,518 
50, 908 
37,983 
12, 110 
53, 563 
24,738 

144, C07 
78, 449 
12, 702 
65,747 

66,158 
10, 626 
55, 532 

1,412 
11,252 
7,462 
3,790 

47,011 
34,051 
12,960 
38,844 

36,798 
16, 636 
3,775 
13,555 
2,832 

3,970 
120.054 
83,012 
26,250 
10,792 

46,008 
32, 946 
9,025 
4,037 
1,207 


216, 723 

52,992 
42, 121 
10,089 
782 
12,454 

15,099 
59, 875 

154, 059 
15,099 
37, 101 
43, 240 
50, 449 
1,571 
B, 599 
6,853 
99,990 
57, 724 
42,266 

23, 488 
48, 039 
16,645 
5,378 
26,016 
33, 274 
7,312 
25, 962 

28,681 
19, 467 
9,214 

190, 378 
89, 716 
50, 752 
37,983 
11,928 
50,917 
23,696 

139, 707 
77, 607 
12, 407 
65, 200 

62,100 
10,545 
51,555 

1,189 
10,874 
7,214 
3,660 

45, 781 
33,471 
12, 310 
1 53, 803 

36,798 
16, 636 
3,775 
13,555 
2,832 

3,503 
113, 155 
79, 515 
23,000 
10,640 

44,668 
32,946 
8,923 
2,796 
1,105 


$16, 540. 314 

2,994,020 
2, 453, 402 
411,003 
129,615 
578, 706 

472, 186 
1, 606, 250 

4, 057, 819 
326, 977 
958, 016 
1, 077, 242 
1, 470, 990 
39, 785 
184,809 
197, 932 
3, 206, 284 
1, 837, 510 
1, 368, 774 

1, 110, 523 
959, 385 
290,243 
71, 577 
597, 565 
442, 918 
133, 820 
309,098 

957, 756 
697, 227 
260, 529 

6, 679, 563 
2, 836, 374 
2, 267, 945 
1, 29fi, 747 
278, 497 
1, 000, 920 
1, 297, 378 

8, 184, 665 
4,417,911 
403, 563 
4, 014, 348 

3, 766, 754 
736, 865 
3,029,889 

17, 189 
240,792 
160, 597 
80,195 

1,727,147 
1,328.049 
399,098 
1, 204, 293 

1, 059, 500 
369, 100 
157, 785 
425, 100 
105, 515 

462, 871 
8, 087, 025 
4, 638, 820 
3, 104, 575 
343, 630 

1, 323, 197 
1, 130, 957 
163, 695 
28,545 
10,308 


$76. 32 

56.50 
58.25 
40.74 
165. 81 

4. 47 

31.27 
20.83 

26.34 
21.66 
25.83 
24.91 
29.16 
25.32 
28.01 
28.88 
32.07 
31.83 
32.38 

47.28 
19.97 
17.44 
13.31 
22.97 
13.31 
18.34 
11.91 

33.39 
35.82 
28.28 

35.09 
31.62 
44.69 
34.14 
23.35 
19.67 
54.33 

58.58 
56.93 
32.53 
61.57 

60.66 
69.88 
58.77 

14.43 
22.14 
22.26 
21.91 

37.72 
39.70 
32.40 
22.38 

28.78 
22.00 
42.32 
31.50 
37.20 

132. 15 
71.47 
58.34 
134.98 
32.30 

29.63 
34.33 
18.34 
10.21 
9.33 


i 90, 000 
240 


67,802 
213 


67,003 
170 


$5,092,000 
26,650 


$76.00 
154.49 


Arieona-Califoruia: 
Yuma 




















California 1 Orl:m<l 






Colorado: 
Grand Valley 


18,400 
1,650 

139, 600 


14,000 
1,550 

133,800 


13,400 
1,545 

129,300 


956,000 
38,625 

3, 30(i, 500 


71.34 
25.00 

25.60' 




Idaho: 
Boise 


New York irrigation district 






















































King Hill 








:::.; 


Minidoka. 


780,710 


667,180 


641,665 


24,023,520 


37.50 












Montana: 
Huntley 








Milk River 


























Sun River 


















Montana-North Dakota: 






District No 1 






District No 2 








Nebraska-Wyoming: 
North Platte .. 


235, 840 
113, 100 
55, 030 
51,540 
16, 170 
87,500 
25,055 

155,000 
88,000 
16,000 
72,000 

67,000 
11,000 
56,000 

4,010 
17, 740 
11,750 
5,990 

55,385 
41, 525 
13,860 
61,190 

39,550 
18, 770 
3,840 
13,890 
3,050 

5,850 
204,920 
102, 656 
30,264 
72,000 

73,640 
41,648 
20,062 
11,930 
20,000 


129,440 111,050 


111,050 


4, 286, 240 


38.60 


Pathfinder irrigation district 


Geringand Fort Laramie irrigation district- - 
Gosheu irrigation district 












Northport irrigation district 








Nevada: Newlands 








New Mexico: Carlsbad 






New Mexico-Texas: 
Rio Grande 


75, 000 50, 145 


50,145 1,609,690 


32.10 


Elephant Butte irrigation district 


Rincon Valley, N Mex 






Mesilla Valley, N Mex 






El Paso County Water Improvement Dis- 
trict No. 1 






Mesilla Valley, Tex 








El Paso Valley, Tex 








Oregon: 
Vale 






| 




Umatilla 


640 


590 


590 15, 140 


38.00 


East division 


West division 


640 590 
63, 910 36, 445 


590 
35,655 


15, 140 
824, 595 


38.00 
23.15 


Oregon-California: 
Klamath 


Main division 


Tule Lake division. - 









South Dakota: Belle Fourche 









Utah: 
Strawberry Valley 


7,020 6,990 


6, 990 172, 890 


24.60 


High Line division.. . 


Mapleton division.. . 


:;:::: 






Spanish Fork division 




i 




Springville division 










Washington: 
Okanogan . 






Yakima 


166, 720 128, 610 


128,610 12,855,000 


100.00 


Sunnvside division 


Tieton division 










Kittitas division 








Wyoming: 
Shoshone 






1 


Garland division . . 










Frannie division 










Willwood division 










Rivcrton. .. 










Total with irrigation 










1, 993, 390 


1,504,810 


1,467,097 
83,870 


64,418,940 
588,330 


43.91 
7.00 


1,473,330 


1, 218, 375 


1, 186, 023 


53, 206. S50 


44.86 


Cropped without irrigation (areas on Milk River, Sun 
River, Lower Yellowstone and Klamath projects) 


.Total for projects proper .. 
















1, 993, 390 
1, 473, 330 


1,504,810 
1, 218, 375 


1, 550, 967 
1, 186, 023 


65, 007, 270 
53,206,850 


41.90 
44.86 












Totals for Warren Act.. .. 


1, 473, 330 


1, 218, 375 


1,186,023 


53, 206, 850 


44.86 


Grand totals for projects proper and Warren 
Act 


3, 466, 720 


2, 723, 185 


2, 736, 990 


118,214,120 


43.19 





















i Data are for calendar year (irrigation season) except on Salt River project, where data are for corresponding "agricultural year," October, 1929, to September, 1930. 

! Areas for which bureau was prepared to supply water in 1930. 

J Warren Act figures on Salt Kiyer project arc estimated. 

' Of this area, 38,844 acres were irrigated, the remainder being cropped without irrigation. 



June, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



135 



Irrigation Developments in 



By United Stales Consul J. Rices ChiUs, Cairo 

On January 29, 1929, a comprehensive 
10-year program, involving the expendi- 
ture of $120,000,000, was adopted to take 
care of Egypt's irrigation needs for the 
next 25 years, following recommendations I 
of an international commission appointed 
to study the subject. 

In addition to strengthening various I 
Nile barrages, the principal projects in- i 
elude the heightening of the Aswan Dam, i 
the construction of a dam at Gebel-Aulia j 
above Khartum, and other works leading 
to the ultimate perennial irrigation of 
1,245,600 acres. The objective of the 
program is the inclusion of all cultivable 
land in the valley of the Nile within the 
irrigated area. 

The last quarter of 1930 witnessed two 
important developments in connection 
with the program. On December 10, 
King Fuad inaugurated the new Nile 
barrage at Nag-Hamadi, 367 miles to the 
south of Cairo. This barrage forms an 
important link in the chain of irrigation 
works and is expected to result in the 
supply of water to about 519,000 acres. 

The second irrigation work of major 
importance, which has been under con- 
struction for some time, is the heighten- 
ing of the Aswan Dam by approximately 
29 feet. Owing to certain difficulties 
experienced by the company holding the 
contract, work was suspended, and a new 
contract for completing the work at a 
cost of $10,500,000 was subsequently 
awarded to a British firm. 

Commerce Reports, May 11, 1931. 



Sale of Town Lots 

Tule Lake Town Site 

On April 15, pursuant to departmental 
order of March 17, 1931, an auction sale of 
town lots in Tule Lake town site, Klamath 
project, Oregon-California, was held with 
the following result: 

On the first day of the sale 121 lots were 
sold, bringing a total of $14,142. The sale 
was continued on April 18, when 9 lots 
were sold for a total of $945. At the close 
of the auction 130 lots, which had an ap- 
praised value of $11,285, had been sold for 
a total of $15,087. 

The total appraised value of the 79 lots 
remaining to be sold is $5,815. As stated 
in the April issue of the ERA, payment for 
lots may be made in cash at the time of 
purchase, or one-fifth cash and the balance 
in four equal annual installments with 6 
per cent interest on deferred payments. 



. I 





Willwood settlers just arriving with truck autos and trailer loaded with furniture, etc. Shoslione project 

Wyoming 



PUBLIC LAND OPENINGS ON 

IRRIGATION PROJECTS 

The Secretary of the Interior has an- 
nounced openings of public land on the 
Willwood division of the Shoshone proj- 
ect, Wyoming, and the Greenfields 
division of the Sun River project, 
Montana. 

Part 4 of the Willwood division, 
which is to be opened on June 1, com- 
prises a total irrigable area of 1,451 
acres and includes 31 farm units rang- 
ing in size from 56 to 101 acres. 

The 87 farm units to be opened on 
June 10 on the Greenfields division em- 
brace a total irrigable area of 5,949 
acres and range in size from 17 to 104 
acres. 

As at all public land openings ex- 
service men of the recent war will be 
granted a 90-day prior right of entry at 
these openings, at the expiration of 
which other duly qualified citizens of 
the United Slates may file applications 
for any units still unentered. 

Requests for public notices and ap- 
plication blanks should be addressed to 
the Commissioner, Bureau of Recla- 
mation, Washington, D. C., or to the 
respective project superintendents at 
Powell, Wyo., and Fairfield, Mont. 



The Antiquity of Irrigation 

The practice of irrigation antedates 
recorded history in every country of an- 
tiquity. Whether it originated in Asia, 
Africa, Europe, or America, no man can 
tell. Beyond question where man first 
appeared, there, not long after, irrigation 
began to be practiced. Together with 
the stirring of the soil and the sowing of 
the seed, irrigation is one of the first 
agricultural practices of mankind. Dr. 
John A. Wiutxix . 



Kingman-Hoover Dam 
Highway 

A press report states that the board of 
supervisors of Mohave County, Ariz., has 
authorized an expenditure of $32,000 for 
improvement of the highway from Chlo- 
ride to Black Canyon, where crossing of 
the river can be made by ferry. The road 
is scheduled to be completed to the ferry 
landing by September 1, 1931. This 
route will be an important tourist artery 
for it means that travelers from the east 
over the Old Trails Highway will be able 
to travel over the Hoover Dam route into 
Los Angeles without adding any distance 
to the trip, the Kingman-Black Canyon- 
Las Vegas route into southern California 
being approximately the same mileage as 
the Topock-Needles route. 



CONGRESS has appropriated $190,- 
000 for the erection in Yuma, Ariz., 
of a new post office building, on a site to 
be selected. 



HIGH school students at Orland, 
Calif., constituting the dairy cattle 
judging team, in competition with 54 
teams from all sections of the State of 
California, at the university farm picnic, 
University of California at Davis, won 
the El Dorado Ayreshire farm trophy. 
The team was composed of Wilmer Macy, 
Carrol Sherrod, Delbert Youtesey, and 
Everett Schmidt. In judging all classes 
of dairy cattle the Orland team placed 
fifth, qualifying the members to compete 
in the State finals at San Luis Obispo 
early in May. The Orland agronomy 
team was awarded second place in the 
identification of seeds, plants, and agri- 
cultural products; 26 teams were entered 
in this contest. The Orland students 
participating were Carrol Kolousek, Wil- 
liam Gilmore, Hans Bjorklund, and 
Wayne Muchow. 



136 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June, 1931 



V : ? : \SB 



NURR. Assistant to the Commissioner -====: 




The following statement is made for readers of the ERA by Mrs. D. L. Carmody, wife of one of our engineers assigned to the 
Boulder Canyon project. Judging from Mr. Carmody's previous assignments in the bureau, Mrs. Carmody has lived in typical 
saito-lirush desert country of the Northwest and, of course, the trip to the site of the Hoover Dam would be a marked contrast. 



JMPRESSIONS OF AN ENGINEER'S WIFE 
ON HER FIRST TRIP TO THE SITE OF 
HOOVER DAM 

As soon as we knew that my husband 
was to be one of the engineers employed 
by the Bureau of Reclamation at the site 
of the great dam we came to Las Vegas, 
Nev., and at that time it seemed to me as 
if the whole world was converging at this 
point, so that we were considered very 
fortunate in securing a completely fur- 
nished little house the second day after 
we arrived. 

My first adventure was a trip to the 
dam site. Our road wound through the 
desert; and let me here remark that my 
preconceived idea of a desert and the real 
thing as seen here in Nevada are as differ- 
ent as the wooden horse of Troy and a wild 
horse of the plains. I had always visioned 
a desert as being a clean sandy waste 
stretching on and on into infinity, broken 
at long intervals by oases, round green 
spots where a few tall palm trees waved 
their dusty heads and there was always 



the inevitable well. And in reality the 
desert here is apparently covered by a 
pebbly subsoil where lots of weeds and 
many wild flowers have their roots and 
now and then clumps of gnarled mesquite 
trees are grouped close together like old, 
old men huddled there to keep out the 
wind. 

DESERT "TREASURES" 

It was late in October when I made my 
first trip and the vegetation had all turned 
a sort of sandy gray; keeping my eyes on 
the ground alert for glimpses of scorpions 
and lizards I observed something glisten- 
ing in the sunlight and saw a small heap 
of broken glass half hidden by the brush; 
some of this glass was a lovely purple color 
and I learned that it is dear to the hearts 
of collectors and that it takes 15 or 20 
years for the sun's heat to burn it to a 
pure amethystine tint. But in case you, 
in an unwary moment, should be tempted 
to acquire these desert treasures, you will 
at once discover to your sorrow that these 
weeds are equipped with invisible but 




Sagebrush desert of the Northwest with which Mrs. Carmody was familiar 



very poisonous barbs and arrow-like 
spikes which are strong enough to pene- 
trate a heavy woolen coat and will rankle 
and even fester if not removed. 

On either side of the road for some dis- 
tance out were small white surveyor's flags 
indicating the presence of " town lots," 
and some facetious soul had placed a sign 
reading "City Limits of Los Angeles." 
A service station had sprung up in the 
loneliness like a big yellow mushroom and 
small piles of rocks in chimney form showed 
where prospectors had staked out mining 
claims. Low mountains lay to the north 
and south of us and^, while of no great 
height they had all the rugged grandeur 
of the far-famed Rockies. About 25 
miles from Las Vegas we passed the survey 
camp of the United States Bureau of 
Reclamation, a long row of neat tent 
houses, where our beautiful flag was 
proudly waving; it always thrills me and 
gives me a feeling of belonging when I 
see our flag in remote places like that. 

After passing the survey camp our road 
became more winding, the mountains 
were much higher and seemed to be 
pressing in upon us as if moving of their 
own volition inexorably determined to 
protect their magnificent isolation. About 
seven miles from the survey camp we 
came to the Gateway, so called because 
at a time in the unknown past two enor- 
mous boulders slipped down into the flat, 
doubtless the bed of the river then, and 
stood there like pillars of a giant gate. The 
road wound through it and just beyond 
was a wide sandy flat and then the river. 
1 was disappointed! Who hasn't read 
of the mighty Colorado River with its 
treacherous rapids, its deadly quicksands, 
its everlasting tragedies? But this broad 
and apparently stagnant stream crawling 
between the sands on the Nevada side 
and a low bare "bench" on the Arizona 
shore gave no hint of romance; I do not 
know what I expected to see, but surely 
not this. There was a boat landing here 
where for a small sum one could take 
passage and travel down the river to the 
site of the dam. The only other sign of 
activity was a pack of burros for hire 
and a curio shop backed up against the 



June, 1831 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



137 



rocky walls of the mountains which now 
began to infringe upon the road which 
made a sharp turn here to the right. 
We decided not to take the boat but to 
follow the road as far as possible. The 
frowning masses of black rock rising sheer 
above us on our right filled me with 
anxiety, then glancing to our left I began 
to realize that we were in what seemed to 
me a ticklish position, for to the left the 
ground fell precipitously to the muddy 
waters below and it was apparently an 
even chance that we would either splash 
or crash. I held on tight and offered 
many silent prayers which may have been 
beneficial because we soon came to another 
boat landing which marked the end of the 
road. We now embarked on a 30-foot 
motor boat and from her comfortable 
deck could form some idea of the many 
twists and turns of this most tempera- 
mental of rivers. 

THE MIGHTY COLORADO 

In almost the twinkling of an eye the 
scene changed; the grim and sinister 
walls of the canyon had suddenly risen to 
great heights and were closing in upon us; 
proudly they reared their crests to the 
skies guarding with their lives, if need be, 
the river goddess flowing with royal 
unconcern between her eternal sentinels. 
Silently they seemed to look down on us, 
remote in an unfathomable quiet unbroken 
even by the putt-putt of our motor boat, 
as though we were in the emptiness of a 
vacuum. It was so tremendous that it 
set me to marveling what any body of 
men could hope to accomplish against 
this malignancy; what sop would be fed 
to these monsters which like Cerberus 
guarded this unknown hell? I was re- 
minded of the legends I had read of the 
mysteries of the Colorado, of the adven- 
turous couples who had embarked in 
boats especially constructed to withstand 
its greedy jaws, of the tragedies in their 
wake; some drowned at the outset, others 
finally cast ashore, only their bones left 
to spell their fate, and others who had 
disappeared leaving no shred to show 
that they had ever existed. While I was 
letting my fancy wander the boatman 
pointed out the body of a mountain sheep 
lying a hundred feet up on a ledge of rock; 
the thing had been there for years, dead 
no doubt of slow starvation, probably 
caught on this inaccessible shelf with a 
broken leg, feebly crying for help till its 
strength was gone. The dry air of the 
desert had preserved it more perfectly 
than a taxidermist's art could ever have 
done, and it looked as if it were alive and 
watching 1 us from its aerie. It will be 
lying there till it is swept away into the 
great lake which the dam will form. 



COMMENCEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION AT 
HOOVER DAM 

At this time it was comparatively quiet 
at the site of the dam; ladders clinging 
like liclien to the perpendicular sides of 
the canyon went up for about 150 feet to 
be climbed by the engineers in charge of 
the work there, and a strong cable ex- 
tended across the river with a steel basket 
swinging from it in which trips of inspec- 
tion were made daily. The preliminary 
work of building the dam was just begin- 
ning at this time, and some of it consisted 
in the taking of cores from the rocky sides 
of the canyon for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the amount of pressure it could 
withstand; for this work a diamond drill 
was used and parts of the machinery 
were ensconced high up in some of the 
natural caves that perhaps once sheltered 
venomous snakes and prowling animals. 

It seems to me that the building of a 
dam is at least half preliminary work and 
upon due consideration that is exactly 
as it should be. A gigantic undertaking 
rests upon the shoulders of a small body 
of men who are aware that there must be 
no possibility of failure and who know 
that the way to achieve perfect success 
is to attend each step with meticulous 
care and thought so that there will be 
nothing left to chance. 

PANORAMA INCREASING IN GRANDEUR 

The weather had been perfect all day 
and we ended with a dinner at the mess 
hall served in comfortable style and most 
appetizing. On the way home we stopped 
at the curio shop and bought postal cards 
and bits of colored glass; I also saw a 
tarantula Oh, no, not alive, but in a little 
glass dish with a top on it. It was not 
nearly so large as I expected, just a black 
hairy spider which could have been 



covered by an ordinary-sized teacup, 
legs and all. It really seemed to me as if 
things had not come up to any of my 
expectations and an intangible sense of 
disappointment vexed me; a sort of feeling 
of depression and danger. Those strange 
mountains, that oily river, those masses 
of black rock, those deep crevasses what 
could mere man hope to accomplish 
against that overwhelming fortress built 
by nature what dangers, what tragedies 
lay ahead of their pigmy efforts at 
mastery? And the scenery! Ah, so dif- 
ferent from the colorful mountains of my 
former home; wonderful no doubt but to 
me only hideous and then the setting 
sun threw a rose-colored veil over every- 
thing and a golden mist lay all about us; 
the mountains took on an unearthly 
beauty, the nearer peaks standing out in 
jagged lines of purples and mysterious 
blues, the farther ones paling to pastel 
tints of orchid and rose and delicate pink; 
a nebulous haze seemed to separate them 
from the desert floor so that they gave the 
effect of floating like the spires and mina- 
rets of a mirage. 

"Oh" I gasped "they are floating 
something is happening what can it 
oe? " The colors deepened and glowed 
like fire; every tiny ravine and irregularity 
was etched in purest gold never have I 
seen anything so lovely. I was still gasp- 
ing when suddenly the sun vanished, the 
colors faded, the "dream" was gone. 

They said it is like that every day at 
sunset, that it isn't any phenomenon, just 
a usual sunset to which they scarcely 
vouch a glance. Just as we seldom give an 
upward glance to the magic of a passing 
plane, so these people of the desert were 
so familiarized with its wonders they saw 
nothing of the panorma which nature 
daily held up for their eyes. 




Site of Boulder City, Nev. A Nevada desert 



138 



NEW RECLAMATION EKA 



June, 1931 




Cost Accounting, Bureau of Reclamation 



COST accounting, as a factor of eco- 
nomic, efficient and successful ad- 
ministration has been practiced in the 
Bureau of Reclamation for many years. 
A standard system of cost accounting has 
been prescribed and is in use on all projects 
being constructed, operated, and main- 
tained by the bureau. 

The search for economy and efficiency 
in construction and operation and main- 
tenance methods followed on irrigation 
projects assumes many phases. It in- 
volves a study of plant location, new and 
better types of machines, and the applica- 
tion of different types of modern machines 
and equipment to the work peculiar to 
the construction and operation and main- 
tenance of these irrigation projects, and 
economics in producing and using power, 
etc. It is not only necessary to analyze 
machine and equipment efficiency, but 
also component parts of the motions and 
operations of labor, with a view of elimi- 
nating those which are not essential, 
wasteful and costly. 

Cost accounting has been found very 
essential to the operations of the bureau. 
It is established as a branch of general 
accounting. Its function is to analyze and 
record the cost of the various items of 
material, labor and indirect expenses in- 
curred in the construction, operation and 
maintenance of irrigation projects, and to 
so compile these elements as to show the 
total cost of a particular piece or class of 
work, and present them in such form for 
the engineer and administrative offices for 
guidance in economic and efficient admin- 
istration, and for the purpose of making 
cost studies and estimates of new projects 
being considered for construction. With 
the cost books once established, the best 
modern usage is to incorporate the cost 
records in total in the general financial 
books, controlling the cost ledger detailed 
by principal and physical features, clear- 
ing and apportionment accounts, etc. In 
this manner the cost accounting system 
builds up an interlocking series of ac- 
counts for detail study of the construction 



and operation results for an irrigation 
project. 

The standard classification of the inter- 
locking series of cost ledger accounts has 
been proscribed by principal features as 
follows : 

(1). Examination and surveys; (2) stor- 
age system; (3) pumping for irrigation; 
(4) canal system; (5) lateral system; 
(6) drainage system; (7) flood protec- 
tion; (8) power system; (9) irrigable 
lands; (10) permanent improvements; 
(11) telephone system; (12) operation 
and maintenance. 

While all the costs of construction and 
operation and maintenance of a project 
will be grouped under one or more of 
the above general principal features, a 
further division of each is made into 
physical features and classes of work, and 
for the convenience of compiling costs a fur- 
ther classification is made into the follow- 
ing general classes: Clearing accounts; 
reimbursable accounts; plant accounts; 
detail accounts; summary costs reports. 



This brief outline of the component 
parts of the bureau's cost accounting 
system is merely to show that when costs 
of a project or a division thereof are 
published the amounts disclosed are ob- 
tained through an accurate system of 
cost keeping and are backed by detail 
incorporated in total in the general 
financial accounts. As an illustration 
of cost finding practiced by the bureau, 
automobile ' operations are used. All 
charges and operating data for each 
automobile operated are assembled 
monthly under the following detail items 
and as the result it is possible to furnish 
fleet operation as shown by the accom- 
panying statement. 



When the reclamation job is done 
enormous taxable wealth will have been 
added to that of the Nation, as well as 
areas that will produce much new wealth 
each year. Joseph A. Swalwell, President 
Columbia Basin Issigalion League. 







i ~*- ' 

;Hvi,'*38 

rn 0:1 Vantage Ferry Koad, Vakiina prOjtct, \Yashiugton 



June, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



139 



Cost of passenger motor-vehicle operations, calendar year 1930 



Project 


Class 1 


Class 2 


Class 3 


Num- 
ber of 
cars 


Miles 
traveled 


Cost 


Miles per 
gallon 


Num- 
ber of 

cars 


Miles 
traveled 


Cost 


Miles per 
gallon 


Num- 
ber of 
cars 


Miles 
traveled 


Cost 


Miles per 
gallon 


Total 


Unit 


Gas 


Oil 


Total 


Unit 


Gas 


Oil 


Total 


Unit 


Gas 


Oil 


Belle Fourehe 


7 
1 
1 
7 
4 
3 
3 
:i 
5 
4 
2 
1 
11 
1 
6 


10, 089 
2,002 
3,112 
53,009 
:i 1,114 
19, 676 
1,076 
5,775 
12, 458 
21, 105 
4,240 
4,950 
111,313 
650 
17, 701 


$469 
96 
91 
1,556 
892 
932 
134 
331 
600 
542 
184 
295 
3,786 
27 
2,261 


$0.029 
.048 
.029 
.029 
.029 
.047 
.125 
.057 
.048 
.026 
.043 
.060 
.034 
.042 
.128 


10.9 
15.1 
16.4 
17.6 
13.2 
11.8 
11.0 
11.2 
11.5 
16.3 
14.1 
11.6 
14.0 
11.0 
9.6 


244 
501 
377 
360 
465 
337 
183 
340 
271 
406 
303 
171 
320 
216 
157 


7 
5 
2 
1 
10 
3 
2 
4 
16 
5 
2 
14 
6 
18 
5 
2 
5 
2 
1 
6 
10 


53,959 
45,544 
15,409 
8,764 
114,303 
26, 989 
18,863 
42,993 
156, 986 
50,023 
13, 715 
78, 793 
48, 113 
198, 494 
41,109 
15, 701 
49, 137 
8,274 
11,410 
64,141 
01, 367 


$2,380 
2,176 
629 
502 
4,410 
1,433 
609 
2,024 
9,024 
1,826 
494 
4,775 
2,227 
9,592 
1,955 
914 
3,057 
587 
399 
4,539 
2,815 


$0.044 
.048 
.040 
.057 
.039 
.053 
.032 
.047 
.057 
.037 
.036 
.061 
.046 
.048 
.047 
.058 
.062 
.071 
.035 
.072 
.046 


15.2 
16.4 
18.8 
19.6 
15.3 
15.3 
17.0 
14.8 
13.8 
17.7 
20.2 
14.5 
17.0 
13.7 
15.7 
14.8 
14.0 
15.8 
17.2 
12.1 
16.8 


469 
498 
434 
730 
594 
519 
571 
414 
342 
705 
319 
385 
605 
448 
405 
490 
344 
571 
456 
247 
406 


3 


18,368 


$535 


$0.029 


15.8 


706 


Boise 
















Grand Vallev 




























Lower Yellowstone 


1 
1 

1 


11,039 
10,611 
10,207 


353 
446 
541 


.032 
.042 
.053 


16.4 
15.0 
12.0 


761 
530 
400 


Milk River 


Minidoka -- 




North Platte 


2 


14,718 


681 


.046 


15.7 


550 


Orland. 


Owyhee - . .- 


1 
3 
3 


1,524 
71,738 
39, 305 


68 
1,547 
1,714 


.045 
.022 
.044 


7.3 
18.6 
16.3 


381 
624 
600 


Rio Grande . 


Riverton 




Salt Lake Basin 


3 

2 


21, 392 
18,847 


1,434 
1,013 


.067 
.054 


12.7 
18.5 


563 
679 


Sun River. . - . - 


6 

7 


27,780 
45, 478 


1,093 
2,312 


.039 
.051 


13.8 
13.9 


246 
387 




Umat ilia-McKay 














Vale 


9 

11 
12 
23 


58, 791 
63,410 
88.125 
166,524 


3,598 
2,221 
3,389 
8,421 


.061 
.035 
.038 
.051 


9.2 

15.3 
14.1 
12. 1 


232 

257 
368 
224 














Yakima 


1 


8,974 


375 


.042 


18.1 


480 


Yakima-Kittitas 




13 


106, 260 


5,310 


.050 


15.5 


381 














Total 














127 


754, 380 


:B, 230 


.044 


13.1 


281 


139 


1, 230, 492 


61, 677 


.050 


14.9 


417 


21 


226,687 


8,707 


. 038 


16.2 


421 





Cost of passenger motor -eekicle operations, calendar year 1930 



Project 


Class 4 


Other classes (5-9) 


Total all passenger cars 


Num- 
ber of 
cars 


Miles 
traveled 


Cost 


Miles per 
gallon 


Num- 
ber of 
cars 


Miles 
traveled 


Cost 


Miles per 
gallon 


Num- 
ber of 
cars 


Miles 
traveled 


Cost 


Total 


Unit 


Gas 


Oil 


Total 


Unit, 


Gas 


Oil 


Total 


Unit 




1 
2 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


5,415 
12, 137 
2.928 
9,096 
9,829 
13,902 
14, 282 
15, 792 


$123 
717 
206 
458 
649 
772 
460 
923 


$0.023 
.059 
.070 
.050 
.066 
.056 
.032 
.059 


11.7 
16.1 
19.2 
14.3 
13.1 
13.6 
13.0 
17.0 


387 
379 
680 
465 
459 
431 
277 
500 














18 
8 
5 
9 
15 
8 
7 
9 
21 
12 
6 
17 
21 
24' 
11 
6 
IS 
10 
1 
16 


93,831 
59.683 
34, 074 
70, 869 
155, 264 
71,606 
44, 832 
74, 767 
109,444 
97, 875 
33, 861 
96,048 
243, 526 
253, 151 
58,810 
45,067 
121,631 
62. 798 
11,410 
137, 142 


$3,507 
2,989 
1,312 
2,516 
5,951 
3,490 
1,649 
3.819 
9,624 
3,475 
1,267 
6,150 
8,392 
11,810 
4,210 
2,739 
6,524 
3,322 
399 
9,126 


$0.037 
.050 
.038 
.036 
.038 
.049 
.037 
.051 
.057 
.036 
.037 
.064 
.034 
.047 
.072 
.061 
.054 
.053 
.035 
.066 


Boise 














Carlsbad 


(5) 1 


12,625 


$386 


$0.031 


24.4 


647 
































Milk River 










































North Platte 


1 
2 


12,029 
15,906 


426 
589 


.035 
.037 


16.0 
17.3 


529 
266 














Orland 
















(6) 1 


10, 781 


1,012 


.094 


13.9 


245 




1 
2 


12, 362 
14,703 


832 
477 


.007 
.032 


17.6 
13.3 


989 
368 
































1 
1 
1 


7,974 
8,135 
9,046 


391 
336 
423 


.049 
.041 
.047 


15. 1 
11.0 
14.9 


332 
335 
548 














Sun River 


(7) 1 


17, 732 


1,025 


.058 


15.8 


367 




Umatilla-McKay 














Vale 


1 
4 

1 
1 


14, 210 
23,355 

7,522 
11,017 


989 
1,294 

477 
1,093 


.070 
.055 

.063 
.099 


12.2 
13.8 

14.0 
14.5 


392 
343 

614 
264 
















/<8) 1 
1(9) 1 
1(8) 10 
U9) 1 
1(5) 1 


8,186 
928 
117, 149 
1-.630 
11,035 


390 
69 
4,554 
91 
688 


.048 
.074 
.039 
.056 
.062 


20.7 
10.4 
18.1 
12.9 
16.2 


415 
186 
330 
296 
317 


28 


168,220 


7,164 


.043 


Yakima-Kittitas .. 


25 


225, 461 


9,199 


.041 


Yuma 


37 


283,801 


14, 824 


.052 


Total 


25 


219, 639 


11,635 


.053 


15.2 


387 


(5) 2 
(6) 1 
(7) 1 
(8) 11 
(9) 2 


23,660 
10, 781 
17, 732 
125, 335 
2,558 


1,074 
1,012 
1,025 
4,944 
160 


. 01.-. 

.091 
.058 
.039 
.063 


19.7 
13.9 
15.8 
18.3 
11.9 


438 
245 
367 
335 
232 


329 


2, 611, 264 


123, 465 


.054 


Do 


Do 






















Do 






















Do 













































NOTE. AH costs shown above include depreciation. 

CONSTRUCTION was started dur- 
ing April on the airways administra- 
tion building which is being erected at 
Fly Field, Yuma project, by the Air 
Corps at a cost of $5,000. This building 
will be used to house a permanent staff of 
service men for Army and Navy planes 
landing at Fly Field, as well as temporary 
quarters for Army or Navy pilots while 
stopping at the field. This field, which has 



clay surfaced run ways and a steel and con- 
crete hangar, as well as the latest type 
gasoline servicing equipment, will, when 
equipped with field lights for use in connec- 
tion with the new air mail route, be one of 
the most modern fields in the State. It has 
a very desirable location, along a paved 
highway with no natural or artificial 
obstructions surrounding the field, and is 
within 3 miles of the center of Yuma. 



APPROXIMATELY 5,000 acres of 
_/\. sugar beets have been contracted 
for the season on the Milk River project, 
or an increase of about 1,500 acres over 
the 1930 contracted area. On the 'Malta 
and Glasgow divisions about 1,800 acres 
will be seeded as compared to 1,019 
acres during 1930. This crop continues to 
increase in importance on our north- 
western projects. 



140 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



June, 1931 



Reclamation Organization Activities and Project Visitors 



Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner of 
Reclamation, is planning to leave Wash- 
ington on June 20 on an extended western 
trip. On June 22 he will give an address 
at the meeting in Ames, Iowa, of the 
American Society of Agricultural Engi- 
neers. At 11 o'clock p. m., June 22, 
Doctor Mead will join the members of the 
Appropriations Committee of the House 
of Representatives and Hugh A. Brown, 
director of reclamation economics of the 
Bureau of Reclamation, and together they 
will proceed on a trip through a number 
of the Western States, devoted largely to 
an inspection of national parks and Fed- 
eral reclamation projects under construc- 
tion or proposed, their first stop being at 
Kearney, Nebr. A day will be spent at 
Hoover Dam site and several days in a 
careful examination of irrigation condi- 
tions in the San Joaquin and Sacramento 
Valleys. On July 10 the commissioner 
will address the regular weekly meeting of 
the Commonwealth Club of California in 
San Francisco on "Building the Hoover 
Dam." 

During the course of the trip it is ex- 
pected that the party will be accompanied 
by the State authorities and Representa- 
tives in Congress of the various States in 
which the projects are located. 

At the invitation of President Hoover 
a number of officials of the Interior De- 
partment, including Dr. Elwood Mead, 
Commissioner of Reclamation, on May 
16 and 17 visited the President's camp at 
the Rapidan to discuss expenditures in 
the Interior Department. 

Louis C. Cramton, special attorney to 
the Secretary, left for the West on May 
22, after spending a couple of weeks in 
the Washington office in the preparation 
of the regulations for issuing permits and 
leases to carry on business and for resi- 
dence purposes at Boulder City. Mr. 
Cramton attended the annual convention 
in Los Angeles of the California Bankers 
Association, May 21-23, and delivered an 
address on the subject of "The Impor- 
tance of Hoover Dam to Business in 
California," after which he returned to 
his post in Las Vegas. 



Miss Mae A. Schnurr, assistant to the 
commissioner, on May 17 addressed the 
members of the Chi Sigma Delta Sorority 
of the Columbia "Tech" School at the 
American Association of University 
Women's Clubs, Washington, D. C., her 
subject being "Opportunities for Women 
in the Business World and the Attractions 
of the Federal Service." 



Secretary Wilbur has invited the gov- 
ernors of States in the Colorado River 
basin, excepting California, to send repre- 
sentatives to a conference to discuss the 
scope and character of investigations to 
be undertaken by the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion under section 15 of the Boulder 
Canyon project act, for which there is an 
appropriation of $150,000 available. This 
conference is called for June 9 at Denver, 
Colo., and Porter J. Preston, superin- 
tendent of the Yuma project, will act as 
the representative of the Bureau of 
Reclamation. 



Porter J. Preston, in charge of the 
Colorado River Basin investigations, with 
headquarters in Denver, left the Denver 
office on May 24 to join William S. Post, 
Director of Irrigation, Indian Service, and 
Lieut. John Dean, Corps of Engineers, 
War Department, at Winslow, Ariz., 
where they will examine the situation 
regarding the Little Colorado River's 
encroachment upon the Luepp Indian 
Agency building. 

On April 16 L. J. Foster, superintendent 
of the Uncompahgre project, and nine 
members of the Uncompahgre Water 
Users' Association visited the Grand 
Valley project for the purpose of inspect- 
ing the drainage systems as constructed 
in the valley. 



C. A. Bissell, chief of the engineering 
division, has tendered his resignation, 
effective June 30. Mr. Bissell has been 
with the bureau since 1908 and is resign- 
ing to take a position as assistant chief 
designing engineer with the Metropolitan 
Water District of Southern California 
with headquarters in Los Angeles. 



H. P. Fulkerson has been transferred 
from the Sun River project to act as con- 
struction inspector on drainage work on 
the Belle Fourche project. 



H. H. Atkinson, attorney general for 
Nevada, called on Doctor Mead and Mr. 
Cramton during the early part of May to 
discuss the status of Boulder City. 



J. T. Whitehead, who has been closely 
connected with matters relating to the 
interstate division of the North Platte 
project and for 20 years has served as 
president of the board of directors of the 
Pathfinder irrigation district, has resigned 
and will devote his time to private 
matters. 

o 



On June 20 representatives of the agri- 
cultural development departments of the 
transcontinental railroads traversing the 
Federal irrigation projects will attend a 
conference in the Washington office to 
discuss plans for the reclamation exhibit 
at the Century of Progress World's Fair 
in Chicago in 1933. 



Representatives Addison T. Smith of 
Idaho, William W. Hastings of Oklahoma, 
Frank Murphy and wife of Ohio, Don B. 
Colton of Utah, Dennis Chavez of New 
Mexico, and William Duval, clerk to the 
committee, S. M. Dodd, finance officer, 
Hon. Charles J. Rhoads, Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, A. H. Demaray, assist- 
ant director of national parks, and Fred- 
erick J. Bailey, budget officer, spent two 
days on the Carlsbad project the latter 
part of April, during which a visit was 
made to the Carlsbad Cave. 



S. O. Harper, general superintendent of 
construction, Denver office, spent several 
days during the latter part of April on the 
Grand Valley project, where he discussed 
with the board of directors of the Grand 
Valley Water Users' Association the pro- 
posed power contract with the Public 
Service Co. 



Robert B. Smith, chief clerk of the 
Riverton project, was transferred to the 
Owyhee project, effective April 21. 



D. W. Cole, for many years one of our 
project managers and the construction 
engineer during the construction of Sho- 
shone dam, was a recent visitor on the 
Shoshone project. 



Roger R. Robertson, assistant engineer 
on the Lower Yellowstone project, has 
been transferred to the Rathdrum Prairie 
investigations with headquarters at Spo- 
kane. Donald D. Brooks, levelman, has 
been transferred to the Hoover Dam. 



T. S. Martin, master mechanic, was at 
the Shoshone Dam during the entire 
month of April, supervising the installa- 
tion of the third unit in the Shoshone 
power plant and the repairs to the 
balanced valves at the Shoshone Dam. 



F. L. Kent, regional agricultural statis- 
tician from Portland, Oreg., called at the 
Yakima project office on April 17 for the 
purpose of securing information for a 
report on the production of peppermint. 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION FOR THE BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR, SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Jos. M. Dixon, First Assistant Secretary; John Edwards, Assistant Secretary; E. C. Finney, Solicitor of the Interior Department; 

E. K. Burlew, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary and Budget Officer; 

Northcutt Ely and Charles A. Dobbel, Executive Assistants 



Miss M. A. Schnurr, Assistant to the Commissioner 
W. F. Zubach, Chief Accountant 



Washington, D. C. 
Elwood Mead, Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 

P. W. Dent, Assistant Commissioner 

C. A. Bissell, Chief of Engineering Division 

C. N. McCulloch, Chief Clerk 

Denver, Colo.. U. S. Custom House 



Hugh A. Brown, Director of Reclamation Economics 
George O. Sanford, Assistant Director of Reclamation 
Economics 



R. F. Walter, Chief Eng.; S. O. Harper, Assistant Chief Engineer J. L. Savage, Chief Designing Eng., E. B. Debler, Hydrographic Eng.; L. N. McClellan, Chief Electrical 
Eng.; C. M. Day, Mechanical Eng.; Armand Oflutt, District Counsel; L. R. Smith, Chief Clerk; Harry Caden, Fiscal Agent; C. A. Lyman, Field Representative 

Projects under construction or operated in whole or in part by the Bureau of Reclamation 



Project 


Office 


Official in charge 


Chief clerk 


Fiscal agent 


District counsel 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 






R M Priest 




J C Thrailkill 


E. M. Philebaum. 
/Charles F. Wein- 
\ kauf. 
C. H. Lillingston.. 
E. A. Peek 
F. D. Helm 




LosAngeles,Calif. 
Do. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
LosAngeles,Calif. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
El Paso, Tei. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 


Boulder Canyon. 


Las Vegas, Nev 
Orland, Calif 


Walker R. Young. 
R. C. E. Weber .. 


Constr. engr_ 


E. R. Mills 


do 
J. R. Alexander... 
R. J. Cofley 
J. R. Alexander... 
do 
B. E. Stoutemyer. 


Orland 


Superintendent, 
do 


C. H. Lillingston.-. 
E. A. Peek 
G. H. Bolt 
Robt. B. Smith 
G. C. Patterson 
E E Chabot 




Grand Junction, Colo. 
Montrose, Colo 
Owyhee, Oreg 


W. J. Chiseman... 
L. J. Foster 




do 


Boise ' 


F. A Banks 


Constr. engr 
do 


Minidoka 2 


Burley, Idaho 


E. B. Darlington. 


Miss A. J. Larson. 
E. E. Chabot 
H W Johnson 


Milk River * 






do 

do 


Wm. J. Burke... 
do 


Sun River, Greenfields. _ 
Lower Yellowstone 
North Platte ' 


Fairfield, Mont 


A. W. Walker 


H. W. Johnson 


Savage, Mont 
Guernsey, Wyo 


H. A. Parker 
C. F. Gleason 
L. E. Foster. 
L. R. Fiock 


do.- 


N. O. Anderson. .. 


Denver office 


do 




A. T. Stimpfigs 
W. C. Berger 
H. H. Berryhill 


A T Stimpfig 


do 


Carlsbad 


Carlsbad, N. Mex 
El Paso, Tex 


Superintendent- 
do 


W. C. Berger 
H. H. Berryhill... 


H. J. S. Devries... 
do 
B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do-- 

do 


Umatilla, McKay Dam.. 
Vale ... 
Klamath . 




C. L. Tice 




Vale, Oreg 

Klamath Falls, Oreg.. 
Owyhee, Oreg _ 
Newell, S. Dak. 


Chas.C.Ketchum. 
B. E. Hayden 


Superintendent. 
-do - 


C. M. Voyen... . 
N. G. Wheeler 


C. M. Voyen 


Owyhee 

Belle Fourche 


F. A. Banks 
F. C. Youngblutt. 
F. F. Smith 
John S. Moore 
R. J. Newell 


Constr. engr 


Robert B. Smith 


F P Greene 


do 


Superintendent. 


J. P. Siebeneicher... 
C. F. Williams 
R. K. Cunningham. 
C B Funk 


J. P. Sicbcneicher. 


Wm. J. Burke 
J. R. Alexander.. - 
B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 


Salt Lake Basin 7 


Coalville, Utah 
Yakima, Wash 






C J Ralston 


Yakima Cle Elum Dam. 
Yakima, Kittitas 
Riverton . 


Cle Elum, Wash . 




do 


Ellensburg, Wash 
Riverton, Wyo .. 


R. B. Williams.... 
H. D. Comstock.. 


Constr. engr 
Superintendent. 
.. do. . 


Ronald E. Rudolph. 
"w".~F.~Sh~a~-_~ 


do 


do 


Denver office 
-..do--. 


Wm. J. Burke- . 
..-do-.. 


Shnshone '... 


Powell, Wyo.. 


L. II. Mitchell... 



1 Reserved works, Boise project, supervised by Owyhee office. 

' Jackson Lake and American Falls Reservoirs, power system and Gooding division. 

3 Malta, Glasgow, and Storage divisions. 

< Pathfinder and Guernsey Reservoirs, and power systems. 

Acting. 



6 Storage, main, and Tulc Lake divisions. 
; Echo Reservoir. 

8 Storage, Tieton, and Sunnyside divisions. 

9 Reservoir, power plant, and Willwood division. 



Completed projects or divisions constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation and operated by water-users' organizations 



Project 



Salt River 

Grand Valley, Orchard Mesa- 
Boise ' 

King Hill 

Minidoka gravity 

Minidoka pumping 

Huntley 



Milk River, Chinook division . 

Do 

Do 

Do - 

Do - 

Sun River, Fort Shaw division 

North Platte: 

Interstate division 

Fort Laramie division 

Do 

Northport division 



Newlands 

Umatilla: 

East division 

West division 

Klamath, Langell Valley- 
Do--- 

Strawberry Valley 

Okanogan 



Shoshone: 

Garland division. 
Frannie division. 



Organization 


Office 


Operating official Secretary 


Name 


Title 


Nam.- 


Address 


Salt River Valley, W. U. A... 

Orchard Mesairrig. district. .. 
Board of control . . 


Phoenix, Ariz... 
Palisade, Colo.. 
Boise, Idaho 
King Hill, Idaho. 


C. C. Cragin... 
C. W. Tharp 
Wm. II. Tuller 


Gen. supt. and chief engr. 
Superintendent 


F. C. Henshaw-.. 
H. O. Lambeth 


Phoenix, Ariz. 
Grand Junction. 
Boise, Idaho. 
Glenns Ferry. 
Rupert, Idaho. 
Burley, Idaho. 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
Do. 
Harlem, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont. 
Do. 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr. 
Gering, Nebr. 
Torrington, Wyo. 
Bridgeport, 
Nebr. 
Fallon, Nev. 

Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg. 
Bonanza, Oreg. 
Do. 
Payson, Utah. 
Okanogan . 
Wash. 

Powell, Wyo. 
Deaver. Wvo. 


King Hill irrigation district. . . 
Minidoka irrigation district 
Burley irrigation district 
Huntley irrigation district 


F. L. Kinkade 
R L Willis 




Chas Stout 




W. C. Trathen... 
Geo. W. Lyle 
H. S. Elliott 


Burley, Idaho... 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
.do 


Hugh L. Crawford. 
E. E. Lewis 


do 

Superintendent 


Alfalfa Valley irrig. district 
Fort Belknap irrig. district 


A. L. Benton 
H. B. Bonebright. 
Thos. M. Everett. 
R. E. Musgrove. 




R. H. Clarkson... 
L V Bogy 


do 


Harlem irrigation district 
Paradise Valley irrig. district-. 


Harlem, Mont.. 
C'hinook, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont.-- 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr.. 
Gering, Nebr 
Torrington,Wyo. 
Northport, Nebr. 

Fallon, Nev 

Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg 
Bonanza, Oreg.. 
do 


do 
.do- 


Geo. II. Tout 
J. F. Sharpless 
II. M. Montgomery. 
H. W. Genger 

Mary M. Kinney 
C. G. Klingman 
Mrs.NellieArmitage. 
Mrs. M. J. Thomp- 
son. 
L. V. Finger 

W. J. Warner 




do 


Fort Shaw irrigation district- - 

Pathfinder irrigation district- . 
Gering-Fort Laramie irrig. dist. 
Goshen irrigation district 
Northport irrigation district. .. 

Truckee-Carson irrig. district.. 

Hermiston irrigation district-- 
West Extension irrig. district.. 
Langell Valley irrig. district... 
Horsefly irrigation district 


II. W. Genger 

T. W. Parry. .. 
W. O. Fleenor 


Superintendent 


do 


R, T,, AdflTns 


do 


D. R. Dean 
D. S. Stuver 
E. D. Martin.. .. 


do 

Project manager... 
do - - 


A. C. Houghton... 
R. S. Uopkins 


Secretary and manager .. 


V C. Houghton 
R. S. Hopkins 




Wm F B Chase 


Strawberry W. U. A 


Provo, Utah 
Okanogan, 
Wash. 


Lee R. Taylor 




E G Breeze 






Nelson D. Thorp.. .. 

Geo. W. Atkins... 
Edw. T. Hill... 


Shoshone irrigation district 
Deaver irrigation district... 


J O Roach 


Irrigation supt 
...do . 


Deaver. Wvo . 


Svdnev I. Hooker- 



Boise, Kuna, Nampa, Meridian, Wilder, New York, Big Bend, and Black Canyon irrigation districts. 

Important investigations in progress 



Project 


Office 


In charge of 


Cooperative agency 




Denver, Colo . . 


Den ver offi ce 


Imperial and Coachella districts. 




Salt Lake City Utah 










II. W. Bashore 








J. R, lakisch 


State of Wyoming, 




do 


P. J. Preston 






do 


Denver office 






Spokane, Wash 


H. W. Bashore 


None. 











SALLIE A. B. COE, Editor. 





BOULDER CANYON PROJECT 




CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES 




THE 2.000.000-GALLON STORAGE TANK FOR BOULDER CITY WATER SUPPLY. 2. THIS MACHINE BORES AS HIGH AS 168 TELEPHONE POLE HOLES IN 7 HOURS. 3. SIX COMPANIES 
ARE ERECTING A LARGE MACHINE SHOP. 4. SIX COMPANIES ARE CONDUCTING AN OPEN-AIR CARPENTER SHOP WHERE A BAND SAW CUTS MATERIAL TO PROPER DIMENSIONS 
FOR BUILDINGS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 5. WORKING ALONG THE CANYON SIDE A SHOVEL IS CUTTING A ROAD TO THE LOWER END OF THE NEVADA DIVERSION TUNNELS: THIS 
WILL CONNECT WITH THE HIGHWAY ON TOP OF THE CANYON. 6. HALFWAY BETWEEN THE UPPER END OF THE DIVERSION TUNNELS AND THE DAM SITE THE SIX COMPANIES 
ARE OPERATING A DRILL SHARPENING SHOP ON THE ARIZONA SIDE IN A LARGE CAVE WHICH AFFORDS A COOL SPOT FOR SUCH WORK 



U. i. tOVEBKME 



Gitv, Me 



30et. 



RECLAMATION ERA 



VOL. 22, NO. 7 






-5P, 





*-?#&. r 
^> 

~-'- f 1i 
^ 




XW ! 

*-"'- 

! -Efc ^ 



JULY, 1931 




Photo by C. A. Betu 

OWYHEE DAM. OWYHEE PROJECT, OREGON-IDAHO. CONSTRUCTION 66 PER CENT COMPLETE. MAY 31. 1931 



RECLAMATION 
A PROVEN EXPERIMENT 



The reclamation activities of the United States Government 
form a huge experiment in the reclamation and settlement of 
lands under irrigation. The lessons of this governmental work 
are of fundamental character and may lie applied everywhere 
for the reclamation and settlement of lands under a low rainfall. 
It is extremely fortunate that such work, which in retrospect 
constitutes an experiment in the reclamation and settlement of 
arid and semiarid lands, was undertaken with the unlimited 
means of a governmental agency. 

A great era of reclamation and colonization awaits our 
country. An increasing population and changing economic 
needs and social ideals will ma^e new demands upon our vacant 
lands from shore to shore. This coming work should be done 
faithfully, by the use of our best knowledge. This is a day of 
reclamation, not waste. The chapter in reclamation, now open- 
ing, should be written in the full light of the luminous chapters 
already written into our national experience. 

-John W. Widtsoe, Ph. D., LL. D. 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 

Issued monthly by the DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C. 

Price 75 cents a year 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR 
Secretary of the Interior 



Vol. 22, No. 7 




ELWOOD MEAD 
Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



JULY, 1931 



Interesting High Lights on the Federal Reclamation Projects 



THE proposed new Federal building 
in Yuma, Ariz., to be erected on a 
suitable site, for which $190,000 have 
been appropriated, will probably house 
the post office, Customs Service, Immigra- 
tion Service, and other local Government 
agencies at present located in leased 
quarters. The work will be under way in 
the immediate future. 



^ I ^HE Veterans' Memorial Building at 
J_ Orland, Calif., was recently dedi- 
cated with appropriate exercises under 
the auspices of the Orland Tommy A. 
Thompson Post, of the American Legion. 
A flower show was held by the agricultural 
vocational instruction corps of the Orland 
High School in cooperation with the 
Women's Improvement Club; the show 
also embraced contests of residence lawns 
and rock gardens. 



\ PROGRAM is now under way to 
./V establish a dairy cooperative on the 
Uncompahgre project. 



IT is reported that a site approximately 
2 miles east of the local airport and 
7 miles southeast of Yuma on a paved 
highway over the Yuma Mesa has been 
procured for the proposed 2,000-watt 
Department of Commerce Airways Radio 
Station. The station will be operated 
24 hours daily, and meteorological obser- 
vations will be taken several times each 
day, when weather data will be broad- 
cast to various stations in the United 
States, and will also be available to planes 
equipped with receiving sets flying over 
this route. 



'TpHE 1931 graduating class of the 
JL Yuma Union High School held its 
commencement exercises the first week 
in June. This class, consisting of 83 
students, was the largest in the history of 
the school. 

6245131 1 



WORD has been received that on 5 
acres near Artesia, Eddy County, 
N. Mex., in the vicinity of the Carlsbad 
project, W. T. Haldeman gathered 17 
bales of cotton in 1930. This large 
crop, which was grown under irrigation, 
establishes a new record in Pecos Valley 
for the production of cotton. 



A LFALFA looks unusually well on the 
./~\. Sun River Project. 



THE improvement of farms on the 
Milk River project continues. Much 
work is being done on new farms in level- 
ing and otherwise improving lands which 
will not be irrigated this year. A marked 
improvement in irrigation practice is 
evident, especially on the Malta division. 
In many cases the old check method has 
been replaced by the border system of 
irrigation, resulting in much more efficient 
use of water and decided benefit to mos- 
quito control. 

THE Minidoka and Cassia County 
wool pools, Minidoka project, offered 
for sale early in June the year's clip of 
wool. The quality of wool is reported 
to be exceptionally high and considerable 
competition for its purchase was antici- 
pated. 

AAj livestock on the Lower Yellow- 
stone project is in excellent condi- 
tion. Shearing was completed at the end 
of May. The lamb crop was exception- 
ally heavy, many farm flocks averaging 
150 per cent. Range conditions outside 
of the project are very serious owing to 
lack of rain. 



THE entry men on the 24 farm units 
recently opened on the Tule Lake divi- 
sion of the Klamath project have made a 
very satisfactory showing. Practically 
all of the area is under crop. 



FORMATION of the Hermiston Co- 
operative Creamery on the Umatilla 
project was completed recently, with a 
sign-up of 1,200 cows. One director was 
elected from each of the following dis- 
tricts: Stanfield, Hermiston, Westland, 
Umatilla, Irrigon, and Boardman. 



THE cucumber acreage on the Belle 
Fourche project will be increased 
about 50 per cent over that of last year as 
a result of the Squire Dingee Co.'s instruc- 
tions to its field man that more contracts 
in this vicinity would be acceptable. 



RB. Williams, construction engineer 
* of the Kittitas division, Yakima 
project, reports that on June 7 the con- 
crete-lined tunnel under the Yakima 
River was successfully tested and placed 
in operation. Owing to the urgent de- 
mand for water for the irrigation of crops 
on the north side of the river, full leakage 
tests were not completed, but the short- 
time test that was made showed the tunnel 
to be in good condition. This is one of 
the major structures built by the Bureau 
of Reclamation and is fully described in 
the New Reclamation Era of December, 
1930. 



E construction of the $5,000 Air- 
ways Administration Building at 
Fly Field, on the Yuma Mesa, has been 
completed. This building was erected 
by the Air Corps to house a permanent 
staff of service men for Army and Navy 
planes, as well as to provide quarters for 
their pilots when staying over night. 



EQUIPMENT has been purchased for 
an til fal fa leaf meal plant to be 
located at some point on the Boise project. 
This plant will be installed by a company 
operating a chain of these plants through- 
out the West and marketing their prod- 
uct in prepared chick and calf feeds. 

141 



142 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



.Tnlv. 1931 



Filing System for Application for Leases and Concessions at Boulder City 



By Just W. Myer, Chic}. Mails and Files Section. Washington Office 



AJOUT the last of March I was in- 
structed by Commissioner Mead to 
proceed to Las Vegas, Nov., for the pur- 
pose of devising and installing a filing 
system to care for the correspondence and 
preliminary applications for leases and 
concessions being received for different 
types of business in Boulder City. 

Owing to the publicity that had been 
given the proposed city by the press, 
people from all sections of the country 
were showing great interest in obtaining 
permits to conduct various businesses 
there. Although most of the letters of 
inquiry were from men, many letters were 
also received showing that women were 
interested. About 3,000 letters of in- 
quiry were received up to May 18, and 
they were still coming in at the rate of 
about 15 a day. About the same number 
of persons were calling at the Las Vegas 
office daily for personal interviews and 
before departing they would leave their 
names and addresses so that a formal 
application blank could be mailed to 
them. 

It had been decided to consider only 
applications made upon one of the formal 
application blanks, so it was necessary, 
therefore, to mail to each of the applicants 
who had filed letters or preliminary ap- 
plications one of these formal application 
blanks. This necessitated addressing 
about 3,000 envelopes, which task was 
completed prior to the time the formal 
application blanks were received from the 
Washington office so there would be no 
delay in getting the blanks into the hands 
of applicants. 

THE FILING SYSTEM IN BRIEF 

A brief description of the filing system 
installed in the Las Vegas office follows: 

The files of the Washington and Denver 
offices were shipped to Las Vegas and all 
letters and preliminary applications in the 
three files consolidated. 

The file was arranged alphabetically by 
kind of concession wanted, and the appli- 
cations were filed alphabetically under the 
name of the applicant within the proper 
folders. To accomplish this it was neces- 
sary to read and classify each of the 
approximately 3,000 letters or preliminary 
applications. As a result of this classifi- 
cation it was found that there were on file 
requests for permits to conduct 74 differ- 
ent kinds of businesses as follows: General; 
air lines and landing fields; automobile 
accessories; automobiles, rental of (see 
bus and motor transport); automobile 
sales agencies; bakery and confectionery; 



banks; barber shop and beauty parlor; 
boarding houses; boats and ferries; book 
store; bottling plants; bus and motor 
transport; chiropractors and osteopaths; 
churches; cigar and news stand; commis- 
sary; contracting and building; curio 
stores; dairy; delicatessen; dentists; drug 
stores; electrical contracting stores and 
supplies; electrical refrigeration; filling 
stations; furniture and house furnishings; 
garbage disposal; garage and service sta- 
tions; gas manufacturing plants illumi- 
nating, cooking, etc.; general store; gro- 
cery and meat market; hardware; hospital; 
hotel; ice-cream manufacturing plant; ice 
manufacturing plant and cold storage; 
industrial plants (small) metal and ma- 
chine shops; investment building houses 
and stores for sale or rent; jewelry; landing 
fields (see air lines); laundry and dry- 
cleaning plants; lawyers; lots, lease of, for 
residential purposes; lumber and building 
materials (coal yards); lunch stands; 
markets, public; men's furnishings; news- 
papers printing and advertising; pawn- 
broker and loan office; petroleum prod- 
ucts, distribution of (wholesale); physi- 
cians; photography; plumbing and heat- 
ing; radio and music stores; real estate and 
insurance; recreation, indoors; recreation- 
outdoors; restaurants; shoe shop and 
shoe repair; signs and painting; sight- 
seeing tours, auto (see bus and motor 
transport); soft-drink stand; stage lines 
(see bus and motor transport) ; tailoring 
cleaning and pressing; taxi service (see bus 
and motor transport) ; telegraph and 
radio service (communications) ; theaters; 
telephone service; tires and batteries; 
tourist camp; undertakers; vendors (slot 
machines) ; women's wear. 

APPLICATIONS SUBDIVIDED 

The applications were further divided 
into the four classes provided for in the 
circular of information of May 18, issued 
by Mr. Cram ton: A, exclusive; B, limited; 
C, special; D, personal. These classifica- 
tions were made the main headings for the 
file. For example, applications for per- 
mits involving the operation of what is in 
effect a public utility, or where such limi- 
tation is in the public interest, as the 
hospital, telephone system, garbage plant, 
landing field, etc., may be granted an 
exclusive permit. Folders containing this 
class of applications are filed alphabeti- 
cally behind a guide card containing the 
heading "(A), exclusive." Back of a 
guide card "(B), limited," are filed the 
folders containing the bulk of the applica- 
tions, as this classification contains the 



usual line of wholesale and retail business 
where at least two competing permits will 
be granted. Under "(C), special," will 
be found industries or services requiring 
special treatment such as automobile 
sales, gasoline and oil distributors, banks, 
motor lines to connect with outside points, 
telegraph and radio companies, etc., and 
under "(D), personal," will be found the 
applications from reputable members of 
the professions where personal service is 
rendered and no large investment is in- 
volved in establishing an office. Under 
this heading will be found the applica- 
tions from doctors, dentists, etc. 

A separate folder was established for 
each kind of concession requested except 
in cases where, in a review of the applica- 
tions, there was found a certain business 
so closely related to another business that 
it was probable that one permit would be 
granted that would authorize conducting 
both businesses as one. For example, 
applications are on file for permits to con- 
duct groceries and others to conduct meat 
markets, but it was found that a greater 
number had made applications for a 
permit to conduct a grocery and meat 
market combined. Therefore it was ad- 
visable to combine all three kinds of appli- 
cations in one file and call it "Grocery 
and meat markets." There were other 
similar cases where combinations of this 
kind were made. 

CONCESSIONS CARD INDEXED 

A card index of all the various kinds of 
concessions for which application had 
been made was prepared. These cards 
are filed alphabetically and in the upper 
right-hand corner appears the classifica- 
tion. For example, take the grocery and 
meat market file. There is a card 
"Grocery and meat market" and a cross 
card "Meat market." This card index 
furnishes a convenient record of all of the 
concessions for which applications have 
been received and also locates those that 
have been combined with others. The 
classification "B, limited," appearing in 
the upper right-hand corner tells the file 
clerk under which classification in the 
file the folder "Grocery and meat market " 
will be found. 

No attempt was made to prepare a 
card index by names of the applicants, 
but it is proposed to prepare this index 
when the formal applications are received. 
In addition to the name and address of 
the applicant, the card will also show the 
kind of concession wanted. This alpha- 
betical index by name of the applicant 



July, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



143 



will enable the file of any applicant to be 
located when the name of applicant is the 
only information available. The prepa- 
ration of this index was delayed until 
receipt of formal applications as it was 
thought that many who had filed the 
preliminary applications in the form of 
letters would not complete and file formal 
applications. 

A duplicate set-up of the file used for 
the preliminary applications was prepared 
for the formal applications. As a formal 
application is received any correspondence 
from the same applicant in the prelim- 
inary application file will be withdrawn 
and attached to the formal application 
and then filed in its proper file. After the 
closing date for receipt of applications, 
June 30, 1931, the file of formal applica- 
tions will become the active file and the 
file containing the preliminary applications 
will be closed and of no value but will be 
retained as a matter of record. 

In addition to the file established to 
care for the applications a file by subjects 
was established to care for the correspond- 
ence relating to questions of administra- 
tion and policy in connection with 
Boulder City. 



Committees will Coordinate 

Dam 



on Hoover 



Colorado River Planning 
Commission Holds Meeting 

A conference of the Colorado Rivei 
Planning Commission, called by the 
Secretary of the Interior, was held in 
Denver on June 9. The following dele- 
gates were in attendance: Arizona 
Thomas Maddock, secretary, Arizona 
Colorado River Commission, and Clifton 
Mathews; New Mexico George M. Neel, 
State engineer, and Judge E. R. Wright, 
counsel; Utah W. W. Ray, attorney, 
and W. D. Beers; Nevada George 
Malone, State engineer; Wyoming John 
A. Whiting, State engineer, J. A. Green- 
wood, attorney-general, and R. J. Jack- 
son, assistant attorney general; Colo- 
rado M. C. Hinderlider, State engineer, 
R. J. Tipton, assistant State engineer, and 
C. L. Ireland, attorney general; Bureau of 
Reclamation R. F. Walter, chief engineer 
E. B. Debler, engineer, and Porter J. 
Preston, engineer. 

An allocation of funds among the six 
States was discussed and it was decided 
that no allocation should be made. 
Each of the six States is- to submit a list 
of projects which they wish investigated. 
It was the desire of the delegates that 
investigations be started in Wyoming at 
once and in Utah as soon as practicable. 

A second meeting of the commission is 
to be held within 60 days to discuss the 
plan of investigations to be outlined by 
the bureau. 



E Six Companies (Inc.), which has 
X the contract for construction of 
Hoover Dam, is rapidly working out the 
details of organization to carry on the 
work. A committee plan has been 
adopted for the supervision of the various 
functions which must be exercised in 
executing the contract, such as construc- 
tion, purchasing, housing and feeding 
j workers on the job, transportation, and 
insurance and hospitalization. 

H. J. Lawler, of the Utah Construction 
Co., is chairman of the construction com- 
mittee which will decide upon all policies 
and details in connection with' construc- 
tion. His headquarters are in the Phelan 
Building, San Francisco. Other members 
of this committee are E. O. Wattis, of the 
Utah Construction Co.; Charles A. Shea, 
of the J. F. Shea Co.; W. A. Bechtel, jr., 
of the W. A. Bechtel Co.; and H. W. 
Morrison, of Morrison-Knudson Co. 

C. D. Bechtel, of the W. A. Bechtel 
Co., 603 Stock Exchange Building, San 
Francisco, is chairman of the purchasing 
committee. His aides are Allen Mac- 
donald, of Macdonald & Kahn Co. (Ltd.), 
and L. S. Corey, of Utah Construction 
Co. This committee will have charge of 
all purchasing and is now determining 
policies and compiling lists of concerns 
with which it expects to deal. According 
to the chairman, it prefers to deal with 
large manufacturers and distributors. 



Later a branch purchasing office will be 
opened at Las Vegas, Nev. 

Henry J. Kaiser, of Kaiser Paving Co., 
603 Stock Exchange Building, San Fran- 
cisco, is chairman of the Boulder City 
committee. Other members are Felix 
Kahn, of Macdonald & Kahn; K. K. 
Bechtel, of W. A. Bechtel Co.; and Frank 
T. Crowe, superintendent of construc- 
tion for the Six Companies. This com- 
mittee will supervise the housing of 
workers on the project. 

S. D. Bechtel, of W. A. Bechtel Co., 
603 Stock Exchange Building, San Fran- 
cisco, is chairman of the transportation 
committee. Other members are Felix 
Kahn, K. K. Bechtel, Henry J. Kaiser, 
and Frank T. Crowe. This committee 
will supervise the transportation of all ma- 
terials and equipment to and from the dam. 

W. A. Bechtel, sr., vice president of the 
Six Companies, will for the present have 
charge of insurance and hospitalization 
on the project. 

Headquarters of the Six Companies are 
at 510 Financial Center Building, San 
Francisco. W. H. Wattis, of the Utah 
Construction Co., is president. South- 
west Building and Contractor, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

A recent survey shows that in Argentina 
nearly 3,700,000 acres of land are under 
irrigation. 




UNITED STATES CUSTOM HOUSE, DENVER, COLO. 

New fireproof home of the Denver office. Bureau of Reclamation. 



144 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



.Tnlv. 1931 



By P. W. DENT, Asst. Commissioner 




Court Upholds Secretary's Power to Allocate Warren Act Profits 



IN Wilbur, Appellant, v. Minidoka Ir- 
rigation District, Appellee, the Court 
of Appeals of the District of Columbia, 
upheld the power of the Secretary of the 
Interior to allocate profits arising from 
the sale of water under the Warren Act on 
the Minidoka Project. 

The decision in full follows: 

APPEAL FROM THE SUPREME COURT OF 
THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Before MARTIN, Chief Justice, and ROBB 
VAN ORSDEL, Hrrz, and GBONER, 
Associate Justices 

AN APPEAL FROM A DECEEE OVERRULING 
A MOTION TO DISMISS PLAINTIFF'S BILL 
OF COMPLAINT FOR WANT OF EQUITY, 
AND, IN THE ABSENCE OF AMENDMENT, 
GRANTING RELIEF TO PLAINTIFF AS 
PRAYED IN THE BILL 

The case arises under the act of Con- 
gress of June 17, 1902 (32 Stat. 388), 
known as the reclamation act. The ap- 
pellant is the Secretary of the Interior. 
The appellee, plaintiff below, is the Mini- 
doka irrigation district, a corporation 
formed under the provisions of the re- 
clamation act. 

The reclamation act provides generally 
that the funds obtained from the sale of 
public lands in certain Western States 
shall be set aside and appropriated as a 
special fund in the Treasury to be known 
as the reclamation fund, to be used in 
the construction and maintenance of ir- 
rigation works for the reclamation of arid 
lands in such States, and that the cost of 
each project shall be charged against the 
lands irrigated, and as rapidly as such 
charges shall be paid back by the land- 
owners into the reclamation fund the 
money shall be used again for the con- 
struction of like works. The act author- 
izes the Secretary of the Interior to per- 
form any and all acts to make such rules 
and regulations as may be necessary and 
proper for the purpose of carrying the 
provisions of the act into full force and 
effect. The Secretary is also authorized 
by the act of February 21, 1911, known 



as the Warren Act (36 Stat. 925), to sell 
excess water from such storage at charges 
to the fixed by him; and it is provided by 
the act of December 5, 1924 (43 Stat. 
672, 703), that all moneys or profits as 
determined by the Secretary derived from 
the sale or rental of surplus water under 
the Warren Act shall be credited to the 
project or division of the project to which 
the construction has been charged. 

BILL OF COMPLAINT 

The bill of complaint filed below sets 
out that the Secretary of the Interior, 
under authority of the act, planned and 
constructed an irrigation project on 
Snake River, in Idaho, known as the 
Minidoka project, consisting of a storage 
dam with canal systems supplying water 
to the lands within the project, together 
with a storage dam and reservoir con- 
structed at Jackson Lake, Wyo.; that the 
land within the project on the north side 
of Snake River, comprising 71,000 acres, 
has been known as the gravity division 
of the Minidoka project, and now con- 
stitutes the Minidoka irrigation district, 
while the land on the south side of the 
Snake River, comprising 49,000 acres, 
has been known as the pumping division 
of the Minidoka project, and now consti- 
tutes the Burley irrigation district; that 
the storage dam at Jackson Lake was 
built at an elevation of 6,752 feet, and the 
storage capacity thereof, when completed, 
was approximately 380,000 acre-feet and 
that the entire cost of its construction, 
to-wit, the sum of $440,424.90, was 
charged against the two units aforesaid; 
that afterwards the Secretary of the In- 
terior sold a capacity of 102,000 acre-feet 
of excess water from the stoiage dam 
aforesaid under the Warren Act, supra, 
and realized therefrom the sum of $492,- 
412.50, which has been deposited in the 
United States Treasury to the credit of 
the reclamation fund, and also that rentals 
for excess water have been collected by 
the Secretary in the sum of $161,106.65, 
all of which, under subsection J of the act 



of December 5, 1924, supra, should have 
been credited to the two units against 
which the costs of construction had been 
charged, namely, the plaintiff and the 
Burley irrigation district; but that the 
Secretary had failed and refused to credit 
the proceeds as aforesaid, and had wrong- 
fully credited 27.7 per cent thereof to 
certain so-called "new divisions" which, 
in fact, were not part of the Minidoka 
project, and had never been charged with 
any part of the cost of the Jackson Lake 
Dam; that plaintiff appeared before the 
Secretary and objected to this procedure, 
but the Secretary had refused to correct 
the same; wherefore plaintiff prayed for a 
mandatory injunction requiring the Sec- 
retary to credit the entire proceeds afore- 
said to the two distiicts so entitled to them. 

COMPLAINT DENIED BY SECRETARY 

In the statement of its case the plaintiff 
appended to the bill of complaint an 
exhibit entitled "Exhibit G," whereby it 
appeared that plaintiff and the Burley 
irrigation district had theretofore filed 
a joint protest with the Secretary, set- 
ting out the same demands as those con- 
tained in the bill of complaint; that this 
was heard by the Secretary upon briefs 
and oral hearings submitted by their 
counsel, and that the Secretary had held 
in part as follows: That in fact, as ap- 
peared from the records, the entire cost 
of the construction aforesaid had not been 
charged against the two districts as 
alleged by plaintiff, but that 27.7 per 
cent of such costs had been charged 
against certain "new divisions," the 
construction of which as a "north-side 
pumping division" had been contem- 
plated by the department since the year 
1908; and that accordingly 27.7 per cent 
of the proceeds realized from the sale and 
rental of excess water, as aforesaid, had 
been rightfully credited to such "new 
divisions," leaving the balance of the 
proceeds to be credited to plaintiff and 
the Burley irrigation district, which had 
been done; and that accordingly the 



July, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



145 



claim of the two districts to be credited 
with the entire sum so realized had right- 
fully been denied, and a rehearing 
afterwards refused. 

The motion to dismiss plaintiff's bill of 
complaint was directed against the 
entire bill, including the exhibit attached 
to it. The bill when thus considered 
consists of two parts, first, a statement of 
facts upon which the plaintiff relies as a 
ground for relief, and, second, an exhibit 
showing that the same statement had 
theretofore been submitted to the Secre- 
tary and by him found to be untrue, and 
that the Secretary had denied the relief 
therein sought by plaintiff. 

It is clear that the Secretary in the for- 
mer hearing was acting within his juris- 
diction in a quasi-judicial capacity, and 
that the issue presented by the plaintiff 
in the present bill of complaint was con- 
sidered and decided by him upon the law 
and the evidence; that his decision was 
not arbitrary or capricious, and that the 
present case is no more than an attempt to 
appeal from that decision in order to se- 
cure a retrial of the same issues of fact and 
law by a court of equity. Moreover, the 
remedy which plaintiff seeks is in (sub- 
stance and effect a judgment in mandamus 
directing the Secretary to act contrary to 
the facts and law of the case as found by 
him. Such an appeal will not be enter- 
tained by the courts. 

In Louisiana v. McAdoo (234 U. S. 627, 
633) it is said by Mr. Justice Lurton for 
the court: 

"There is a class of cases which hold 
that if a public officer be required by law 
to do a particular thing, not involving the 
exercise of either judgment or discretion, 
he may be required to do that thing upon 
application of one having a distinct legal 
interest in the doing of the act. Such 
an act would be ministerial only. But if 
the matter in respect of which the action 
of the official is sought, is one in which the 
exercise of either judgment or discretion 
is required, the courts will refuse to sub- 
stitute their judgment or discretion for 
that of the official entrusted by law with 
its execution. Interference in such a case 
would be to interfere with the ordinary 
functions of government." See Work 
v. Rives (267 U. S. 175), and authorities 
there cited. 

The motion to dismiss the bill for want 
of merit should have been sustained by the 
lower court. The decree is therefore re- 
versed and the cause is remanded for fur- 
ther proceedings not inconsistent here- 
with. 
(Signed) 

GEORGE E. MARTIN, 

Chief Justice, Court of Appeals, 

of the District of Columbia. 

Mr. JUSTICE VAN ORSDEL concurs in 
the judgment. 



Recently Enacted Legislation 



Wages for Laborers and Mechanics 
Employed on Public Buildings 

[PUBLIC No. 798 71sT CONGRESS] 

An Act Relating to the rate of wages for laborers and 
mechanics employed on public buildings of the 
United States and the District of Columbia by con- 
tractors and subcontractors, and for other purposes. 

That every contract in excess of $5,000 
in amount, to which the United States or 
the District of Columbia is a party, 
which requires or involves the employ- 
ment of laborers or mechanics in the con- 
struction, alteration, and/or repair of any 
public buildings of the United States or 
the District of Columbia within the geo- 
graphical limits of the States of the Union 
or the District of Columbia, shall con- 
tain a provision to the effect that the rate 
of wage for all laborers and mechanics 
employed by the contractor or any sub- 
contractor on the public buildings covered 
by the contract shall be not less than the 
prevailing rate of wages for work of a 
similar nature in the city, town, village, 
or other civil division of the State in 
which the public buildings are located, 
or in the District of Columbia if the 
public buildings are located there, and a 
further provision that in case any dis- 
pute arises as to what are the prevailing 
rates of wages for work of a similar nature 
applicable to the contract which can not 
be adjusted by the contracting officer, the 
matter shall be referred to the Secretary 
of Labor for determination and his deci- 
sion thereon shall be conclusive on all 
parties to the contract: Provided, That in 
case of national emergency the President 
is authorized to suspend the provisions of 
this act. 

SEC. 2. This act shall take effect thirty 
days after its passage but shall not affect 
any contract then existing or any contract 
that may thereafter be entered into pur- 
suant to invitations for bids that are out- 
standing at the time of the passage of this 
act. 

Approved, March 3, 1931. 



Relinquishment of tract of land to Rupert, 
Idaho 

[PUBLIC No. 642 71sT CONGRESS] 

An Act To provide for the relinquishment by the 
United States of certain lands to the city of Rupert 
in the county of Minidoka, in the State ol Idaho 

That the Secretary of the Interior is 
hereby authorized to quit claim to the 
city of Rupert in the county of Minidoka, 
in the State of Idaho, all of the right, title, 
and interest of the United States in or to 



that certain tract of land in the Govern- 
ment town site of Rupert on the Minidoka 
reclamation project, more precisely 
bounded and described as follows: Be- 
ginning at the northeast corner section 29, 
township 9 south, range 24 east, Boise 
meridian; thence south six minutes west 
twenty-one and one-tenth feet along 
the section line; thence south forty-five 
degrees twenty-two minutes west along 
the Oregon Short Line Railroad right 
of way three thousand seven hundred 
and thirty and eight-tenths feet to a 
point on the east and west center line of 
said section 29; thence south eighty-nine 
degrees fifty-six minutes west along said 
center line one hundred and fourteen feet; 
thence north forty-five degrees twenty- 
two minutes east three thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-one and three-tenths 
feet to a point on the section line between 
sections 20 and 21; thence south six 
minutes west along said section line 
ninety-one and five-tenths feet to the 
point of beginning as shown on the official 
plat of the town site of Rupert, Idaho, 
said tract of land containing seven acres 
more or less. 

Approved, February 14, 1931. 



Sale of Power, Grand Valley Project 
[PUBLIC No. 708 71sx CONGRESS] 

An Act Authorizing the sale of surplus power devel- 
oped under the Grand Valley reclamation project, 
Colorado 

That whenever a development of 
power is necessary for the irrigation of 
lands under the Grand Valley reclama- 
tion project, Colorado, or an opportunity 
is afforded for the development of power 
under said project, such development of 
power to be without expenditure of money 
from the reclamation fund or from the 
Treasury of the United States, the Grand 
Valley Water Users' Association, with the 
approval of the Secretary of the Interior, 
is authorized to enter into a contract or 
contracts for a period of not exceeding 
twenty-five years for the sale or develop- 
ment of any surplus power or power 
privileges in said Grand Valley reclama- 
tion project, Colorado. 

Approved, February 21, 1931. 



ABOUT 120,000 fingerling pike have 
./~\. been placed in Orman Reservoir, Belle 
Fourche project, by the State fish hatchery 
as a means of furthering the interest of 
that section as a pleasure resort. 



140 



NEW KECLAMATION ERA 



July, I'.I.'U 




All-American Canal to Serve a Million Acres 



A Review of Report on Ail-American Canal Investigations 

By H. J. Gault, Engineer, Bureau of Reclamation 



THE All-American Canal, authorized 
for construction under the Boulder 
Canyon project act, will be 80 miles 
in length, and the branch canal to the 
Coachella Valley 130 miles long, according 
to a report on "All-American Canal In- 
vestigations" by H. J. Gault, dated May, 
1931. These investigations have been 
carried on since May, 1929, by thejptireau 
of Reclamation in cooperation \?ith the 
Imperial irrigation district and the 
Coachella Valley County water district. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

It is planned to divert from the Colo- 
rado River at a point about 5 miles above 
the Laguna Dam of the Yuma (Federal) 
irrigation project, in section 9, T. 15 S., 
R. 24 E., S. B. M. The proposed diver- 
sion dam will be of the floating or Indian 
weir type, with a crest 1,700 feet long, 
providing floodway capacity of 170,000 
second-feet without overtopping the gate 
structure. Total flood capacity of the 
works would be 259,000 second-feet, 
besides the canal diversions. Six desilting 
basins are provided, any five of which are 
to be used for diversion to the canal, 
while the sixth basin is being sluiced. 
The dam will raise the river water surface 
about 22 feet. 

Capacity assumed for the main canal 
is 15,000 second-feet from the dam to 
Siphon Drop on the reservation division 
of the Yuma project, where 2,000 second- 
feet are diverted for this project; 13,000 
second-feet from Siphon Drop to Pilot 
Knob, and 10,000 westward from Pilot 
Knob for the Imperial and Coachella 
Valleys. The Coachella Canal would 
carry 2,000 second-feet at the head and 
1,000 where it enters Coachella Valley. 
It is estimated that the diversion dam, 
desilting works, All-American Canal, and 
Coachella Canal can be built for some- 
thing less than $34,000,000. The Impe- 
rial Dam Siphon Drop section of the 
All-American Canal will have a bottom 
width of 130 feet, a water depth of 22 
feet, and will carry an amount of water 
equal to 70 per cent of the average flow 
of the Colorado River at the Hoover Dam. 



CANAL LOCATION 

The route of the canal follows the river 
closely to Laguna Dam and then parallels 
the present Yuma main canal to the 
Siphon Drop. Several washes must be 
crossed by culverts or siphons. From the 
Siphon Drop to Pilot Knob the canal 
follows the foothills, and bridges for the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, the Inter-Cali- 
fornia Railroad, the State highway, and 
county road will be required. Beyond 
Pilot Knob, at three different points and 
for a total distance of 14.8 miles, the canal 
is located near to and parallel with the 
international boundary. 

For 10^ miles the canal line passes 
through the sand hills, a region covered 
with dunes except for a few bare spots. 
The deepest cut in the sand-hill area is 
over 100 feet and the dune sand is about 
80 feet in depth. Instead of lining the 
canal with concrete in this sand-hill area, 
it appears advisable to leave it unlined 
and prevent sand blowing into the ca- 
nal as much as possible, and to remove 
the sand by suction dredges if necessary. 
The canal section through the sand hills 
is designed with a mean velocity of 4.5 
feet per second at full capacity, which 
is intended to be nonscouring and non- 
silting. Portions excavated in finer sand 
for the water section and liable to scour 
are to be overexcavated to a depth of 
V/> feet and the space refilled with screened 
gravel to form a scour-resisting lining. 
Means of preventing sand from being 
blown into the canal may be by one or 
more of the following methods: (a) Grow- 
ing vegetation on the sand in a zone on 
each side of the canal by irrigation from 
small pipe lines; (b) spraying the sand with 
crude oil; (c) covering the dune sand with 
material from the canal excavation in the 
mesa formation which is too coarse to be 
blown by the wind; (d) excavating a berm 
15 feet wide on each side of the canal at the 
mesa floor level. By adopting these 
methods in operation it is expected that 
the quantity of sand blown or drifted into 
the canal will be small. 

From the sand hills the canal line runs 
west across the east mesa to the present 



east high line canal of the Imperial dis- 
trict distribution system, and then through 
the extreme southern portion of the 
Imperial Valley, where it crosses 17 prin- 
cipal ditches and passes through the 
town of Calexico before it reaches its 
terminus, the present West Side main 
canal. Here the water surface is 6.7, 
and at this point the canal has capacity 
sufficient to supply lands under the West 
Side canal and also to furnish water for 
additional lands on the west side mesa. 

COACHELLA CANAL 

About 16 miles west of Pilot Knob the 
Coachella branch canal will take out of 
the All-American Canal and run in a 
northwesterly direction across the east 
mesa. The location crosses the Southern 
Pacific Railroad near Iris, passes east of 
the Salton Sea and the Coachella Valley 
to a point near the town of Coachella, 
where it again crosses the Southern 
Pacific and runs southwesterly across the 
valley, and then south to the Riverside- 
Imperial county line. There are more 
than 160 washes crossing the Coachella 
Canal line, ordinarily dry, but at times 
of heavy rains or cloudbursts, carrying 
floods of short duration, heavily loaded 
with sand and silt; these must be crossed 
with siphons or culverts. By combining 
these washes in groups by the use of 
training levees and diversion channels, 
the number of structures can be reduced 
to about 90. The last 47 miles of the 
canal will be lined with concrete. 

SURVEYS 

Soil surveys of 1920 in the Imperial 
Valley have been reviewed and a soil 
reconnaissance was made of the Pilot 
Knob mesa, lying east of the sand hills. 
The lands within the present Imperial 
irrigation district have been classified. 
Topography was taken of a zone along 
the All-American Canal covering a width 
of 1,000 feet and along the Coachella 
Canal of a zone 800 feet wide. The fol- 
lowing additional field work is necessary: 
(1) Completion of topography along the 



July, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



147 



Coachella Canal; (2) relocation of first 10 
or 15 miles of Coachella Canal; (3) 
studies and surveys of minor revisions of 
location; (4) studies for wasteways, sur- 
veys of washes, and location of training 
levees. Final location of turnouts for 
new lands can not be made until the 
lateral ditches are located, which in turn 
should follow topographic mapping and 
investigations of the irrigable areas. 

The Imperial irrigation district, com- 
prising 512,000 acres, is supplied with a 
complete system of lateral ditches, with 
about 425,000 acres in cultivation. In 
the Coachella Valley about 16,300 acres 
are now under cultivation, being supplied 
by pumping from wells. There is no 
general canal or lateral system in the 
Coachella Valley. The east and west 
mesas, the Dos Palmas area east of the 
Salton Sea, Pilot Knob mesa, and the 
greater part of the Coachella Valley are 
desert lands with no improvements. It 
is contemplated that the boundaries of 
the Imperial irrigation district will be 
extended to include lands in the Coachella 
Valley irrigable from the canal when 
constructed. 



The accompanying table shows the irri- 
gable lands west of Pilot Knob as deter- 
mined by the Imperial irrigation district. 

These areas may be materially changed 
after irrigable area surveys have been 
made. 

There are opportunities for develop- 
ment of power at Pilot Knob and at several 
points on the canals, but such develop- 
ment must be financed by the irrigation 
district and other interested agencies. 
Where canal drops are planned for power 



development, chute drops will be built by 
the Government, but it is expected that 
power plants will eventually be constructed 
by the district. Before any money is 
appropriated for construction of this canal 
a repayment contract must be made with 
the irrigation district, and negotiations 
are now under way. This contract will 
provide for the delivery of stored water 
from the Hoover Reservoir and the Colo- 
rado River in accordance with allocations 
yet to be made. 



Ail-American Canal project Summary of irrigable lands west of Pilot Knob 



Lands 


Acres 
gravity 


Acres under pump lifts 


Total 


50 feet 


100 feet 


150 feet 


200 feet 


235 feet 


Imperial irrigation district 


521, 600 
195, 432 
10,450 
115, 025 












,121, 600 
197,866 
10,450 
153,040 
125, 789 








950 


1,484 




Dos Palmas 












27,315 


2,200 
85,289 


8,500 






29,500 


11,000 










842, 507 


29,500 


27,315 


88.439 


9,984 
22,334 


11,000 


1. 008, 745 
22,334 


Pilot Knob mesa 














842,507 


29,500 


27,315 


88,439 


32, 318 


11,000 


1, 031, 079 





NOTE. Pumping lifts are approximate for the various areas and are representative of maximums. 



Baker project. -Specifications (No. 523) 
and invitations for bids have been issued 
for the construction of the Thief Valley 
Dam on the Baker project, Oregon. Bids 
will be opened at Nyssa, Oreg., on July 27. 
The dam will be of the buttressed type 
with reinforced concrete face slabs. It 
will be about 380 feet in length at the 
crest, of which about 270 feet will be 
occupied by an overflow spillway. The 
maximum height will be about 66 feet 
above bedrock. The outlet works will 
consist of two 4.8 by 6 foot openings 
controlled by castriron slide gates. The 
principal items and the estimated quan- 
tities involved are as follows: 8,000 cubic 
yards of all classes of excavation; 4,775 
cubic yards of concrete; 200 cubic feet of 
grout; drilling 1,750 linear feet of grout 
holes; placing 390,000 pounds of rein- 
forcement bars; installing 50,000 pounds of 
structural steel and metal work; diversion 
and care of river and unwatering founda- 
tions. 

Boulder Canyon project. Specifications 
and invitations for bids have been issued 
for the construction of the administration, 
dormitory, and municipal buildings at 
Boulder City, Nev. The grading, founda- 
tion excavation, and concrete foundations 
for the administration and dormitory 
buildings were included in separate spec- 
ifications, bids under which were opened 
on June 17, 1931. 



Notes For Contractors 

Specifications have been issued for the 
construction of the second group of three 
and four room residences to be con- 
constructed at Boulder City. This 
group of residences will be of the "All- 
Rolok" Flemish bond, hollow brick, out- 
side wall type of construction. Plans 
and specifications are being prepared for a 
group of larger residences. 

Plans have been completed and invita- 
tion for bids issued for the construction of 
the water-treating plant and sewage dis- 
posal plant for Boulder City and also for 
the electrical distribution system for the 
city. 

Minidoka project, Goading division. 
Plans and specifications are being pre- 
pared for the construction of the last 8 
miles of the Milner-Gooding Canal on the 
Gooding division. The specifications will 
cover the earthwork and the construction 
of structures. 

Yakima project. The Federal Pipe & 
Tank Co., of Seattle, Wash., has been 
awarded the contract for furnishing 
6,212 feet of 34-inch continuous wood- 
stave pipe for the Kennewick High- 
lands low-lift discharge line (Specifications 
512-D). 

Specifications and plans for machinery 
for the Prosser power plant and the 
Kennewick Highlands pumping plant are 
nearing completion in the Denver office 
and will be advertised for bids in July. 



Yakima project, Kitlilas division. 
Specifications have been completed for the 
construction of the remaining portion of 
the lateral system on this division. The 
work is divided into 11 schedules, 5 of 
which cover the earthwork excavation 
and 6 the construction of the lateral 
structures. The principal items and the 
estimated quantities of work involved are 
as follows: 412,000 cubic yards of lateral 
excavation, all classes; 16,600 cubic yards 
of excavation, all classes, for structures; 
11,000 cubic yards of back fill; 1,780 
cubic yards of concrete; 1,050 square 
yards of dry rock paving; 40 square yards 
of grouted paving; 40 cubic yards of 
riprap; placing 118,000 pounds of rein- 
forcement bars; placing 77,000 feet 
board measure of lumber in bridges and 
flumes; placing 7,378 linear feet of all 
sizes of concrete pipe; placing 30,600 
pounds of gates and gate lifts; placing 
125 linear feet of No. 72 metal flume. 

Yakima project, Cle Elum Dam. Bids 
will be opened at the office of the Bureau 
of Reclamation, Yakima, Wash., at 10 
a. m., on July 10, for the construction of 
the Cle Elum Dam and appurtenant 
works (Specifications No. 522). The main 
dam is to be a sprinkled and rolled 
earthfill embankment approximately 750 
feet long on the crest and with a 
maximum height of 135 feet above stream 
bed. 



148 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



July, 1931 



Cle Elum Dam A dvertised for Construction 



The last one of the six storage reservoirs 
on the Yakima (Federal) irrigation proj- 
ect, in the State of Washington, is about 
to be constructed at an estimated cost 
of $3,500,000. The Bureau of Reclama- 
tion has asked for bids for clearing the 
reservoir site and constructing the Cle 
Elum Dam, bids to be opened at Yakima, 
Wash., on July 10. 



OLD DAM TO BE REPLACED 

There is at the present time a dam of 
rock-filled timber crib at the dam site, 
which will be replaced by a sprinkled and 
rolled earth-fill embankment, approxi- 
mately 750 feet in length along the crest 
and having a maximum height of 135 feet 
above the stream bed. The downstream 




Cle Elum dam site, showing old crib dam to be replaced by 135-foot earth-fill dam, Yakima project, Washington 



The work is located on the Cle Elum 
River near its present outlet from the 
south end of Lake Cle Elum, about 8 
miles northwest of the town of Cle Elum 
and 100 miles southeast of Seattle, on the 
Northern Pacific and Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul railways. 



slope will be covered with gravel and 
cobbles and the upstream slope with a 12- 
inch layer of gravel and a 30-inch layer of 
dumped riprap. Above the dam the 
stream bed and side slopes for a distance 
of about 750 feet will be covered with an 
earth blanket, while below the dam a 



gravel and cobble blanket will be placed 
over the stream bed and a portion of the 
side slopes of the canyon for a distance of 
about 900 feet. The placing of about 
1,200,000 cubic yards of material is re- 
quired. About 1,000,000 acre-feet can be 
stored in the reservoir and this will pro- 
vide ample water for the ultimate proposed 
development of the project. 

A concrete-lined tunnel will be con- 
structed through the right or south 
abutment for diversion of the river during 
construction and afterwards used for 
release of storage. This tunnel will be 
14 feet inside diameter and about 1,800 
feet in length. Control of the outflow 
will be by tandem cylinder gates, 18 feet 
in diameter, located in a vertical shaft 
about midway in the tunnel. These 
cylinder gates will be protected by two 
butterfly -gates 1 1 feet in diameter. 

The spillway will be an open concrete- 
lined channel adjacent to the dam in the 
south abutment, discharging into an ex- 
cavated channel leading to a stilling basin 
at the lower end of the outlet tunnel. 

The river channel will be straightened, 
deepened, and enlarged for about 4,700 
feet below the outlet. A main dike about 
850 feet in length and 40 feet in maximum 
height, together with three smaller dikes, 
will be required. There are about 2,700 
acres in the reservoir site to be cleared 
and grubbed. 

The contractor must complete the dam 
and appurtenant works in 870 days from 
the date of receipt of notice to proceed, the 
penalty being $200 a day for each calendar 
day's delay. R. J. Newell will be con- 
struction engineer for the Bureau of Rec 
tarnation, with headquarters at Ronald. 



Irrigation Dam in Morocco 
Completed 

The public works department of the 
Protectorate Government of French Mo- 
rocco has recently completed the first dam 
to be utilized for irrigation purposes only. 
The dam is situated near Casablanca, 
about 12 miles from the mouth of the 
Oued Mellal River. It is 65 feet in 
height, exclusive of foundations, 131 feet 
in width at the river bed, 394 feet wide at 
the top, and will impound about 12,000,000 
cubic meters of water, providing irriga- 
tion for approximately 1,235 acres of 
truck farms in the region of Casablanca. 

This dam is the first and smallest of 
four irrigation projects under development 
by the Protectorate Government. Com- 
merce Reports. 

A LOCAL company on the Grand 
Valley project has contracted for 
about 200 acres of cantaloupes this 
season, mainly as an experiment. 



July, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



149 



Boulder Canyon Project Notes 



The Western Construction News re- 
cently carried the news item that the 
purchasing committee of the Six Com- 
panies (Inc.), has awarded the following 
contracts for equipment, materials, and 
supplies: Atlas Imperial Diesel Engine 
Co., Diesel engines; Ingersoll-Rand Co., 
compressors and air drills; Marion Steam 
Shovel Co., power shovels; St. Louis 
Power Shovel Co., Conway muckers; 
Linde Air Products Co., oxygen, acetylene 
and calcium carbide; Chapman Lumber 
Co., lumber; Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Co., electrical equipment; 
General Electric Co., electrical supplies. 

About 200 cottages, mostly four and five 
rooms, will be built in Boulder City by 
the Six Companies (Inc.), for their mar- 
ried employees. They will be of wood 
frame, stuccoed, and are to be placed on 
50-foot lots. The first group of these 
cottages is being erected in block 29. 

Electric power for construction pur- 
poses is now available at the dam site. 
June 25 was the date for availability of 
power under the contract, and the South- 
ern Sierras Co. beat this by several days. 
The distance from the Victorville, Calif., 
substation is 193 miles, and an additional 
32 miles of line was required for connec- 
tion with the San Bernardino power plant. 
A substation has been built at the dam site 
and V%, miles of road construction through 
solid rock were necessary in order to reach 
the substation site with materials and 
equipment. The power company has 
built a telephone line paralleling the trans- 
mission line. 



The Six Companies (Inc.), have a camp 
of 400 men at "Cape Horn," a local name 
given to the bend in the river, just above 
the dam site. This force is working on 
the canyon railroad, roads, and tunnel 
adits. 



The contractors for the dam have 
decided to erect a hospital at Boulder City 
suitable for their needs, and a portion of 
block No. 8 has been set aside for the 
purpose. In order to have hospital facili- 
ties available at an early date, the Six 
Companies will first build a 20-bed, 1- 
story building and appurtenant con- 
venience?, with heating and cooling 
facilities, estimated to cost about $20,000. 
This first unit can be added to as the need 
for additional hospitalization develops. 
The building will be of frame construction 
with stucco on metal lath. 
6245131 2 



What may be expected in the way of 
tourist travel through Boulder City after 
the Hoover Dam is finished may be judged 
from present conditions at Yuma, Ariz. 
During the month of April an average of 
433 autos daily were west bound and 300 
cars east bound, or a total of 22,000 for the 
month. With an average of 1,200 tour- 
ists in Yuma each day, the tourist trade 
is worth considerable to the business man. 



The new dormitories being built by the 
Six Companies in Boulder City are 2-story 
buildings shaped like the letter H. On 
each of the four wings are single rooms, 
7 by 10^ feet, in two rows on each floor. 
Large screened porches reach the full 
length of the building on the outside, one 
on each floor. These porches will be 
occupied by reading tables and lounging 
chairs. A 1,000-man mess hall, with a 
huge concrete refrigerating basement, has 
been completed in which the Anderson 
Boarding & Supply Co. is serving meals to 
Big Six employees. The new office build- 
ing is U-shaped, with the engineering 
division located in the west wing and 
accounting division in the east wing. 



It is reported that the State highway 
department of Arizona has budgeted 
$20,000 for a survey of an 85-mile highway 
from Kingman 'to the Hoover Dam site, 
the survey to be commenced in July. 



Extent of the 

Columbia River 

Maybe some of our people would have 
more respect for the Columbia River if 
they knew how big it is. The Columbia 
drains 259,000 square miles of territory. 
This watershed extends from Glacier and 
Yellowstone National Parks to the Pacific 
and from the Fraser on the north to the 
Klamath on the south, excluding only the 
small section which drains directly into 
the Pacific. At The Dalles the Columbia 
has a run-off equal to that of the St. Law- 
rence or the Danube. At Pasco, before it 
receives the waters of the Snake, it is 
larger than the Fraser, the Missouri, or 
the Nile. At Trail, British Columbia, 
above the mouth of Clark Fork, it carries 
more water than the Yukon, and the 
Clark Fork alone discharges more water 
into the Columbia than the Colorado 
carries at the site of the great Hoover 
Dam. 



TWO cars of 563 lambs were sold on a 
recent date by the Minidoka County 
lamb pool on the Minidoka project. 
The lambs averaged about 84 pounds 
each, and the total amount received for 
them was $3,773, or about 8 cents per 
pound. Later the Cassia County lamb 
pool shipped 278 lambs, in addition to 
some ewes and wethers. The price 
received for these lambs was $9.25 per 
hundredweight in Ogden. Other ship- 
ments of lambs will probably follow in the 
near future. 




Fairman Coulee siphon looking toward the inlet, Vale project, Oregon 



150 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



July, 1931 




BOULDER CANYON PROJECT 










.^r. 



'' ' '" *-^ 



te 



Photoa by Orin G. Patch 

1. Footbridge across the Colorado River and Arizona adit: 2. Excavation on United States construction highway, R. G. LeTourneau (Inc.), subcontractor; 3. Government 
warehouse interior, Boulder City; 4. View toward Dry Lake from Water Tank Hill, Boulder City; 5. Government warehouse exterior, Boulder City; 6. Highway to Ne- 
vada tunnel outlets. Note footbridges in Black Canyon; 7. Viewtoward south from Water Tank Hill, Boulder City;foundationforGovernmentresidencein foreground 



July. 1031 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



151 



BOULDER CANYON PROJECT 




Photos by OrLn G. Patch 

1. Inside of Six Companies' machine shop; 2. Framing for Six Companies' dormitory, Boulder City; 3. Six Companies' Adit to Arizona diversion tunnels ;4. Six Companies 
highway to Nevada tunnel outlets; 5. Six Companies' camp in Black Canyon at Cape Horn; 6. First 4-room house built by Six Companies, Boulder City 



152 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



July, 1931 



] By H. A BROWN. Director of Reclamation Economics 




UNLIKE other reclamation projects, 
the Yuma auxiliary project, general- 
ly referred to as the Yuma Mesa, was not 
constructed with funds appropriated from 
the reclamation fund. This project, 
which occupies approximately 45,000 acres 
of land of the lower Colorado River delta, 
lying directly south of the city of Yuma, 
in Arizona, was authorized for reclama- 
tion under the provisions of the act of 
Congress approved January 25, 1917 (39 
Stat., 686), and as amended by the act of 
February 11, 1918. 

The first public notice was issued by the 
Secretary of the Interior on October 3, 
1919, and provided for the sale at public 
auction of aU the unentered public lands 
shown on approved farm unit plats situ- 
ated in the first mesa unit. A reasonable 
value of the land was fixed at $25 per 
acre, with a water right charge of $160 per 
acre for the irrigation works to be con- 
structed, plus a $40 per acre charge for the 
proportionate part of the cost of the 
irrigation works previously constructed 
for the Yuma project and made available 
for the mesa lands. The sale of these 
lands was started on December 10, 1919, 



Yuma Auxiliary Project 

and continued every day thereafter, 
except Sunday, until all of the land in this 
unit had been offered for sale, and as a 
result 518 farm units, comprising about 
6,000 acres, were sold, producing a con- 
tractual value of approximately $1 ,350,000. 
No qualifications or limitations were 
required from any of the purchasers, 
except that they be citizens of the United 
States and that no sale would be author- 
ized with a corporation. 

As a condition precedent to proceeding 
with the construction of the irrigation 
system, the act above referred to provided 
that the construction work should be paid 
for from the money obtained through the 
sale of the land and water rights, and as it 
was further provided that 10 per cent of 
the bid price be paid on the date of sale, 
plus 15 per cent 60 days thereafter, with a 
condition that the balance or 75 per cent 
be paid over a period of three years at a 
rate of 25 per cent per year with 6 per cent 
interest on the deferred amounts, it was 
determined that sufficient funds were in 
hand and forthcoming to safely justify 
construction. Accordingly on June 8, 
1920. the Secretarv of the Interior issued 










Bird's-eye view of Yuma, Ariz., in 1876, looking toward the southwest from Indian Hill 



an order authorizing the Bureau of 
Reclamation to begin the construction of 
the first mesa unit. On September 27, 
1920, actual work was started on part one 
of unit B, containing about 6,318 irrigable 
acres, and was carried on with the 
available funds to the extent that the 
bureau is now prepared to serve irrigation 
water to a total of 3,810 acres of land. 
The system consists of 10 miles of con- 
crete pipe lines, 29 miles of earth and 
concrete lined canals, 1% miles of metal 
flume, 148 minor structures, such as 
turnouts, checks, culverts and bridges, 
and the B lift pumping plant. 

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT SLOW 

Development of these lands has been 
slow, largely because many of the pur- 
chasers were not financially able to meet 
their second and third construction in- 
stalments, owing to the general depres- 
sion that existed in that locality for 
several years after the opening of this 
project. As a result more than 4,000 acres 
of land of these purchasers reverted to 
the Government. This condition, coupled 
with the high cost paid for electrical 
energy necessary to operate the pumping 
plant, created a deficiency in the Yuma 
auxiliary fund, so that it became essen- 
tial to seek financial aid to carry out the 
approved construction and operation and 
maintenance program. This was ob- 
tained through an act of Congress ap- 
proved March 4, 1925, authorizing a 
8200,000 appropriation from the reclama- 
tion fund. Although this legislation was 
important and of great benefit to the 
project, it was apparent that the funds 
thus obtained would serve merely as a 
temporary relief for a 'number of years, 
as the operation and maintenance costs 
were greatly exceeding the repayments. 
The costs were exceptionally high on ac- 
count of the necessity of procuring elec- 
trical energy for pumping purposes at a 
high rate per kilowatt hour. It was de- 
cided that this discouraging situation 



July, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



153 



could be overcome only by advancing the 
operation and maintenance charges or 
by the development of a power plant at 
Siphon Drop on the main canal of the 
Yuma project. The power plant was 
built, predicated upon certain principles 
set out in an open letter to the water 
users of the Yuma project, providing for 
an increase in their construction cost in 
the sum of not to exceed $5 per acre. 
The pow r er system, consisting of a 2- 
unit, 2,000-kilowatt-ampere, power plant, 
33,000-volt transmission line, substa- 
tion, and operators' living quarters, was 
completed in July, 1926. In conse- 
quence thereof the Yuma auxiliary pro- 
ject is now enjoying the benefits of very 
cheap power This is reflected in their 
operation and maintenance charges to 
the extent that the established annual 
rate is sufficient to carry on the project 
operations, although there are only 1,986 
acres under water-right applications. 

TERMS OF REPAYMENT HIGH 

With the inception of this project it was 
generally conceded that the terms of re- 
payment for the land and water right were 
somewhat high for an individual to meet 
unless he were blessed with sufficient 
capital or backing. A concerted effort 
was made therefore to have the original 
act amended. This was done by the pas- 
sage of the act of March 4, 1925, hereto- 



fore referred to, in regard to the $200,000 
appropriation. This act provided that 
the purchase price of the land and water 
right sold should be repaid in 10 equal 
annual instalments with interest at a rate 
of 6 per cent per annum on deferred 
payments. 

The annual operation and maintenance 
charges per acre are high, as it is necessary 
to divert the water from the Colorado 
River at Laguna Dam, whence it is car- 
ried a distance of approximately 20 miles 
through the main canal system of the 
Yuma project, lifted 70 feet by pumps to 
the mesa, and distributed through an 
elaborate irrigation system to each 40- 
acre unit. The assessments for several 
years past have been $15 per acre, regard- 
less of use of water, which has permitted 
the delivery of not to exceed 3 acre-feet of 
water per acre, with a condition that addi- 
tional water, if required, could be pur- 
chased at $3.50 per acre-foot. 

CLIMATIC AND SOIL CONDITIONS 

The entire area of this project, except 
for a few isolated spots, is quite smooth 
and devoid of plant life. Therefore the 
land can be cleared and leveled at a very 
low cost per acre. The soil is mostly a 
fine sand containing considerable lime and 
other mineral elements necessary for plant 
food, but is deficient in organic matter 
and must therefore be built up by exten- 



sive fertilization to mature crops of com- 
mercial value. 

There is probably no other section in 
the United States that is so highly ad- 
vertised for no other reason that its cli- 
mate, which, contrary to the general 
belief, is the greatest asset of the entire 
lower Colorado River Valley, and par- 
ticularly so to the Yuma mesa, which is 
situated in a frostless belt. It is dur- 
ing the long hot summer months that 
the record-breaking crops grapefruit, 
oranges, lemons, and other citrus fruits 
are grown, without equal, and considera- 
tion is given to the fact that this area is 
frostless, low in humidity and rainfall, 
with a growing season of 365 days each 
year and a percentage of sunshine not 
surpassed anywhere in the United States. 
It is not hard then to realize that the fruit 
grown in this semitropical region is of a 
superior quality and is sold at a premium 
in the open market. 

During the year 1930 there were 1,404 
acres of land under cultivation, of which 
470 acres were nonbearing; that is, the 
citrus groves were not sufficiently matured 
on this area to produce crops. The pro- 
ducing area, however, consisting of 954 
acres, brought a gross return of $156,264.68 
or an average per acre return of $164.75. 
The significance of this splendid average 
is that it covers several hundred acres of 
citrusjtrees at the age of 5 years and 



^^:-^ : Wf 




AERIAL VIEW OF YUMA TAKEN IN 1930 

Bureau of Reclamation headquarters office and grounds; 2. Colorado River flowing into Mexico; 3. Colorado River siphon intake; 4. Colorado River siphon outlet; 5. 
Yuma project Main Canal; 6. Yuma Indian Agency, under Government operation and control; 7. Colorado River and overflow area; 8. Remains of the old Federal and 
State prison; 9. Southern Pacific Railroad depot; 10. Southern Pacific roundhouse; 11. City of Yuma, Main Street; 12. City and county building and grounds; 13, 
14, and 15. Grammar School; 16. High-school buildings and campus; 17. Municipal swimming pool; 18. Yuma Mesa citrus groves. Area shown north of river in Cal- 
ifornia; area south of river in Arizona. 



154 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



July, 1931 



younger, on which the per acre return is 
considerably below $100. Outside of ap- 
proximately 50 acres planted to dates, 
grapes, alfalfa, etc., the cropped area is 
planted to citrus fruit, with grapefruit 
predominating. In reviewing the prog- 
ress of these groves for the past year it is 
interesting to note the increase in the 
productive value from year to year. 

Per acre 
Plantings return 

4-year old $49.55 

5-year old 93.65 

6-year old 163.13 

7-year old 279. 94 

8-year old --- 350. 00 

The productive cost per acre of the 
groves in cultivation varies somewhat with 
the age of the trees and depends largely 
on the methods employed by the individ- 
ual grower as to fertilization, cultivation, 
application of water, etc. These costs 
will range from approximately $90 to 
$125 per acre, and when compared with 
the returns given above it is disclosed that 
the plantings after the fifth year begin to 
produce a very substantial return on the 
investment. 

The cost of bringing an acre of land to 
the productive age, or the fifth year, will 
also vary, as there are numerous factors 
to consider, such as the preparation of 
land, kind of water distribution system, 
cost of trees, growing cover crops, and 
many other incidental items, so that no 
definite amount can be stated. Some of 
the existing groves have been brought into 
bearing at a cost as low as $800 per acre, 
whereas others have been recorded at a 
cost of $1,200 per acre. This wide range 
can be attributed in a large measure 
to the extent of the distribution system; 
that is, whether the earth open ditch is 
resorted to or the underground concrete 
pipe line has been constructed. There 
are other items of lesser importance that 
will affect these costs, but it can be con- 
servatively estimated that $8,000 to 
$10,000 will be required to develop a 
10-acre unit. In consideration of the high 
productive and development cost, this 
project can not be placed in the home 
builders' class similar to other reclama- 
tion projects, but rather must be placed 
in an investment class, and as such it has 
no equal in citrus culture in the United 
States. 

The Yuma mesa is not merely an experi- 
ment but demonstrated fact, and there are 
many hundred acres of raw land awaiting 
the development of the citrus culturist 
with a little vision and capital who may 
now benefit from the experience of the 
pioneers of this project, as well as the 
expert knowledge it is now possible to 
secure from the University of Arizona 
experimental farms, located on the Yuma 



and Yuma auxiliary projects, and the 
Government experimental farms located 
at Indio, Riverside, and Bard, Calif., the 
last named being located on the reserva- 
tion division of the Yuma project. 

The natural advantages of this project 
for citrus development can not be too 
strongly expressed. It is without question 
one of the most attractive industries in the 



entire Southwest. There are many highly 
advertised sections in the southern and 
southwestern States, but none has the 
natural advantages of the Yuma mesa, 
which is frost free, has no citrus disease 
or insect pests, has an ideal soil for citrus 
culture, and raises fruit surpassed by 
.none. H. R. Pasewalk, Assistant Chief 
Accountant, Bureau of Reclamation. 



Cotton Grown on the Projects in 1930 



The four projects on which cotton was 
grown commercially in 1930 were the Salt 
River, Ariz.; Yuma, Ariz., -Calif.; Carls- 
bad, N. Mex., and Rio Grande, N. Mex.- 
Tex. 

Cotton was grown on 192,120 acres, 
yielding 175,809 bales of lint, or an aver- 
age of 0.91 bale per acre, and 78,924 tons 
of seed. The total value of lint and seed 
amounted to $11,398,544, or $59.33 per 



acre. As in 1929, the Rio Grande proj- 
ect reported the largest acreage, yield, 
and value in this crop, the 94,805 
acres producing lint and seed valued at 
$5,734,350, or $60.45 per acre. The 
highest value per acre of $62.52 was on 
the Salt River project, Ariz. Detailed 
figures are given in the accompaning 
table. 



Cotton grown on reclamation projects in 1930 



Project 


Area 


Yield 


Value 


Lint 


Seed 


Total 


Average 
per acre 


Total 


Average 
per acre 


Total 


Average 
per acre 


Salt River, Ariz 


Acres 
49,631 
28,073 
19, 551 
94, 865 


Bales 
43,553 
25, 163 
16, 963 
90,130 


Bales 
0.88 
.90 

.87 
.95 


Tons 
21, 777 
12,204 
6,949 
37,994 


Tons 
0.44 
.43 
.36 
.40 


$3, 103, 152 
1, 538, 454 
1, 022, 588 
5, 734, 350 


$62.52 
54.80 
52.30 
60.45 


Yuma, Ariz. -Calif 


Carlsbad, N. Met 


Rio Grande, N. Mex. -Tex 




192, 120 


175, 809 


.91 


78. 924 


.41 


11,398,544 


59.33 





Citrus Fruit Grown on Reclamation Projects in 1930 



The three Federal irrigation projects on 
which citrus fruits are now grown are the 
Salt River, Ariz.; Yuma, Ariz. -Calif. ; and 
Orland, Calif. 

In 1930 the crop was grown on 4,949 
acres, producing 63,768,110 pounds of 
fruit, valued at $1,561,015, or $315.42 
per acre. 

Seventy-seven per cent of the total 



bearing acreage in citrus fruit was on the 
Salt River project, which also accounted 
for 86 per cent of the yield and 88 per cent 
of the total value. This project also re- 
ported the highest value per acre of $360. 
Most of the crop on the Yuma project was 
produced on the Mesa division. De- 
tailed figures are given in the accompany- 
ing table. 



Citrus Fruit Crown on Reclamation Projects in 1930 



Project 


Yield 


Value 


Bearing 
area 


Total 


Average 
per ncre 


Total 


Ter acre 


Salt River, Ariz 


Acres 
3,823 
797 
16 
32 
749 
329 


Pounds 
55. 051. 200 
7,390,910 
60, 750 
120,000 
7, 216, 160 
1, 320, 000 


Pounds 
14,400 
9, 280 
3,797 
3,750 
9,634 
4,012 


$1, 376, 280 
131,935 
1,620 
3, 525 
126, 790 
52,800 


$360.00 
165. 54 
101. 25 
110. 15 
169. 27 
160.49 










Orland, Calif 


Totals and average? 


4,949 


63, 768, 110 


12.SS5 


1,561.015 


315.42 





July, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



155 



Summary of livestock and 



equip- 



mem on re 
eds, 1930 


aerai n 


rigain 


m proj- 









Valuo 






Each 


Total 


Horses 


69, 953 


$48. 2J 


S3, 27S, 817 


Mules 


10,085 


80.00 


822, 597 


Beef cattle 


65,368 


41.78 


2,731,223 l 


Purebred sires 


682 
192 


99. IS 

46 00 


8 870 


Dairy cattle .. 


137, 570 


63.36 


8,71.' 


Purebred sires 
Scrub sires 


1,485 
1,038 


126.08 
52.14 


187, 227 
54, 722 


Sheep. .. 


462, 774 


5.20 


2, 407, 406 


llogs 


78,404 


8.80 


689, 513 


Brood sows 


12,026 


19.49 


234, 474 


Goats 


480 


5 00 


2 354 


Rabbits 


1,900 


1.18 


2, 243 


Fowls 


2,116,481 


.95 


2, 016, 163 


Bees (hives) 


36. 312 


5.64 


204,980 










Total stock 
value .. _ 






21,423,609 


Value ?f equipment 






1 15,900 155 


Motor vehicles 






8, 622, 337 


Other equipment 






7, 277, 818 










Total stock and 
equipment. 






37 323 764 


Increase or decrease in 
value over 1929: 
Stock 






4 943 581 


Equipment 






943 979 










Total decrease 






5 887 560 

















Dairy herd on canal bank. Farm of Thomas Taylor, Belle Fourche project, South Dakota 



1 Value of equipment on Salt River project estimated. 



MANY new families of beet workers 
who are potential farm owners and 
renters have appeared on the Belle 
Fourche project this spring. Further 
settlement is needed, but progress is slow 
because of the lack of buildings. There 
is evidence, however, that unoccupied 
farms are gradually being absorbed into 



the larger holdings of successful farmers as 
a means of providing feed and pasture for 
stock. Ranchers are also looking for 
places with alfalfa in order to assure their 
winter hay supply which is becoming more 
scarce because of drought and reduced 
alfalfa acreage on the project. 



Articles on Irrigation and Related Subjects 



Wilbur, Ray Lyman: 

Six States to confer on watershed 
survey. Power Development of Colo- 
rado River Basin planned. United 
States Daily, May 28, 1931, v. 6, p. 1 
(p. 739). 
Hoover Dam: 

Wage scale and Hoover Dam (E). 
Western Construction News, May 
10, 1931, v. 6, p. 221. 

Hoover Dam construction notes (illus.) . 
Western Construction News, May 
10, 1931, v. 6, pp. 239-240. 

Boulder (Hoover) Dam site employs 
700 Men; pay roll about $100,000 a 
month. U. S. Daily, June 1, 1931, 
v. 6, p. 2 (p. 760). 

Designs for Government buildings at 
Boulder City approved; illus. South- 
west Builder and Contractor, v. 77, 
pp. 48-49. 

A competent art. (Editorial on concrete 
at Hoover Dam.) Eng. News-Rec- 
ord, June 4, 1931, v. 106, p. 915. 

Hoover Dam notes (illus. temporary 
foot bridge). Eng. News-Record, 
June 4, 1931, v. 106, pp. 943-944. 

Activities and conditions at Boulder 
(Hoover) Dam, Las Vegas, frontier 
town, construction, Boulder City, 
Climate. Illustrations and maps. 
Eng. News-Record. May 28, 1931, 
v. 106, pp. 895-897. 



Los Angeles Aqueduct: 

Colorado River Aqueduct bond election 
soon (short). Western Construction 
News, May 25, 1931, v. 6, p. 274. 
All American Canal: 

Estimate on All American Canal re- 
duced five million dollars. South- 
west Builder and Contractor, June 5, 
1931, v. 77, p. 48. 
Arizona Suit: 

Supreme Court discusses suit to stop 
work at Boulder (Hoover) Dam. 
U. S. Daily, May 19, 1931, v. 6, 
pp. 1 and 8. 

Boulder Canyon project act sustained 
by Supreme Court in suit by Arizona. 
U. S. Daily, May 19. 1931, v. 6, pp. 
6 and 11. (Complete opinion of 
court.) 

Boulder (Hoover) Dam act valid. 
Editorial Eng. News-Record, May 
21, 1931, v. 106, p. 835. 

Boulder (Hoover) Dam act is valid, 
Supreme Court holds in Arizona 
suit. Eng. News-Record, May 21, 
1931, v. 106, pp. 867-868. 

Arizona loses suit (editorial). Western 
Construction News, May 25, 1931, 
v. 6, p. 251. 

Arizona may sue for diversion of Colo- 
rado River by filing another action. 
U. S. Daily, June 4. 1931, v. 6. p. 7 
(p. 797.) 



Savage, J. L., and Ivan E. Houk: 

Checking arch dam designs with mod- 
els. Illus. Civil Engineering, May, 
1931, v. 1, pp. 695-699. 
Rohrer, J. K.: 

Drilling bridge truss, spanning canal 
serves Mittry Bros, on rock excava- 
tion for Minidoka project canal. 
Illus. Construction Methods, April, 
1931, v. 13, pp. 36-38. 
Randolph, E. S.: 

Enlargement of the Panama Canal 
facilities. The Engineers Bulletin, 
Colo. Soc. of Engrs., April, 1931, v. 
15, pp. 9 and 32. 
Malinquist, O. N. : 

Hoover Dam plans stagger imagina- 
tion. Illus. Salt Lake Tribune, 
Sunday, May 3, 1931, pp. 6 and 7. 
Rohrer, J. K. and Spencer, C. H., Asso. 

Engineers : 

Drag lines excavate large irrigation 
canal, Minidoka project, Idaho; illus. 
Eng. News-Record, May 14, 1931, 
v. 106, pp. 813-816. 
Rose, Howard B.: 

Hoover Dam construction work now in 
high gear; illus. Western Highways 
Builder, May, 1931, v. 13, pp. 40-41. 
Ellis, Willard D.: 

Problems of financing land reclamation. 
Agricultural Engineering, May, 1931, 
v. 12, pp. 167-168. 



156 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



July, 1931 



By Miss MAE A. SCHNURR, Assistant to the Commissioner 




The June issue of the Era carried a story of first impressions of a visit to the site of Hoover Dam in Black Canyon on the 
Colorado River of an engineer's wife whose husband is assigned to the Boulder Canyon project, and this month is offered the vivid 
story of an engineer's daughter whose privilege it was to observe, step by step, the construction of the Deadwood Dam, concrete 
arch type, 160 feet high, on the Deadwood River in Idaho, with her father, R. J. Newell, at the helm as construction engineer. 
To these engineers and their interesting and interested families each structure undertaken is another engineering romance. 

From where I sit I can observe and say authoritatively that a construction engineer has a truly interesting life. Interest is 
never lagging for the dam builder. He moves from structure to structure, leaving monuments to his skill in his path. Each dam 
has a new set of problems which he attacks with confidence. The hustle and bustle of the construction camp and at the works are 
music to his ears. 

I have often heard the version of engineers, and now it seems good to have that of the women who share these experiences. 



WHICH of the Wills, Shakespeare 
or Rogers, was responsible for the 
division of all mankind into the hay 



The Dam Goes Up 

By Miss Helen M. Newell, Boise, Idaho 

pitchers and the straw chewers? No 
matter. The satisfaction for work well 
done goes to the man with the fork; I 




Night scene at the Dead wood Dam.YThere were three shifts of eight hours each 



grant that. But to him who was born 
lazy there is no pleasure so great as watch- 
ing work accomplished by other hands 
than his while he lies upon the hillside 
moving his jaws rhythmically upon an 
oat straw. I contend that he is as neces- 
sary to the scheme of things as his hay- 
pitching brother. How is the ambitious 
one to measure his ambition unless he 
contrasts himself with the idler? And 
what is the use of great activity if there 
is no one to observe it? 

I am a straw chewer. I watch. So, 
through the long, lazy, sunny days I sat 
on "The Point" at Deadwood and in- 
spected the works. Away up yonder, 
silhouetted on the horizon, the gravel 
trucks paused to dump their loads, then 
sped away again. They were like bees 
delivering honey at the hive. There 
came the solemn undertones of the rock 
crusher, "Gar-r-rump! Grump! Thump!" 
and then the rattling thunder of the screen- 
ing plant, as of water rushing through 
a canyon. Separated for size, the gravel 
rose to the bins on belt conveyors; a 
visiting Russian engineer delightedly 
remarked: "Just like mechanical restau- 
rant in Boise." 

CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY INTERESTING 
TO ONLOOKER 

The cement house was the scene of the 
greatest activity. Men rushed about in 
the cement-befogged air, mouths and 
nostrils protected by little white masks 
that resembled pigs' snouts, hauling ce- 
ment, folding sacks, turning in water and 
gravel. It was a frightful bedlam of 



July, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



157 




A means of communication for workers on Deadwood Dam 



noise the deafening crash of cobbles on 
iron and the grinding of the levers that 
released the gravel. 

Beneath, the cement house the mixer 
rotated, rumbling incantations as it 
prepared a magic potion that would build 
a dam. From time to time it lowered 
cumbrously to disgorge its potent mixture 
into the waiting chute. The sloppy, 
cobbly mass poured into a hopper on the 
trestle and was hauled away by a little 
locomotive, to be emptied into its proper 
section. Ankle deep in the concrete the 
laborers stood, and spread it with their 
shovels; their occasional efforts to extri- 
cate themselves would have made Rum- 
pelstiltskin ashamed of himself. 

A load of lumber swung across the sky 
bearing gods who rode upon it in non- 
chalant attitudes, gazing with lordly 
amusement at our ridiculous little world 
below. 

The man who signaled down the skip 
must surely have been an orchestra leader 
in disguise. With what grace and mas- 
tery did he extend his arms, hold them a 
moment one, two, three, four! One 
could fairly see the violins coming in 
down, down one, two, three, four; grand 
finale! Crash! It had landed. 

Back up among the trees the little saw- 
mill sang. It had cut the lumber for all 
the preliminary carpentering on the dam 
and for the building of the camp; now it 
hummed busily away sawing lumber for 
forms. 

To those who suffer from jaded ap- 
petites an inspiring sight was offered when 
the noon whistle blew. It was well, 
however, to view the rush from some high 
point out of danger. Almost before the 
first shriek had escaped the throat of the 
whistle, tools were thrown aside, every- 
thing stopped all at once, so that the 
unaccustomed stillness beat upon your 



ears, and one grand stampede for the 
mess hall followed. 

The only other times I can remember 
seeing the works deserted were early in 
the season when blasting or "shooting" 
was a daily occurrence. Then the powder 
man's warning " Fire-o-o-o-o ! " sent the 
workmen scattering for shelter like ants, 
and in a moment the view was cleared 
of every living thing. 

LIFE IN A CONSTRUCTION CAMP 
The camp was a little village, quite 
complete. Groceries and work clothes 
from the commissary, meat from the mess 
hall; a vegetable man visited us weekly; 
mail was brought in each day on the 
cement trucks. There was a laundry in 



camp and a dairy; a doctor held forth in 
a tar-papered hospital, close to the works. 
Boots and shoes were repaired by a 
Macedonian who cobbled in Athens not 
so long ago and who worked in the con- 
crete by day. There were two barbers, 
one a mechanic, the other an assistant 
in the cement-testing laboratory. What 
more could one require? It was curious 
tu think that where the tents and tar- 
papered houses now clustered were only 
solitude and wild things a couple of years 
before, and soon there will extend a vast 
and peaceful lake. Whoever it was that 
spoke of the shifting sands of civilization 
must have lived in a construction camp. 

Most of our 48 United States were repre- 
sented there and many foreign countries as 
well. One became a fair linguist trying to 
understand all the dialects, the brogues, 
and the broken attempts at English. 

Scarcely a day passed without someone 
being hurt on the dam, but no lives were 
lost. There were escapes so miraculous 
that the workmen nodded wise heads and 
said that it was a "lucky dam." 

Coleman trucks were used for trans- 
porting the cement from Cascade. These 
noble old dragons, with their nine forward 
speeds, went roaring up the Big Creek, 
Warm Lake, and Deadwood summits, 
each over 7,000, feet making two round 
trips a day. They arrived at the dam at 
noon and again at midnight. With the 
additional loads of their trailers, they car- 
ried three carloads of cement on the 
twice-daily trips. 

Thirty-three hundred acres of lodge- 
pole pine were cleared from the reservoir 
site. The first question of almost every 
visitor was: "But where will they get the 
water to fill all this?" In the summer, 




Trucking materials to Deadwood Dam 



158 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



July, 1931 



the Deadwood River is hardly more than 
a brook. If these same visitors could 
have visited Deadwood in the long winter 
season, when the buildings were buried 
to the eaves in snow, and there was snow, 
only snow, as far as the eye could search; 
if in the spring they might have seen the 
water rushing down the draws in the 
mountain sides, then the filling of this 
reservoir would have seemed less incon- 
ceivable. On the 1st of April, when 
alfalfa was greening the Boise Valley, 
there still remained 115 inches of snow on 
the Deadwood summit. It was May 18 
before the roads were cleared so that cars 
could get through the 70 miles from Cas- 
cade. Until then those who wished to 
come in traveled by plane, dog sleds, 
sleds dragged behind the caterpillar trac- 



tors, or afoot. You paid your money and 
you took your choice. 

The trees were felled in windrows by 
those clever Swedish axmen from- the 
coast. Seeing them so, one thought of 
rolling meadows of new-raked hay. The 
burning was gorgeous at night. The lesser 
fires that smouldered here and there on the 
hillsides resembled distant cities twinkling 
through the darkness. The most magnif- 
icent burning covered a thousand acres, 
spread along the river, and the camp 
turned out en masse to view it. The 
whole countryside and the heavens were 
aflame with scarlet and orange. A pecul- 
iar stillness made the ominous crackle and 
snap of the flames yet more ominous. 
When a flame-surrounded area emptied 
itself of hot air, cold rushed in to take its 



place, thundering angrily. As the fire 
met an occasional tree left standing, it 
enveloped it all at once, in a single sky- 
ward leap, and for an instant the tree 
stood silhouetted in silver, every needle 
white against the night. It was like a 
poem, that fire, a proud, splendid poem 
that etched itself unforgettably upon the 
memory. 

The Deadwood, 170 feet high, is not a 
very big dam. Its erection, however, at 
a cost of $1,350,000, was a source of con- 
stant wonder to me as I watched the con- 
crete growing up from the river bed and 
reaching out from the rock cliffs on either 
side to fit at last into a complete whole as 
perfectly as did ever the most complicated 
Chinese puzzle, with no yawning gaps and 
no pieces left over. 



Products of Irrigation 
Lower Yellowstone Project 

The ditch shown in the accompanying 
illustration irrigates a small garden owned 
by William A. Hulse on the Lower Yellow- 
stone project, Montana-North Dakota. 
In 1930 Mr. Hulse produced vegetables 
which sold for $76, in addition to 52 
bushels of potatoes, horseradish, straw- 
berries, and a hedge of raspberries, which 
he reserved for family consumption. 
From the same garden 300 quarts of vege- 
tables and 2 bushels of carrots and par- 
snips were stored in the cellar. Without 
irrigation this land would have been 
worthless. 



RECLAMATION "PRODUCT' 



Project Completes Payments 
Under Refunding Contract 

The Salt River Valley Water Users' 
Association contracted with the United 
States for the refunding of its obliga- 
tions to the Government under which 
the association agreed to pay approxi- 
mately $2,000,000 on or before June 15, 
1931. 

During the period from February 4, 
1931, to June 3, 1931, the association paid 
to the United States the total sum of 
$1,928,776, thus having met the obliga- 
tions under the contract prior to the limit- 
ing date in the contract. 



THE frost experienced this spring on 
the Grand Valley project did not 
Beriously damage the fruit crop, and from 
present indications the Palisade district 
will turn out the largest peach crop in its 
history. This increased production is 
caused mainly by increased acreage on 
East Orchard Mesa. 




IRRIGATION DITCH ON FARM OF WILLIAM. A. HULSE, FAIRV1EW, LOWER YELLOWSTONE PROJECT, MONTANA-NORTH 

DAKOTA. 

Darlene, infant daughter of Mr. Hulse, in ditch; in background left to right: Billy Goar, Phylis Wellman, and 

Betty Hulse 



July, 1931 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



159 



Conservation of Water 

Irrigation projects are experiencing 
another year of water shortage, although 
the indications early in June were that 
the Federal projects would go through 
the season with very little damage to 
crops because plans had been adopted on 
many of the projects to make the most 
efficient use possible of the available 
supply and to take such measures as 
might be necessary to prevent waste and 
excessive use of water. On the Orland 
project in California a committee of 
water users has been making frequent 
inspection trips over the project for the 
purpose of locating farms where water 
was being -vasted and adopting means 
to bring about a more economical use. 
The following article, taken from the 
Orland Register of May 26, describes 
the work of the committee and sets an 
example that could be followed to 
good advantage on several Government 
projects: 

EDUCATION EFFECTS SAVING 

Conservation of storage water to a 
most satisfactory degree has been accom- 
plished during the past six weeks by the 
campaign of education in the elimination 
of wastage in the irrigation of the lands 
of the Orland project. The special com- 
mittee, appointed by the unanimous vote 
of the board of directors of the Orland 
Unit Water Users Association, to check 
up on wastage of water, has been on 
the job day and night and because of 
their efforts and the whole-hearted co- 
operation of a large majority of the water 
users, a decided saving in storage water 
has resulted. Only in rare instances 
have they met with opposition in their 
efforts to see that the waters stored in 
the two great reservoir-lakes are used 
conservatively and beneficially. 

Cooperating with R. C. E. Weber, 
project superintendent, these committee- 
men, without one cent of compensation, 
have made 109 inspections in the project 
of irrigated farms. These inspections 
have been at all times, some during the 
night and some with and some without the 
knowledge of the water users. The com- 
mittee was always composed of at least 
two members and often of four members. 

During May, as a result of these inspec- 
tions, 57 written notices were sent to 
water users where it was found that there 
was a wasting of water in the county roads 
or in the sloughs. Four water users have 
been served with notices that their water 
has been discontinued until they can prove 
to the committee and the board of direc- 
tors that necessary remedies have been 
made to retain and not waste the water on 
their farms. These water users appeared 
before the meeting of the board of di- 



Mexican Repatriates Colonize Don Martin Dam Project 



The Don Martin Dam project, which is 
designed to eventually place 160,000 acres 
of semidescrt land into farms, is being 
gradually colonized by Mexican repatri- 
ates from the United States. Though the 
dam was completed only some nine months 
ago, it is understood that about 14,500 
acres are in prosperous crops raised by 
about 1,000 families, who have already 
erected homesites near the dam. About 
9,250 acres are in corn, about 1,000 acres 
are in beans, and about 4,250 acres are 
devoted to various crops, such as Sudan 
grass, milo, and malt barley. 

Most of the land in this section is di- 
vided into small farms. There are 41 
farmers having 12% to 25 acres; 24 with 
62# to 125 acres; 16 with 125 to 187^ 
acres; and 22 with 187% to 250 acres. 

It is understood that the land is granted 
to farmers at very reasonable figures, 
averaging from $50 to $75 an acre, and 
that it may be secured by making contract 
with the Government or by direct pur- 



chase. If the Government furnishes the 
seed and implements, 30 per cent of the 
crops must go to the Federal agencies. 
Farmers furnishing own seed and equip- 
ment may farm land, paying a rental 
amounting to 20 per cent of the crops. 
Outright purchases may be made by 
paying 5 per cent cash and the rest over 
a period of 25 years. 

Although this project is within the 
confines of the Nuevo Laredo consular 
district, the principal distributing center 
adjoining the irrigated zone is Monterrey, 
and it is understood that merchants and 
bankers of that city are showing great 
interest in its development and are study- 
ing the possibility of organizing a farm 
loan bank to finance the settlers. 

There are about 100 American tractors 
in use at Don Martin at this time, and the 
project as it develops will continue to 
offer a good market for all kinds of Ameri- 
can agricultural machinery. U. S. De- 
partment of Slate. 



rectors on June 6 and were notified that 
no more water would be delivered unless 
they could give satisfactory evidence that 
further wastage would not be made. 

The board of directors are well within 
their rights in this action, as the water 
user has a right to water only as long as it 
is beneficially used. 

The campaign of education has resulted 
in a decided saving in water, the exact 
amount being small in many individual 
cases but large in the aggregate. As a 
result of the campaign, many sloughs 
throughout the project, which formerly 
carried waste waters throughout the 
irrigation season, are now completely dry 
or run water for very short intervals. The 
lands along these sloughs, which were for- 
merly waterlogged, are now dry and 
capable of cultivation. 

In a vast majority of cases the com- 
mittee has found the water users ready 
and anxious to cooperate in the work, as 
they realize that conservation of water in 
every manner possible means a complete 
irrigation season with an irrigation late in 
September when it will be especially bene- 
ficial to orchards. 

The committee will continue its work 
during the entire season and hopes to 
make this only the initial season in a series 
of years of education among the water 
users on the beneficial use of storage 
waters. 

\ PUBLIC weed-killing demonstration 
./Xwas held on June 9 on the farm of 
Paul Phillips on the Shoshone project 
near Powell. The local farmers were well 
informed in advance of the demonstration 
and considerable interest was taken. 



Boulder City Business 
Applications 

Up to June 13, sixty-six formal applica- 
tions to enter different classes of business 
in Boulder City had been received by 
Hon. Louis C. Cramton, special attorney 
to the Secretary of the Interior, at Las 
Vegas. These spplications were from 
residents of 21 States and represented 28 
different kinds of business. 

California led the States with 21 appli- 
cations, followed by Utah with 9 and 
Nevada with 7; 4 each were received from 
Arizona and Colorado, 3 from Texas, 2 
each from Kansas, New Mexico, and 
Wyoming, and 1 each from Florida, 
Idaho, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mon- 
tana, Michigan, New Jersey, North 
Carolina, New York, Oregon, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Washington. 

The applications among different busi- 
nesses were distributed as follows: Barber 
shop, 7; chiropractic, 2; dentist, 2; drug 
store, 8; electric and radio repair, 1; gen- 
eral store, 1; grocery and meat market, 2; 
gasoline station, 1; indoor recreation, 6; 
jewelry, 2; ladies ready-to-wear, 1; lumber 
yard, 2; men's furnishings, 2; motor 
express, 1; news stand, 1; pack train and 
curio, 1; plastering and materials, 1; 
photo supplies, 1; restaurant, 6; shoe 
repair, 3; soft drinks, etc., retail, 4; soft 
drinks wholesale, 2; trucks, 1; telephone 
exchange, 1; tourist camp, 1; theatre, 4; 
tailor and cleaning, 1; telegraph, 1. 

It was anticipated by Mr. Cramton 
that by the end of June fully 500 appli- 
cations would be on file. 



160 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



July, 1931 



Reclamation Organization Activities and Project Visitors 



Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner of 
Reclamation, entertained the representa- 
tives of six railroads traversing the proj- 
ects at an informal luncheon on June 20, 
leaving shortly thereafter for the West. 
His guests included H. L. Ford, agricul- 
tural development agent, Burlington; 
John W. Haw, director of agricultural 
development, Northern Pacific; R. A. 
Smith, superintendent of agriculture, 
Union Pacific; R. W. Reynolds, commis- 
sioner, agricultural development and 
colonization department, Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, St. Paul & Pacific; C. L. Sea- 
graves, general colonization agent, Santa 
Fe; and E. C. Leedy, general agricultural 
development agent, Great Northern. 
These men were in Washington to confer 
with the commissioner on the reclamation 
exhibit at the Century of Progress World's 
Fair in Chicago in 1933. 



During the absence of the commissioner 
in the West, Porter W. Dent, assistant 
commissioner, is in charge of the Wash- 
ington office as acting commissioner. 



Hon. Scott Leavitt, Representative in 
Congress from Montana, was the princi- 
pal speaker at the big annual celebration 
of the Norwegians in Fairfield, Sun River 
project. Nearly 1,000 persons were in 
attendance. 



R. F. Walter, chief engineer, has filed 
at Carson City plat of the Boulder Canyon 
project reservation with the Governor of 
Nevada. On Mr. Walter's return to 
Denver he stopped by the Minidoka 
project to review the progress of work 
locally. 

U. B. Gilroy, of the Bureau of Fisheries, 
United States Biological Survey, and Mr. 
McDonald, superintendent, Fish and 
Game Commission, State of Montana, with 
several others from Great Falls, Mont., 
conferred recently with A. W. Walker, 
superintendent of the Sun River project, 
relative to the installation of a fish screen 
on the Pishkun and Sun River Slope 
Canals. 



J. W. Myer, chief of the mails and files 
section in the Washington office, returned 
on June 1 from Las Vegas, Nev. where 
he had installed a filing system for Boulder 
City leases and concessions. 



E. B. Debler, hydrographic engineer, 
spent several days at Mackay, Idaho, as a 
member of an engineering board convened 
by the Big Lost River Reclamation Asso- 
ciation; later, with the State engineers of 
Wyoming and Utah and other interested 
parties, he made an inspection of reservoir 
sites on the Bear River and tributaries in 
Wyoming, and then went to Salt Lake 
City, Utah, in connection with the Salt 
Lake Basin investigations. Following 
this, he was in Wyoming in connection 
with the North Platte River power inves- 
tigations at Seminoe and North Gate 
reservoir sites. 



H. J. Gault, engineer, is located at 
Hawthorne, Nev., in charge of construc- 
tion of the Cat Creek Dam, which is being 
constructed by the Navy Department. 



E. S. Randolph, chief designing engi- 
neer, Charles Voetsch, hydroelectric engi- 
neer, and Bob Fletcher, designer, all of 
the Panama Canal Zone, spent a month 
in the Denver office where they assisted in 
the designs for the Madden Dam, which 
are being prepared in that office. 



S. O. Harper, superintendent of con- 
struction in the Denver office, spent a few 
days on the Grand Valley project, during 
which he inspected the entire project. 

E. H. Neale, manager, and D. H. Blos- 
som, engineer, for the Aberdeen-Spring- 
field Canal Co., were recent visitors on the 
Minidoka project in connection with their 
application to lease additional storage. 



J. L. Savage, chief designing engineer, 
spent two days at Fort Collins, Colo., in 
attendance on a committee meeting on 
irrigation hydraulics of the American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers, following which 
he made a general inspection trip, includ- 
ing the Boulder Canyon project; the Cat 
Creek Dam at Hawthorne, Nev., being 
constructed by the Navy Department; Cle 
Elum Dam, and the Yakima River cross- 
ing on the Kittitas division of the Yakima 
project. 

Joseph Talla, associate engineer on the 
Minidoka project, has been transferred to 
the Boulder Canyon project, and Gary E. 
Brown, a new appointee, has reported to 
the Minidoka project office to assume the 
duties formerly performed by Mr. Talla. 



W. J. Burke, district counsel, and Irving 
J. Courtice, agricultural development 
agent for the Northern Pacific Railway 
Co., both of Billings, Mont., were on the 
Lower Yellowstone project recently to 
confer with the irrigation district boards 
and the representatives of the banks in 
regard to the prospects for financing 
farmers during the present crop season. 



F^Porter J. Preston, in charge of Colorado 
River Basin investigations, spent some 
days at Winslow, Ariz., serving on an 
engineering board to report on river pro- 
tection work at the Leupp Indian Agency 
on the Little Colorado River. 



The services of Miss Marie L. Hagmul- 
ler, clerk to the committee on the con- 
servation and administration of the 
public domain, who has been located in 
the Bureau of Reclamation offices for a 
number of months, were discontinued 
on June 15 owing to the closing out of the 
work of the committee. 



The subcommittee for the Interior De- 
partment of the House Appropriations 
Committee visited the Yuma project 
recently. The members of the committee 
comprised the following: Representatives 
Frank Murphy (Ohio), William W. 
Hastings (Oklahoma), Don B. Colton 
(Utah), and Addison T. Smith (Idaho). 
They were accompanied on the trip by 
F. J. Bailey, of the Bureau of the Budget; 
William A. Duvall, clerk of the House 
Committee on Appropriations; S. M. 
Dodd, jr., of the Bureau of Indian Affairs; 
and A. E. Demaray, senior assistant 
director of the National Park Service. 



J. R. lakisch, engineer at large, was on 
the Uncompahgre project recently for the 
purpose of studying in a preliminary way 
the drainage problems of the project. 



E. W. Lane, research engineer of the 
Denver office, spent several days on the 
Uncompahgre project in charge 1 of the 
tests on the model of the Hoover Dam 
spillway, which is being constructed on a 
scale one-twentieth the size of the actual 
structure. 



Norton Ware, chief engineer of the 
Sutter Butte Canal Co. at Gridley, Calif., 
was a recent visitor on the Yuma project. 



U. t. COVERNMEMT PR;HTmc OFFICE: 1911 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION FOR THE BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 

RAY LYMAN WILBUR, SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Jos. M. Dixon, First Assistant Secretary; John Edwards, Assistant Secretary; E. C. Finney, Solicitor of the Interior Department; 

E. K. Burlew, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary and Budget Oflicer; 

Northcutt Ely and Charles A. Dobbel, Executive Assistants 

Washington, D. C. 
El wood Mead, Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



Miss M. A. Schnurr, Assistant to the Commissioner 
W F. Kubach, Chief Accountant 



P. W. Dent, Assistant Commissioner 
C. N. McCulloch, Chief Clerk 



Hugh A. Brown, Director of Reclamation Economics 
George O. Sanford, Assistant Director of Reclamation 
Economics 



Denver, Colo., U. S. Custom House 

R. F. Walter, Chief Eng.; S. O. Harper, Assistant Chief Engineer; J. L. Savage, Chief Designing Eng.; E. B. Debler, Hydrographic Eng.; L. N. McClellan, Chief Electrical 
Eng.; C. M. Day, Mechanical Eng.; Armand Oflutt, District Counsel; L. R. Smith, Chief Clerk; Harry Caden, Fiscal Agent; C. A. Lyman, Field Representative 

Projects under construction or operated in whole or in part by the Bureau of Reclamation 



Project 


Office 


OfTicia! in charge 


Chief clerk 


Fiscal agent 


District counsel 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 




Yuma, Ariz 


R M Priest 


Superintendent . 


J. C. Thrailkill 


E. M. Philebaum. 
(Charles F. Wein- 
l kauf. 
C.H. Lillingston- 
E. A. Peek 
F. D.Helm 
F. P. Greene 
Miss A. J. Larson. 
E. E. Chabot 
H. W. Johnson 


R J Cofley 


LosAngelesCalif. 
Do. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
LosAngeles Calif. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
El Paso, Tex. 
Do. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Las Vegas, Nev. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Do. 
Do. 
Billings, Mont. 
Do. 






Walker R. Young. 

II. C. E. Weber ... 
W. J. Chiesman... 
L. J. Foster 
F. A. Banks 
E. B. Darlington., 
H. H. Johnson 
\ w Walker 


E R Mills 


do 


Orland 


Orland, Calif 


Superintendent _ 
do 

do 


C.H. Lillingston... 
E. A. Peek._. 
G. H. Bolt 


J. R. Alexander... 
R. J. Colley 
J. R. Alexander... 
do 

B. E.Stoutemyer . 
do 


Grand Valley 
Uncompahgre 

Boise * 


Grand Junction, Colo. 
Moatrose, Colo_- 
Owyhee, Oreg..' 




Superintendent- 
do 


G. C. Patterson 
E E Chabot 


Milk River 3 


Malta Mont 


Wm J Burke 


Sun River, Greenfields,. 
Lower Yellowstone . 


Fairfleld, Mont. 


do 


H. W. Johnson 


do 


Savage, Mont 


H A Parker 


do 

Supt. of power - 


N. O. Anderson 


Denver office 


do 


North Platte * 


Guernsey, Wyo 


C F Gleason 


A. T. Stimpfig 5 


A. T. Stimpflg 


do 




Carlsbad, N. Mex 
El Paso, Tex _. 
Pendleton, Oreg 
Vale, Oreg 


L. E. Foster 
L. R. Fiock 
C. L. Tice 
Chas. C. Ketchum 
B E Hayden 


Superintendent - 
do 


W C Berger 


W. C. Berger 
31. H. Berryhill. 


H. J. S. Devries... 
do 


Rio Grande - 


H. H. Berryhill 


Umatilla, McKay Dam.. 
Vale 


Reserv. supt__ - 


Denver office 


B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 

do 


Superintendent. 
... do 


C. M. Voyen... 
N. G. Wheeler 


C. M. Voyen 


Klamath 8 


Klamath Falls, Oreg 




Owyhee, Oreg 


F A. Banks 




Robert B. Smith 


F. P. Greene 


do 

Wm. J. Burke 
J. R. Alexander... 
B. E. Stoutemyer. 
do 
do 


Belle Fourche 


Newell, S Dak 


F. C. Youngblutt. 
F F Smith 


Superintendent _ 
Constr. eugr 
Acting supt 


J. P. Siebeneicher... 
C F Williams 


J. P. Siebeiwicher. 
Denver office 


Selt Lake Basin 7 


Coalville, Utah 


Yakima 9 ._. . 


Yakima, Wash __ . 




R. K. Cunningham 


C. J. Ralston... 


Yakirna Cle Elum Dam. 
Yakima, Kittitas 


Ronald, Wash 
Ellensburg, Wash 


H. J. Newell 
R B Williams 


Constr. engr 
do 


Ronald E. Rudolph. 


do 
do 




Riverton, Wyo 


H. D. Comstock.. 
L H Mitchell 


Superintendent . 
do 


Denver office 
do 


Wm. J. Burke. .. 
do 




Powell, Wyo 


W F Sha 

















i Reserved works, Boise project, supervised by Owyhee office. 

* Jackson Lake and American Falls Reservoirs, power system and Gooding division. 
' Malta, Glasgow, and Storage divisions. 

< Pathfinder and Guernsey Reservoirs, and power systems. 

* Acting. 



Storage, main, and Tule Lake divisions. 

7 Echo Reservoir. 

' Storage, Tieton, and Sunnyside divisions. 

8 Reservoir, power plant, and Willwood division. 



Completed projects or divisions constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation and operated by water-users' organizations 



Project 


Organization 


Office 


Operating official 


Secretary 


Name 


Title 


Name 


Address 


Salt River 


Salt River Valley, W. U. A 


Phoenix, Ariz... 
Plaisade, Colo 


C. C. Cragin 


Gen. supt. and chief engr. 


F C Henshaw 


Phoenix, Ariz. 
Grand Junction. 
Boise, Idaho. 
Glenns Ferry. 
Rupert, Idaho. 
Burley, Idaho. 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
Do. 
Harlem, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont. 
Do. 
F-o r t Shaw, 
Mont. 
Fairfield, Mont. 

Mitchell, Nebr. 
Gering, Nev. 
Torrington,Wyo. 
Bridgeport, 
Nebr. 
Fallon, Nev. 

Hermiston, Oreg. 
Irrigon, Oreg. 
Bonanza, Oreg. 
Do. 
Payson, Utah. 
Okanogan, 
Wash. 

Powell, Wyo. 
Deaver, Wyo. 


Grand Valley, Orchard Mesa.. 
Boise ' 


Orchard Mesa irrig district 


C. W. Tharp 


H O Lambeth 




Boise, Idaho 


Wm. H. Tuller 






KingHill 


King Hill irrigation district.. . 
Minidoka irrigation district. .. 
Burley irrigation district 
Huntley irrigation district 


King Hill, Idaho 
Rupert, Idaho 


F. L. Kinkade... 


Manager 


Chas. Stout 


Minidoka gravity . 


R. L.Willis .. 


do 


W C. Trathen 


Minidoka pumping.. _ 


Burley, Idaho... 
Ballantine, 
Mont. 
Chinook, Mont. 
do 
Harlem, Mont.. 


Hugh L. Crawford 
E. E. Lewis 


do 


Geo W Lyle 






H S Elliott 


Milk River, Chinook division.. 
Do 
Do 


Alfalfa Valley irrig. district 


A. L. Benton 




R H Clarkson 


Fort Belknap irrig. district 
Harlem irrigation district 


II. B. Bonebright. 
Thos. M. Everett. 
R. E. Musgrove . 
John W. Archer. .. 
H. W. Genger 


do.... 
.. do 


L. V. Bogy 
Geo. H. Tout. 


Do 


Paradise Valley irrig. district. . 
Zurich irrigation district 
Fort Shaw irrigation district.. 

Greenfields irrigation district. 
Pathfinder irrigation district 


Chinook, Mont. 
Zurich, Mont... 
Fort Shaw, 
Mont. 
Fairfield, Mont- 
Mitchell, Nebr.. 
Gering, Nebr 
TorringtonWyo. 
Northport,Nebr 


do 


J. F. Sharpless 


Do 


do 


H. M. Montgomery. 


Sun River, Fort Shaw division- 
Greenfields division _ -- 




A. W. Walker 


do 


H. P. Waugeu 

Mary M. Kinney 
C. G. Klingman 
Mrs.NellieArmitage. 
Mrs. M. J. Thomp- 
son. 
L. V. Finger 


North Platte: 
Interstate division 


T. W. Parry 




Fort Laramie division 
Do 


Gering-Fort Laramie irrig, dist. 
Goshen irrigation district 
Northport irrigation district 


W. O. Fleenor 
B. T,. ArJams 


do 
. do 


Northport division 


D. R. Dean 


do 


Newlands - _ - - _ 


Truckee-Carson irrig. district . 

Hermiston irrigation district.. 
West Extension irrig. district.. 


Fallon, Nev 
Hermiston, Oreg. 


D. S. Stuver 


Project manager 


Umatilla: 
East division _ _ _ 


E.D.Martin 
A. C.Houghton... 
R S. Hopkins 


do 


W. J. Warner 




Secretary and manager.. 


A. C. Houghton 


Klamath, Langell Valley 


Bonanza, Oreg.. 
do 


R S Hopkins 


Do 








Wm F B Chase 




Strawberry W. U. A 

Okanogan irrigation district . 


Provo, Utah 
Okanogan, 
Wash. 

Powell, Wyo 


Kenneth Borg 




E G Breeze 


Okanogan 


do 


Nelson D. Thorp 


Shoshone: 
Garland division . 


Shoshone irrigation district... 
Deaver irrigation district 


J. 0. Roach 


Irrigation supt 


Geo. W. Atkins 


Frann ie division 


Deaver, Wyo 


Sydney I. Hooker- 


do 


Edw. T. Hill 







1 Boise, Kuna, Nampa, Meridian, Wilder, New York, Big Bend, and Black Canyon irrigation districts. 

Important investigations in progress 



Project 


Office 


In charge of 


Cooperative agency 








Imperial and Coachella districts 


Salt Lake Basin Utah 


Salt Lake City Utah 


E O Larson 


State of Utah 






H W Bashore 




Shoshone project extensions 


Denver, Colo 


J. R. lakisch 


State of Wvoming. 




. do 


P. J. Preston 


Colo., Wyo., Utah, and New Mex. 




do 


Denver office - -- 


None. 


Rathdrum Prairie. Idaho.. . 


Spokane. Wash... 


U. W. Bashore... 


None. 



SALLIE A. B. COE, Editor. 








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IN'EW 

RECLAMATION ERA 



VOL. 22, NO. 8 




AUGUST, 1931 







Photo by J. E. Stimson 



IRRIGATING AN ALMOND ORCHARD ON THE ORLAND PROJECT, CALIFORNIA 



GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 











EXECUTIVE BRANCH 

THE PRESIDENT 










^ 

V 
V. 

V 
V. 




[LEGISLATIVE BRANCH! 

^ CONGRESS J 


f JUDICIAL 

SUPREME 


BRANCH 1 

COURT J 


1 


1 


^ 
J 

^ 

J 
J 




1 


SENATE 

96 SENATORS 


HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES 

435 REPRESENTATIVES: 
2 DELEGATES: 
3 COMMISSIONERS 
V 


f CIRCUIT COURTS 1 
1 OF APPEALS J 


VARIOUS SPECIAL COURTS 
COURT OF CLAIMS 
COURT OF CUSTOMS 
AND PATENT APPEALS 
DIST. OF COLUMBIA COURTS 
TERRITORIAL COURTS 




f UNITED STATES ) 
[ DISTRICT COURTS J 










1. DEPARTMENT OF STATE 


VI. DEPARTMENT 


OF THE NAVY 

BUHEAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS 
BUREAU OF ORDNANCE 




COMMUNICATION DIVISION 




PASSPORI DIVISION 
VISA DIVISION 


INSPECTION DIVISION 






TREATY DIVISION 
J 


MATERIAL DIVISION 
SHIP MOVEMENTS DIVISION 


BUREAU CF AERONAUTICS 


II. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 


NAVAL OBSERVATORY 


GENERAL BOARD 
COMPENSATION BOARD 


DIV OF DEPOSITS 
OIV OF FOREIGN LOANS 


BUREAU OF THE M NT 
SECRET SERVICE DIVISION 






COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY 
COMMISSIONER OF THE PUBLIC DEBT 
DIV OF LOANS AND CURRENCY 
REGISTER OF THE TREASURY 

DIV. OF PUBLIC DEBT ACCTS AND AUD T 
DIV OF PAPER CUSTODY 
BUREAU OF THE BUDGET 


SUPERVISING ARCH TECT S OFFICE 
BUREAU OF CUSTOMS 
COAST GUARD 
BUREAU OF INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL 
SEC. OF FINANCIAL ft ECON. RESEARCH 
GOVERNMENT ACTUARY 
BUREAU OF NARCOTICS 
J 


VII. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

GENERAL LAND OFFICE TERRITORY OF VIRGIN ISLANDS 
BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS FEDERAL OIL CONSERVATION BOARD 
OFFICE OF EDUCATION BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS 
GEOLOGICAL SURi^.Y WAR MINERALS RELIEF COMMISSION 
BUHEAU OF RECLAMATION D STRICT OF COLUMBIA INSTITUTIONS 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE ST. ELIZABETHS HOSPITAL 
TERRITORY OF ALASKA FREEOMEN'S HOSPITAL 






TERRITORY OF HAWAII 


COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF 


III. DEPARTMENT OF WAR 


V -* 


OFFICE OF SURGEON GENERAL 
OFFICE OF CHIEF OF FINANCE 
OFFICE OF CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 
BOARD OF ENGINEERS RIVERS ft HARBORS 
MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION 
CALIFORNIA DEBRIS COMMISSION 
OFFICE OF CHIEF OF ORDNANCE 


PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT 

DOMINICAN RECEIVERSHIP 
MILITIA BUREAU 
OFFICE OF CH EF OF CHAPLAINS 
OFFICE OF CH EF OF CAVALRY 
OFFICE OF CH EF OF FIELD ARTILLERY 
OFFICE OF CH EF OF COAST ARTILLERY 
OFFICE OF C.t EF OF INFANTRY 


VIII. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

OFFICE Of INFORMATION* BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY 
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, BUREAU OF PUBLIC ROADS 
WEATHER BUREAU BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY UREAU OF HOME ECONOMICS 
BUREAU OF DAIRY INDUSTRY LANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION 
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY OOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION 






BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY ft SOILS UREA 


J 


IV. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 




""> 


SOLICITOR GENERAL 


CRIMINAL DIVISION 


CLAIMS DIVISION 
CUSTOMS DIVISION 
PROHIBITION AND TAX DIVISION 
PUBLIC LANDS DIVISION 


BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 
BUREAU OF PRISONS 
BUREAU OF PROHIBITION , 


IX. DEPARTMENT 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 


OF COMMERCE 

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVtt 


BUREAU OF STANDARDS 
BUREAU OF FISHERIES 


STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE 
PATENT OFFICE 
BUREAU OF MINES 
RADIO DIVISION 
J 




J 








V. POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT 






DIVISION OF POSTMASTERS 




-. "> 

X. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS WOMEN S BUREAU 


DIVISION OF AIR MAIL SERVICE 


J 


CHILDREN'S BUREAU 
BUREAU OF NATURALIZATION 

fc 


AND TRANSPORTATION 
HOUSING CORPORATION 

J 











PRINTING AND SCIENCE 

COPYRIGHT OFFICE 


XI. INDEPENDENT ESTABLISHMENTS 

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CHIEF COORDINATOR WAR BOARDS. ETC. 

INTERSTATE COMMERCE, COMMISSION FEDERAL VETERANS ADMINISTRATION 


MISCELLANEOUS 

INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION 


SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
NATIONAL MUSEUM 
NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 
BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES 
NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 
ASTHOPKYSICAL OBSERVATORY 
CATALOG SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE 
DIV RADIATION AND ORGANISMS 

UNITED STATES BOTANIC GARDEN 


UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
BOARD OF AX APPEALS 
FEDERAL POWtR COMMISSION 
GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE 
CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION 
UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EFFICIENCY 
PERSONNEL CLASSIFICATION BOARD 
U S EMPLOYEES COMPENSATION COMMISSION 
FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 
NATIONAL FOREST RESERVATION COMMISSION 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS COMMISSION 
U. S. BOARD OF MEDIATION 


PURCHASING 

STOCK CATALOG 
MOTOR TRANSPORT 
TRAFFIC 
SPECIFICATIONS 
CONTRAC' 
REAL ESTATE 
PRINTING 
SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE 
PATENTS 
FOREST PROTECTION 


BUREAU OF NATIONAL HOMES 

NAT L ADVISORY COM TEE AERONAUTICS 
ALIEN PROPERTY CUSTODIAN 


UNITED STATES GEOGRAPHIC BOARD 

OFFICE OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND PUBLIC PARKS 
COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS 


WAR CLAIMS ARBITER 
U. S RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 
U S COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE 
AERONAUTICAL BOARD 
AME.RICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION 
NATIONAL SCREW THREAD COMMISSION 
AMERICAN AND BRITISH CLAIMS ARBITRATION 
MIXED CLAIMS COMMISSION, U. S. ft GERMANY 


NATIONAL CAPITAL PARK ft PLANNING COMMISSION 
BOARD OF ROAD COMMISSIONERS. ALASKA 
COMMISSION ON NAVY YARDS AND STATIONS 
ARLINGTON MEMORIAL BRIDGE COMMISSION 
SOLDIERS HOME-REGULAR ARMY 
INTERNATIONAL WATER COMM. U S. AND MEXICO 
PAN AMERICAN SANITARY BUREAU 
FEDERAL RADIO COMMISSION 




PAN AMERICAN UNION 


NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. 
V 






JOINT ARMY AND NAVY BOARD 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA GOVERNMENT 
J 





NEW RECLAMATION ERA 

Issued monthly by the DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C. 

Price 75 cents a year 



RAY LYMAN WILBUR 
Secretary of the Interior 



Vol. 22, No. 8 




ELWOOD MEAD 
Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 



AUGUST, 1931 



Interesting High Lights on the Federal Reclamation Projects 



PHOENIX, headquarters of the Salt 
River project, Arizona, has a large 
municipal program calling for an expendi- 
ture of nearly $3,000,000. A new munici- 
pal water system costing $2,100,000 is 
about completed, to which will be added 
a new sewage disposal plant for which 
bonds amounting to $817,000 have been 
voted. A new 12-story hotel to cost 
$500,000 is also in prospect. 



E shipping of the 1931 clip of wool 
J. from the farm flocks on the Shoshone 
project totaled 86,923 gross pounds, net- 
ting the farmers $12,218.15. The gross 
weight exceeded last year's weight by 
6,198 pounds. This is the largest ship- 
ment of wool in the history of the Powell 
Wool Growers' Association. 



A? a special election held on the Vale 
project the board of directors of the 
Vale Oregon irrigation district was author- 
ized to enter into a supplemental contract 
with the United States to increase the 
liabilities of the district to an amount not 
in excess of $500,000, for the construction 
of the Agency Valley Reservoir on the 
North Fork of the Malheur River, result- 
ing in a vote of 58 in favor of and only 1 
in opposition to such increase. 



DURING the month of June, 28 pro- 
spective settlers visited the Riverton 
project and were shown the public land 
included in the recent opening. Eight 
applications for farm units were received 
and accepted and the advance water 
rental charge for 1932 was paid. One of 
these men filed homestead entry. 



MESILLA Valley, lying within the 
Rio Grande project, has prospects 
of a bumper apple crop this season. The 
apples were not hurt by the late freeze in 
the spring. The early varieties of apples 
mature in August in this valley. The 
Earth. 

6740531 1 



ON June 10 a tract of public land 
comprising 5,949 acres (87 units) 
was opened to entry on the Greenfields 
division of the Sun River project. Dur- 
ing the first 20 days 34 applications were 
received from qualified entrymen, and 
30 farms were allocated by the examining 
board. Practically all applicants were 
believed to be considerably above the 
average. 

ON July 1 the contract for the Owyhee 
Dam, Owyhee project, was 72 per 
cent completed. 

THE Hermiston Cooperative Can- 
nery, Umatilla project, has been 
unusually active this season. Farmers 
are growing much more produce for home 
consumption than heretofore. The can- 
ning of home-butchered meat alone has 
doubled over that of last year, which 
was the first year of the operation of the 
cannery. 



ON the Lower Yellowstone project 
activity continues by the Lower 
Yellowstone Development Association in 
cooperation with this bureau in an at- 
tempt to get settlers for the project. Sev- 
eral prospective purchasers were brought 
in during the month of June and reports 
indicate that a large number have signi- 
fied their intention of making a personal 
inspection of the project and its oppor- 
tunities. 



A..L crops on the Minidoka project 
have made a good growth and are 
generally in excellent condition. The 
first cutting of alfalfa hay is in the stack 
and the yield and quality are good. 



ON the Belle Fourche project corn is 
in good condition, particularly that 
under irrigation. Beets are also in fairly 
good condition, and those that have been 
properly cared for are more advanced 
than usual for this time of the year. 
Potatoes are also doing well. 



/CONSTRUCTION figures released by 
V_> the city building inspector at Yak- 
ima, on the Yakima project, bring the 
building totals in the city of Yakima dur- 
ing the first six months of this year to 
more than $1,000,000. The total con- 
struction to July 1 amounted to$l, 151, 265, 
compared with $718,365 during the same 
period last year. 



\S a result of recent rains the Shoshone 
2\ project reports that range conditions 
have greatly improved and that all live- 
stock on the open range are in excellent 
condition. 



THE Minidoka County Wool Pool 
recently sold 18,000 clips of wool 
weighing over 176,000 pounds at 12% and 
10 cents per pound for 136,000 and 40,000 
pounds, respectively. Payment for the 
entire lot totalled $20,841. The Cassia 
County Wool Pool also disposed of the 
year's clip, amounting to 11,950 fleeces 
and weighing 105,000 pounds, at prices 
ranging from 10% to 12% cents per pound. 
The total receipts from the sale were 
$12,105. 

The Minidoka County Lamb Pool 
shipped 7 cars containing 2,177 lambs and 
20 wethers. The lambs weighed 175,780 
pounds, an average of 80.7 pounds per 
head, and brought 6% cents per pound, or 
a total of nearly $12,000. A third lamb 
pool, containing 870 lambs, was shipped 
from Cassia County, the lambs weighing 
about 80 pounds each and netting the 
growers $5.70 per hundredweight, or a 
total of about $4,400. 



IT is estimated that approximately 
2,500 date off-shoots of standard com- 
mercial varieties were planted in the Salt 
River Valley this spring. With plantings 
averaging from 43 to 45 off-shoots to the 
acre, this means an addition of 55 acres to 
the valley's date industry. About 60 
acres were planted to dates last year. 
The Earth. 

161 



162 



NEW RECLAMATION ERA 



August, 1931 



Hoover Dam and Its Influence on the Southwest 

Address by Dr. Elwood Mead, Commissioner of Reclamation, before the Commonwealth Club, of San Francisco, Calif., July 10, 1931 



THE destiny of the Southwest will be 
shaped by building Hoover Dam. 
If it is built, the cities of that region will 
continue to grow. If it is not built, they 
must stagnate. They need and must 
have the water which will be stored in the 
great lake it will create. If it is built, 
the people of the Imperial Valley will be 
secure. If it is not built, their homes 
and towns will almost certainly be sub- 
merged. Already it has exercised a 
wholesome influence on water laws and 
policies. The 'primitive conception that 
a man could acquire ownership of water 
by posting a notice in some lonesome bend 
of a cottonwood-bordered stream is being 
discarded. The riparian doctrine does 
not meet the economic needs of advanc- 
ing civilization and constantly increasing 
population. The popular interest in 
Hoover Dam rests, however, not in its 
economic but in its engineering features. 

MAGNITUDE OF UNDERTAKING 

The first is size. Almost every dimen- 
sion is a superlative. It will be 730 feet 
high. That is not only the highest dam 
in the world, but is nearly twice the height 
of any yet built. The lake which the 
dam will create will be 115 miles long and 
580 feet deep. It will hold two years' 
flow of the river, or enough water to cover 
the State of New York to a depth of a foot. 
It will be not only the largest artificial 
lake in the world, but has thirteen times 
the capacity of the great reservoir on the 
Nile, to which reference is frequently 
made. 

The four tunnels which will carry the 
river around the dam during construction 
have a combined capacity equal to the 
average flow of the Mississippi River at 
St. Louis. There is only one other tunnel 
in the world that can serve as a prece- 
dent. 

The power machinery behind this dam 
will be the largest single installation in the 
world, and its dynamos will be larger than 
any yet built. 

In its construction there will be 70 miles 
of grouting holes. 

The contract for construction is for the 
largest sum of any signed by the Federal 
Government. 

The dam will be an arch gravity, placed 
in a bottle neck of the canyon where the 
walls are only 300 feet apart. One end 
of its arch will rest against a mountain in 
Arizona and the other against a mountain 
in Nevada. One State or the other must 
move before the dam can fail. 



If it should be overturned, it would still 
be the highest dam in the world, for its 
base is 650 feet wide. 

RAPID PROGRESS ESSENTIAL 

The next outstanding feature of the 
construction is speed. The machinery 
being installed for excavating the tunnels 
has a capacity never equaled. It will 
move nearly 2,000,000 cubic yards in 
less than two years. Over a million and 
a half cubic yards of material will have to 
be placed in the cofferdams that control 
the river at the two ends of the tunnels. 
That material will have to be placed 
under conditions of extreme difficulty, 
and the job will have to be completed 
between the end of one flood season and 
the beginning of another. This will be 
an unparalleled performance. 

The dam must be built in the bottom 
of a narrow canyon with almost precipit- 
ous walls. Three and a half million 
yards of concrete are to be placed in this 
dam in two years. It will require 300 
carloads of material a day, and the opera- 
tion of one of the greatest elevators ever 
constructed. 

ADVERSE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS 

Among the obstacles which will con- 
front the contractor is the climate. For 
eight months in the year it is all that 
could be desired, but for four months, 
what it is may be illustrated by a story. 
To help overcome the drawbacks of the 
climate, the Government is spending 
$2,000,000 to build a construction town 
2,000 feet above the level of the river. 
Here workmen will eat and sleep. Here 
there will be trees and grass and flowers 
and a livable climate. 

On the occasion of the recent visit of 
the congressional party they ate their 
breakfast in comfort in the contractor's 
mess hall, where 1,000 laborers are now 
fed daily. The manager of the dining 
hall said that before he came there he 
thought going so far from the work was 
insanity, but every time he came out of the 
sizzling heat of the canyon into the breezes 
and relative coolness of the construction 
town he felt it was the project's salvation. 

Representatives of two bonding com- 
panies said at first that they had no inter- 
est in the enterprise, although the 
premium promised to exceed $1,000,000. 
Their representative had sizzled in the 
canyon one day. His report was enough. 
But when they had learned what was 
being done to improve living conditions 



they gave to this project a far lower rate 
than has been charged on many enter- 
prises of much smaller size. 

MIRACLES ALREADY ACCOMPLISHED 

This project was inaugurated on July 
3, 1930, when President Hoover approved 
the first appropriation. One year later, 
on July 3, 1931, Secretary Wilbur, a 
congressional party, and other officials of 
the Reclamation Bureau visited the proj- 
ect to see what had been accomplished. 

The train which carried the party 
arrived in the night. It had left the 
main line of the Union Pacific and 
traveled 23 miles over a branch line, 
built within the last six months. The 
cars rested in front of a railway station 
and in the midst of sidings ample for the 
needs of a city of 25,000 people, also 
built in less than six months. 

In the morning the visitors saw a steel 
water tank holding 2,000,000 gallons. 
They looked on large dormitories built 
by the contractors, capable of housing 
1,700 workers, with each man having a 
separate room, and on individual homes 
for several hundred married workers. 
They looked on the houses and adminis- 
tration buildings of the Reclamation 
Bureau, many of them Hearing comple- 
tion. They saw the 9-mile pipe line of 
a water system to provide for 5,000 
people and pumps being installed to lift 
that water 2,0